Northern Thailand is geographically characterised by several mountain ranges, which continue from the Shan Hills in bordering Myanmar to Laos, the river valleys which cut through them. Though like most of Thailand, it has a tropical savanna climate, its high elevation and latitude contribute to more pronounced seasonal temperature variation, with cooler winters than the other regions, it is related to the Lanna Kingdom and its culture. North Thailand is bound by the Mekong in the east; the basins of rivers Ping, Wang and Nan, all tributaries of the Chao Phraya River, in the central part run from north to south and are very wide. The basins cut across the mountains of two great ranges, the Thanon Range in the western part and the Phi Pan Nam in the eastern, their elevations are moderate, a little above 2,000 metres for the highest summits. Although forested, many of these mountains are now denuded. Parallel mountain ranges extend from the Daen Lao Range, in the southern region of the Shan Hills, in a north-south direction, the Dawna Range forming the western border of Thailand between Mae Hong Son and the Salween River.
To the east the Thanon Thong Chai Range, the Khun Tan Range, the Phi Pan Nam Range, as well as the western part of the Luang Prabang Range, form the natural region of the Thai highlands together with the former. These high mountains are incised by steep river valleys and upland areas that border the central plain. A series of rivers, including the Nan, Wang and Nan, flow southwards through mountain valleys and join to form the Chao Phraya in Nakhon Sawan Province in the central region. Sirikit Dam is on the Nan River in Uttaradit Province; the northeastern part is drained by rivers flowing into the Mekong basin, like the Ing. The four-region system includes the northern parts of the central plain as well as some mountainous areas bordering the western and the northeastern limits; the northern region, as defined by the National Geographical Committee in 1978, consists of nine provinces. Geographically the division, in conformance with the six-region system, includes most of the mountainous natural region of the Thai highlands.
In the four-region classification system, northern Thailand gains the eight upper-central-region provinces: Kamphaeng Phet, Nakhon Sawan, Phichit, Sukhothai, Uthai Thani and Tak, bringing the total to 17 provinces. According to the six-region classification system established by the National Research Council of Thailand, the northern region includes the following provinces: Note: Populations as of 31 December 2011. Regional classification of Northern Thailand North travel guide from Wikivoyage
Chiang Rai Province
Jiang Hai or Chiang Rai is the northernmost province of Thailand. It is bordered by the Shan State of Myanmar to the north, Bokeo Province of Laos to the east, Phayao to the south, Lampang to the southwest, Chiang Mai to the west; the average elevation of the province is 580 metres. The north of the province is part of the so-called Golden Triangle, where the borders of Thailand and Burma converge, an area which prior to the rise of agricultural production of coffee, pineapple and banana plantations, was unsafe because of drug smuggling across the borders; the Mekong River forms the boundary with the Mae Sai and Ruak River with Burma. Through the town of Chiang Rai itself, flows the "Mae Kok" Kok River and south of it the Lao River, a tributary of the Kok. While the eastern part of the province is characterized by flat river plains, the northern and western part consist of the hilly terrain of the Thai highlands with the Khun Tan Range and the Phi Pan Nam Range in the west and the Daen Lao Range in the north.
While not the highest elevation of the province, the 1,389-metre high Doi Tung is the most important terrain feature. Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong wat on top of the hill, according to the chronicles, dates back to the year 911. Nearby is Doi Tung Royal Villa, former residence of the late princess mother Somdej Phra Srinagarindra. Thanks to her activities the hills were reforested, the hill tribes diverted from growing opium poppies to other crops including coffee, bananas and pineapples. Populations have dwelled in Chiang Rai since the 7th century and it became the center of the Lanna Kingdom during the 13th century; the region, rich in natural resources, was occupied by the Burmese until 1786. Chiang Rai Province's golden triangle bordering Laos and Burma was once the hub of opium production. Chiang Rai became a province in 1910, after being part of the Lanna Kingdom for centuries. After Lanna was incorporated into Thailand, it remained an autonomous region and thus the Chiang Rai area was administered from Chiang Mai.
Chiang Rai Province is a transit point for Rohingya refugees from Myanmar who are transported there from Sangkhlaburi district in Kanchanaburi Province. The majority of the population are ethnic Thai who speak Kham Muang among themselves, but 12.5% are of hill tribes origin, a sizeable minority in the north provinces. A smaller number are of Chinese descent descendants of the Kuomintang soldiers who settled in the region, notably in Santikhiri; the seal of the province shows a white elephant, the royal symbol, recalling that Chiang Rai was founded by King Mengrai, according to legend because his elephant liked the place. The provincial tree is the tree jasmine, the provincial flower is the orange trumpet. Provincial Slogan The former provincial slogan: "เหนือสุดในสยาม อร่ามดอยตุง ผดุงวัฒนธรรม รสล้ำข้าวสาร หอมหวานลิ้นจี่ สตรีโสภา ชาเลิศรส สัปปะรดนางแล Translation: Northernmost of Siam, beautiful Doi Tung, repository of culture, most delicious rice and fragrant litchi, beautiful women, the finest flavoured tea, pineapple from Nang-Lae, source of the giant catfish).
