Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China. It is the southernmost city of Northeast China and at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, Dalian is the provinces second largest city and has sub-provincial administrative status, only the provincial capital is larger. The Shandong Peninsula lies southwest across the Bohai Strait, Korea lies across the Yellow Sea to the east, today, a financial, shipping and logistics centre for Northeast Asia, Dalian has a significant history of being used by foreign powers for its ports. Dalian was previously known as both Dalniy and Dairen, however the city was better known as Port Arthur and Ryojun from the original Port Arthur, now the citys Lüshunkou district. In 2012, Dalian ranked 82nd in the Global City Competitiveness Index, in 2006, Dalian was named Chinas most livable city by China Daily. Modern Dalian originated from Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao, a fishing village. Russia built a town for the Kwantung Leased Territory after assuming control in 1898. After the Russo-Japanese War, Japan occupied the Kwantung Leased Territory, English sources called the city Dairen in this period, from the Japanese. In 1981, the State Council again renamed the city, from Lüda to Dalian, in the Qin and Han periods, Chinese expanded their territories into northern Korea through the Dalian region, then under the jurisdiction of Liaodong county. During the Sixteen Kingdoms era, the kingdom of Goguryeo controlled this region, in the early Tang Dynasty, the Dalian region was part of Andong Prefecture in Jili state, during the Liao Dynasty, it was part of Dong Jing Tong Liaoyang county. Dalian was named Sanshan in the period of Wei Jin, San Shanpu in the Tang Dynasty, Sanshan Seaport in the Ming Dynasty, and Qingniwakou during the Qing Dynasty. In the 1880s, Jinzhou, the north of downtown within Dalian, now Jinzhou District, was a town and centre for political intrigue. The Qing government built bridges and heavily fortified the peninsula, mining camps on the northern coast of Dalian Bay became the small town of Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao, near what became downtown Dalian. The British occupied Qingniwa in 1858, but it returned to Chinese control in the 1880s, Port Arthur at the peninsulas tip took its English name from Royal Navy Lieutenant William C. Arthur, but Chinese called it Lüshun, in April 1895, China conceded defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War, ceding Liaodong Peninsula, Taiwan and Penghu, and making many other concessions in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. For Russia the region of the peninsula was of particular interest as one of the few areas in the region that had the potential to develop ice-free ports. The Russians built a commercial port city, which they wanted to become the Paris of the Far East. Linked to the Trans-Siberian Railways branch line from Harbin, Dalniy became Russias primary port-city in Asia, Russia spent more than 10 million golden rubles building the new ice-free port city
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country. The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian or Fengtien province and it was also known as Mukden province at the time, for the Manchu pronunciation of Shengjing, the former name of the provincial capital Shenyang. Under the Japanese-puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945, Liaoning is the southernmost part of Manchuria, the Chinese Northeast. The Yalu River marks its border with North Korea, emptying into the Korea Bay between Dandong in Liaoning and Sinuiju in North Korea, the characters forming the provinces modern Chinese name are 辽 and 宁. They are the forms of the traditional characters 遼 and 寧. The first character literally means far, distant but is actually a reference to the Liao River which flows through the territory. The second literally means peace, calm but in such Chinese place names actually has the sense of pacified, made peaceful, here in reference to the turbulent situation of Manchuria in the late 1920s. In both English and Chinese, however, it is most common to gloss the name as the more literal Peace on the Liao, the provinces one-character abbreviation in Chinese is 辽. Liaoning is located in the part of Northeast China. In the past, it formed part of Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon, Goguryeo, and Balhae, as well as Chinese polities such as the Yan State and it was also inhabited by non-Han peoples such as Xiongnu, Donghu, Xianbei. In addition, the Khitan, Jurchen, Mongol Empire and Northern Yuan ruled Liaoning, the Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a wall was constructed to defend the agricultural heartland of the province from a potential threat from the Jurchen-Mongol Oriyanghan from the northwest. Between 1467 and 1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this Liaodong Wall was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides. Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Manchus conquered Liaodong, or eastern Liaoning, in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Manchu dynasty, styled Later Jin, established its capital in 1616–1621 in Xingjing and it was moved to Dongjing, and finally in 1625 to Shengjing. Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, in the Governors words, Tieling and Fushun only have a few vagrants. West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan, Jinzhou, and Guangning had any significant populations remaining, in the latter half of the seventeenth century, the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is also the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, however, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was then applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and then to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are generally positioned on the field between their teams defenders and forwards, some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, and are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being mobile and efficient in passing, they are commonly referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box. The number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the teams formation, most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing teams attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who typically travel the greatest distance during a match, central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided roughly equally between attack and defence. When the opposing team has the ball, a midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward. The 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders, the 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, and in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder. The term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who have abilities and are skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots. A good box-to-box midfielder needs good passing, vision, control, stamina, tackling and marking in defence, left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch. They may be asked to cross the ball into the penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1, a notable example of a right midfielder is David Beckham. Defensive midfielders are players who focus on protecting their teams goal. These players may defend a zone in front of their teams defence, defensive midfielders may also move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude, The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someones position, great. A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of play, marking, tackling, interceptions, passing and great stamina. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their teams defence, a player in this role will try to protect their goal by disrupting the opponents attacking moves and stopping long shots on the goal. The holding midfielder may also have responsibilities when their team has the ball and this player will make mostly short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the teams strategy
Forward (association football)
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing teams goal, and are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards normally score more goals on behalf of their team than other players, modern team formations generally include one to three forwards, for example, the common 4–2–3–1 formation includes one forward. Unconventional formations may include more than three forwards, or none, the centre-forward is often a tall player, typically known as a target man, whose main function is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the strikers or central attacking midfielders. The present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder, a centre-forward usually must be strong, to win key headers and outmuscle defenders. The term centre-forward is taken from the football playing formation in which there were five forward players. The number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. Strikers are known for their ability to peel off defenders and to run into space via the side of the defender and to receive the ball in a good goalscoring position. They are typically fast players with ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short burst speed, a good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, and have the ability to pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. Deep-lying forwards have a history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years. Originally such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards, in fact, a coined term, the nine-and-a-half, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. In Italy, this role is known as a rifinitore or seconda punta, whereas in Brazil, it is known as segundo atacante. An outside forward plays as the forward on the right or left wing – as an outside right or outside left. As football tactics have largely developed, and wingers have dropped back to become midfielders, many commentators and football analysts still refer to the wing positions as outside right and outside left. However, in the British game they are counted as part of the midfield. It is a duty to beat opposing full-backs, deliver cut-backs or crosses from wide positions and, to a lesser extent, to beat defenders. They are usually some of the quickest players in the team, in their Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese usage, the defensive duties of the winger have been usually confined to pressing the opposition fullbacks when they have the ball
Beijing Renhe F.C.
Beijing Renhe Football Club is a professional football club that currently participates in the China League One division under licence from the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Fengtai, Beijing and their stadium is the Beijing Fengtai Stadium that has a seating capacity of 31,043. Their current majority shareholder is Chinese property developers of shopping centers Renhe Commercial Holdings Company Limited and they would work there way up to the top tier while changing name to accommodate their sponsors. Throughout the clubs history their greatest achievement has been winning the 2013 Chinese FA Cup while the highest position they have ever finished was second within the 2003 league season. Playing in all blue in their season, they would immediately taste success when they won the division title. Under Xu Genbaos leadership, they didnt have to long to win promotion when they would go on to win the division title at the end of the season. Under the ownership of Shanghai Yungtay Engineering and COSCO Real Estate, the owners could not maintain the level of spending that they had done and the teams results would start to slip. In 2007, their ownership was transferred to Baorong Investment and it was during this period that the club would start to experiment with a new football kit. At the beginning of the 2010 season, Dia Yongge and the Renhe Commercial Holdings Company would start to invest heavily within the club and this would see the club bring in Chinese internationals Sun Jihai, Zhao Xuri, Qu Bo and Mao Jianqing into the team. However, despite the signings, the club struggled within the league, Milorad Kosanovićs reign at the club was unsuccessful and he was soon replaced by Slobodan Santrač. After a poor string of results, Slobodan Santrač was fired, the 2012 season saw Guizhou have a successful year, with the club achieving fourth place and gaining entry into its first AFC Champions League. C. When the club was founded in Shanghai they decided to take advantage of the 1994 Chinese football league professionalism reforms that allowed more than one club in each city, with Shanghai Shenhua already established within the city the potential for Chinas first top-flight city derby emerged. On 9 March 2002 the first top-flight city derby became a reality when they met in a league game, Shenhua won their game while the club surprisingly lost theirs to relegation fighting club Tianjin Kangshifu. This saw critics dispute the title win and it was discovered that both teams had players and officials match-fix games throughout the campaign. Shenhua would retrospectively lose their title while the owners decided it was financially unviable to remain in Shanghai and relocated their team to Xian. As of 3 March 2017 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Liaoning Whowin F.C.