Mentioned symbols: Geographically, the northernmost of Siam Doi Tung, the hill where the Doi Tung Royal Villa and Phra Thart Doi Tung Temple located Rice grown in the province Lychee. The districts are further subdivided into 124 sub-districts and 1,751 villages. Since 2003, United Nations Development Programme in Thailand has tracked progress on human development at sub national level using the Human achievement index, a composite index covering all the eight key areas of human development. Chiang Rai province, with a HAI value of 0.6130, takes 53rd place in the rankings. This is "low" between the values of 0.6070 and 0.6209. Chiang Rai International Airport has domestic flights to both Bangkok airports, which connect to regional and international flights. There is daily boat service between Tha Ton. There is no railway system in Chiang Rai; the nearest station is Chiang Mai Railway Station. Chiang Rai Province is intersected by Asian Highway 2, which runs for over 13,000 km from Denpasar in Indonesia to Kosravi in Iran, by Asian Highway 3, which runs for over 7,000 km from Kentung in Myanmar to Ulan-Ude in Russia.
Decent bus services are available in the province. In more remote areas, songthaews are the norm. Khon Muang are the city folk who came from Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Phrae. Culturally, they design their houses having only one floor with wooden gable decorations called "ka-lae", they are known for their craftsmanship in wood carving, lacquer ware, musical instruments. Tai Yai are a Tai ethnic group who live in what is now Shan State in Burma, in Mae Hong Son Province in Thailand, they grow rice, raise cattle, trade. Their
Lampang called Nakhon Lampang to differentiate from Lampang Province, is the third largest town in northern Thailand and capital of Lampang Province and the Lampang district. Traditional names for Lampang include Khelang Nakhon; the city is a transportation center. Lampang lies 101 km southeast of Chiang Mai. Lampang city is in the valley of the Wang River, bordered by the Khun Tan Range on the west and the Phi Pan Nam Range on the east; the river, a major tributary of the Chao Phraya, flows through the city. The city lies on the south side of Wang River, although the old parts of the city had been developed in the north side of it. Nowadays, downtown Lampang has grown in the southeast of the river along Bunyawat and Pahon Yothin Roads. Lampang has a dry climate relative to nearby provinces. "Winter" starts after the last rains November, lasts until March. Cold air masses from Siberia sometimes lead to nighttime temperatures below 10 degrees Celsius, although, quite rare. Winter is characterized by dry and quite pleasant days, cool and foggy nights.
In recent times, the blue winter sky is marred by the practice of burning the fields after the harvest, as well as the smog generated by Mae Mo coal-fired power plants. Summer runs from March until June; the temperature could soar to 40 degrees Celsius in April. Late afternoon thunderstorms and hailstorms are frequent. Rainy season runs from June until November, significant rain may occur in May as well. Being in a relative rain shadow, Lampang receives less precipitation than neighboring provinces and suffers from the flooding which has plagued Chiang Mai in recent years. Lampang was a major city in the Lanna kingdom. However, its historical prominence is overshadowed by Chiang Mai or Chiang Rai which were the traditional seats of government, whose histories were well recorded in chronicles. Following decades of warfare with both the Ava Burmese and Ayudhya during the 17th-18th century, the region was in decline depopulated, subject to Burmese control. In the late-18th century, the famed marksman and Lampang native Nan Thip Chang assassinated the local Burmese leader in Wat Phra That Lampang Luang, led an uprising which led to a rollback of Burmese rule over Lanna.
Allied with Bangkok, the descendants of Nan Thip Chang, known as Chao Ched Ton, became the vassal rulers of the various Lanna cities until the annexation of Lanna into Siam proper under King Chulalongkorn. Besides the traditional rice paddy farming and sugarcane constitute major food crops in Lampang Province; the province has a large deposit of lignite in Mae Moh district, fuelling several coal-fired electricity generating plants, whose pollution has affected the local populations. Lampang has a large deposit of kaolin, utilized in the ceramics industry. Logging was an important industry, since Lampang, together with nearby Phrae had a large stand of teak. Many elephants were employed to transport the logs to the river for transport to Bangkok, hence the founding of an "elephant school", the predecessor of the Thai Elephant Conservation Center. Much of the old growth teak stands in Lampang had been harvested. Lampang called "mueang rot ma" in Thai, meaning "horse carriage city", is considered by some Thais as the last paradise in Thailand.