The team is based in Shenyang, Liaoning Province and their home stadium is the Shenyang Olympic Sports Center Stadium that has a seating capacity of 60,000. Their current majority shareholders are the Liaoning Sport Technology College and the Huludao Hongyun Group Co, ltd, which is part of the real estate and financial conglomerate the Hongyun Group. The club can predate their formation to 1953 when the local Shenyang government sports body joined existing club Northeast China to play in the Chinese national football league. By 1956 the league was expanding and regional sports institutes were allowed their own representatives. According to Forbes, Liaoning are the 10th most valuable team in China, with a team value of $67 million. In 1954 Guo Hongbin was appointed as their Head coach and as part of the Northeast China team he would achieve success by winning the league title. The club would continue to be a competitor within the football league until 1956 when the team would split after the league allowed regional sports institutes their own representatives. The Shenyang sports body would take over the team and rename themselves Shenyang Sports Institute until 1959 when they named themselves Liaoning Football Team after their own province. While they came close to winning the title on several occasions under Guo Hongbin when football was halted because of the revolution he left the team. When football returned to the country the club hired Gu Mingchang in 1975 and took part in the multi-sport event 1975 Chinese National Games, after that achievement Gu Mingchang was unable to replicate the same success despite coming runners-up twice under his reign before he left in 1980. In 1984 Mi Jide was appointed as the new manager of the team, the first was the inclusion of the Liaoning Youth team now competing within the Chinese football pyramid as well as the organization of semi-professionalism already established 1982. Under his reign he utilized these factors to make Liaoning the dominant team within the football league and his first success came when he won the 1984 Chinese FA Cup, which was then used as a springboard to win the 1985 league title. After that victory Li Yingfa was permanently promoted to the Head coach position, yang Yumin was brought in at the start of the 1992 championship and continued the work of his predecessor and deliver another league title at the end of the season. The club would take part in the 1994 Chinese Jia-A League season, at the end of the season they finished the league in fourth and for the first time in ten seasons they were unable to achieve any silverware. With this investment the club hired former Chinese national team manager Su Yongshun in the hopes of an immediate promotion, Su Yongshun would not be the person to achieve this as the club finished fourth within the division. His faith within his young players would be successful and Liaoning became genuine title contenders. Qu would go on to successfully sue Zhang 2.34 million yuan for compensation on November 22,2004. Zhang would also go on to make an apology to Qu
Dalian Shide F.C.
Dalian Shide was a former professional Chinese football club based in Dalian, Liaoning province, China who played in Chinas football league system between 1955 to 2012. Their home stadiums were the 55,843 capacity Dalian Peoples Stadium, the club won their first major silverware when they won the 1992 domestic cup title. The tycoon Xu Ming and the Shide Group would go on to take over the club rename it Dalian Shide, the club was founded as Dalian Shipyards in 1955. After the 1982 season the local Dalian government took over its ownership, the club immediately became a major force within the second tier and eventually win promotion to the top level in 1984 when they won the division title. Soon afterwards the Chinese Football Association started to demand full professionalism, Dalian went on to be one of the first fully professionalised clubs in China on July 3,1992. They gained sponsorship in 1993 from the China Hualu group and then the Dalian Wanda Group on March 8,1994 who changed the name to Dalian Wanda FC. With Wang Jianlin and the support of his company the Dalian Wanda Group taking full ownership of the club. On January 9,2000 Wang Jianlin sold Dalian to Xu Ming and the Shide Group for 120 million Yuan, the new owners brought in Serbian Milorad Kosanović as their new manager and win another league title in the 2000 league season. In 2008, Dalian Shide selected a number of players from its academy to play in a team in the S. League in Singapore. On 14 February 2010, Zhang Yalin died of lymphoma in Dalian, Liaoning, aged 28, on 30 November 2012, Dalian Shide were acquired by Aerbin Group and merged into Dalian Aerbin F. C. In 1997 the club moved to the recently built 31,000 seat multi-use Jinzhou Stadium in Dalian,26 – Zhang Yalin, Midfielder, 2000–2009 posthumous. The number was retired in March 2010, managers who have coached the club and team since the team became a professional club back in July 3,1992 All-time honours list including amateur period. ^3, Deduct 3 points for abandoning a match in protest of a referees call
The Citizen Athletic Association, simply known as Citizen or TCAA, is a Hong Kong athletic club, based in Tsing Yi. Its football team plays in Hong Kong First Division League and is the holder of the Hong Kong FA Cup in 2007–08, Citizen won the 2007-08 Hong Kong FA Cup. The club beat Tai Po FC in the final by 2,0, due to Mong Kok Stadiums renovation, Citizen used the Siu Sai Wan Sports Ground in the 2009-10 Hong Kong First Division League season for its home games. Former South China striker Detinho joined the club, Citizen won the 2010-11 Hong Kong Senior Challenge Shield by beating South China AA in the final after penalty kicks, thus earning the club the right to represent Hong Kong in the 2012 AFC Cup. To celebrate this victory, the club announced a fund of HK$800,000, an iPhone 4 for every player. The club moved from the remote Siu Sai Wan Sports Ground to the renovated Mong Kok Stadium for the 2011-12 Hong Kong First Division League season. Citizen is spending an unprecedented HK$400,000 on the teams 12 days pre-season training camp in Vancouver, Canada, the club announced on 7 September that Rasonic has become its new shirt sponsor for the 2011–12 and 2012–13 seasons. The sponsorship is worth HK$1 million, the club moved from Mong Kok Stadium to Tsing Yi Sports Ground, which Citizen will share with Sun Hei SC as their common home ground. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, players with multiple nationality, Festus Baise Detinho Boris Si Jorginho Chu Kwok Kuen Citizen AA at HKFA. com Hong Kong Football Citizenfc. com Official website
Chongqing Dangdai Lifan F.C.
Chongqing Dangdai Lifan is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association. The team is based in Chongqing and their stadium is the Chongqing Olympic Sports Center that has a seating capacity of 58,680. They are owned by Dangdai International Group and they would quickly rise up to the top tier and experience their greatest achievement of winning the 2000 Chinese FA Cup and coming fourth within the league. In 2002, they came fourth place in the last season of the Asian Cup Winners Cup, after these achievements they struggled to replicate the same success and experienced their first relegation from the top tier in the 2006 league season. After gaining promotion in 2008 back into the top tier they were unable to remain in the top flight and were relegated once more in the 2010 season. In 2014, they finished the season at the top of Chinese League One division and won promotion to the Chinese Super League again. According to Forbes, Chongqing is the 9th most valuable team in China, with ateam value of $76 million. The clubs predecessor was called Qianwei and were created after Hubei FC and Wuhan Steelworks merged. This would quickly pay off and the club would win the second tier title, in the top tier the owners decided that the club needed to affiliate itself with a major reign and would decide to move nearby to Chongqing and into the Datianwan Stadium. This was followed by more Chinese internationals such as Jiang Feng and Han Jinming joining the team, ensuring that the club remain the only team within the reign the club would go on to merge and essentially take over lower league club Chongqing Hongyan the following season. This was then followed by a takeover of the entire club by the Lifan Group who bought the club for 55,800,000 yuan on 19 August 2000. In the 2003 league season Chongqing Lifan had brought in Miloš Hrstić as their new coach, however his appointment was a disaster and the club was relegated at the end of the season. With the club desperate to remain within the top tier they would buy Yunnan Hongtas registration, with no relegation again in the 2005 league season there was no improvement within the team despite the change in management with Ma Lin coming in. The club would decide to bring in a new manager and hired from within with former player Wei Xin chosen, the move would pay-off when on his second season the club won promotion back into the top tier when Chongqing came second at the end of the 2008 league season. On 26 June 2016, Jiang Lizhang purchased 98. 13% of Granada CF, setting up an affiliation, on 5 January 2017, Jiang, alongside the Dangdai International Group, purchased 90% of Chongqing Lifan, renaming the club Chongqing Dangdai Lifan. C. Whom they contested in the local Chongqing derby, the oldest of these rivalrys was against Sichuan Quanxing, which was formed when the club moved to the neighbouring province of Chongqing and effectively created a local derby. This was ignited on 14 April 2007 in a league game for Chongqing Lifan that saw Chengdu win 1–0 as both teams looked to win promotion into the top tier that season. For several seasons these two clubs would fight in a rivalry until Chengdu were dissolved in 2015 after they faced financial differculties