It is about 100 km to the southeast of Chiang Mai. Although well-connected by rail, four lane highways to both Bangkok and Chiang Mai, it is here that tourists can still find horse-drawn carriages in regular use for transportation. One account attributes the horse-drawn carriage to the Portuguese, via Macau, although a more origin is colonial Burma. Lampang was an important center of the timber industry in the early-20th century and saw an influx of migrants from British-controlled Burma; the horse-drawn carriage is one of the most memorable symbols of Lampang, as reflected in many traditional products. Lampang has a few institutions of higher learning, such as Yonok College, a branch of Thammasat University; the city is an important highway hub, with a four lane highway link to Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai, as well as a major highway to Phrae and the eastern Lanna provinces. Lampang is a 1.5 hour bus ride to Chiang Mai. Lampang is a stop for the Chiang Mai-bound train 10 hours from Bangkok. Lampang Airport is served by Nok air.
Tourists stop by for lunch and visit the more famous attractions such as Wat Phra That Lampang Luang and the Thai Elephant Conservation Center and proceed to points further north such as Chiang Mai or Chiang Rai. Less well-known tourist attractions in Lampang are thus visited by locals. Among these are the Wang Kaeo Waterfall and the Chae Son National Park, a compact park which combines a natural hot spring with large waterfalls. Many temples in downtown Lampang were built in the Burmese -tyle endowed by the logging tycoons of the late-19th century. Wat Si Bun Rueang, Wat Si Chum and Wat Pa Fang are among the extant examples. Nine of the 31 remaining Burmese-style temples in Thailand are in Lampang. Traditional Lanna architecture can be found at Wat Phra That Lampang Luang, on the site of ancient Lampang city, it is famous for its murals from the 19th century. The city seal features a white rooster in the temple's gate. Wat Phra Kaeo Don Tao, on the west bank of the Wang River, is said to have housed the Emerald Buddha between 1436 and 1468.
Wat Phra That Chedi Sao (The Temple of Twenty Che
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Lampang is one of the northern provinces of Thailand. The old name of Lampang was Khelang Nakhon. Lampang is in the broad river valley of the Wang River, surrounded by mountains. In Mae Mo District lignite is mined in open pits. To the north of the province is the 1,697-metre high Doi Luang. Within the province are Chae Son and Doi Khun Tan National Parks in the Khun Tan Range, as well as Tham Pha Thai, Doi Luang National Park, the Huai Tak Teak Biosphere Reserve in the Phi Pan Nam Range. Starting in the 7th century Lampang was part of the Dvaravati period Hariphunchai Kingdom of the Mon. In the 11th century the Khmer Empire occupied the Lampang area, but it was King Mengrai of Lanna who incorporated the complete Haripunchai Kingdom into his kingdom in 1292. Lampang or Nakhon Lampang or Lakhon, was under Burmese rule after the fall of Lanna Kingdom from the 16th century to 18th century. During the uprising against Burmese rule by Siam's new kings in the late-18th century, a local Lampang leader became Siam's ally.
After the victory, the leader was named the ruler of Chiang Mai, the former center of Lanna, while his relative ruled Lampang. The city continues to be one of the important political centers in the north. Lampang became a province of Thailand in 1892. Lampang is known for the production of its mining operations. A great deal of ball clay, china stone, lignite are extracted from the surrounding mountains. There are more than 200 ceramic factories around Mueang Lampang District. Most are small- to medium-sized operations producing novelties and building materials; the largest coal fired power plant in Southeast Asia is in Mae Mo District near the lignite mining area. The plant uses lignite as fuel; the largest concrete plant is north of Mueang Lampang. This is powered by lignite. Limestone is another abundant rock mined in Lampang. Agriculturally, the province produces rice and pineapples
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Wiang Pa Pao District
Wiang Pa Pao is the southwesternmost district of Chiang Rai Province, northern Thailand. Neighboring districts are Mae Suai, Phan of Chiang Rai Province, Wang Nuea, Mueang Pan of Lampang Province, Doi Saket and Phrao of Chiang Mai Province; the Khun Tan Range runs along the west side of the district and its highest point, 2,031 m high Doi Mae Tho, is at its SW end. Wiang Pa Pao was one of the mueang in northern Thailand. In 1905 the District Wiang Pa Pao was merged with Mueang Phong and renamed to Mae Suai, while the central area of the old mueang kept the name as the minor district Wiang Pa Pao. In 1907 it was upgraded to a full district; the district is divided into seven sub-districts. There are two sub-district municipalities. Wiang Pa Pao covers parts of tambon Wiang, Mae Khachan covers parts of tambon Mae Chai. There are a further seven tambon administrative organizations. Chiang Rai Province travel guide from Wikivoyage amphoe.com