California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.
The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles has an economy in culture, fashion, sports, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide.
The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
Tom Jones (singer)
Sir Thomas John Woodward OBE is a Welsh singer known by his stage name Tom Jones. Joness powerful voice has been described as a full-throated, robust baritone and his performing range has included pop, rock, R&B, show tunes, dance and gospel. In 2008, the New York Times called Jones a musical shape shifter, who could slide from soulful rasp to pop croon, with a voice as husky as it was pretty. Jones received a Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 1966, an MTV Video Music Award in 1989, Jones was awarded an OBE in 1999 and in 2006 he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to music. Jones was born Thomas John Woodward, at 57 Kingsland Terrace, Pontypridd, in Glamorgan and his parents were Thomas Woodward, a coal miner, and Freda Jones. His maternal grandfather, Albert Jones, was Welsh, and his grandmother, Ada Jones, was born in Pontypridd, to parents from Somerset. Jones attended Wood Road Infants School, Wood Road Junior School and he began singing at an early age, He would regularly sing at family gatherings, weddings and in his school choir.
Jones did not like school or sports, but gained confidence through his singing talent, at 12 he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Many years he said, I spent two years in bed recovering and it was the worst time of my life. During convalescence he could do little else but listen to music, Joness bluesy singing style developed out of the sound of American soul music. His early influences included blues and R&B singers Little Richard, Solomon Burke, Jackie Wilson and Brook Benton, as well as Elvis Presley, in March 1957 Jones married his high school girlfriend, Linda Trenchard when they were expecting a child together, both aged 16. The couples son, was born in the month following their wedding, to support his young family Jones took a job working in a glove factory and was employed in construction. Joness voice has been described as a full-throated, robust baritone and he became the frontman in 1963 for Tommy Scott and the Senators, a Welsh beat group. They soon gained a following and reputation in South Wales.
In 1964, the group recorded several tracks with producer Joe Meek, who took them to various labels. Later that year, Decca producer Peter Sullivan saw Tommy Scott and the Senators performing in a club and directed them to manager Phil Solomon, the group continued to play gigs at dance halls and working mens clubs in South Wales. One night at the Top Hat in Cwmtillery, Jones was spotted by Gordon Mills, Mills became Joness manager and took the young singer to London, and renamed him Tom Jones, to exploit the popularity of the Academy Award-winning 1963 film. Eventually, Mills got Jones a recording contract with Decca and his first single and Fever, was released in late 1964
Blondie is an American rock band founded by singer Debbie Harry and guitarist Chris Stein. The band was a pioneer in the early American new wave, Blondie broke up after the release of its sixth studio album The Hunter in 1982. The band re-formed in 1997, achieving renewed success and a one single in the United Kingdom with Maria in 1999. The group toured and performed throughout the world during the following years, Blondie has sold 40 million records worldwide and is still active. The bands tenth studio album Ghosts of Download, was released in 2014, inspired by the burgeoning new music scene at the Mercer Arts Center, Chris Stein sought to join a similar band. He joined the Stillettoes in 1973 as their guitarist and formed a relationship with one of the bands vocalists, Debbie Harry. Harry had been a member of a band, the Wind in the Willows. In July 1974, Stein and Harry parted ways with the Stillettoes and Elda Gentile, originally billed as Angel and the Snake for two shows in August 1974, they renamed themselves Blondie by October 1974.
The name derived from comments made by truck drivers who catcalled Hey, by the spring of 1975, after some personnel turnover and Harry were joined by drummer Clem Burke, and bass player Gary Valentine. Blondie became regular performers at Maxs Kansas City and CBGB, in June 1975, the bands first recording came in the way of a demo produced by Alan Betrock. To fill out their sound, they recruited keyboard player Jimmy Destri in November 1975, the band signed with Private Stock Records and their debut album, was issued in December 1976 but was initially not a commercial success. In September 1977, the bought back its contract with Private Stock. The first album was re-released on the new label in October 1977 and it noted that Harry was the possessor of a bombshell zombies voice that can sound dreamily seductive and woodenly Mansonite within the same song. Jimmy Destri credited the shows Molly Meldrum for their initial success, Stein asserted that X-Offender was too crazy and aggressive, while In the Flesh was not representative of any punk sensibility.
Over the years, Ive thought they played both things but liked one better. In retrospect, Burke described In the Flesh as a forerunner to the power ballad, the single reached number 2 in Australia, while the album reached the Australian top twenty in November 1977, and a subsequent double-A release of X-Offender and Rip Her to Shreds reached number 81. A successful Australian tour followed in December, though it was marred by an incident in Brisbane when disappointed fans almost rioted after Harry cancelled a performance due to illness, in February 1978, Blondie released their second album, Plastic Letters. The album was recorded as a four-piece as Gary Valentine had left the band in mid 1977, Plastic Letters was promoted extensively throughout Europe and Asia by Chrysalis Records
Rose Bowl (stadium)
The Rose Bowl is an outdoor athletic stadium in Pasadena, just outside Los Angeles. At a modern capacity of a configuration at 88,500 the Rose Bowl is the 17th-largest stadium in the world, the 11th-largest stadium in the United States. One of the most famous stadiums in sporting history, the Rose Bowl is best known as an American football venue, since 1982, the stadium has served as the home stadium of the UCLA Bruins football team. The stadium has hosted five Super Bowl games, second most of any venue. UCLA and the Pasadena Tournament of Roses have one member on the company board, the game now known as the Rose Bowl Game was played at Tournament Park until 1922. The Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association, the organizer, realized the temporary stands were inadequate for a crowd of more than 40,000. The stadium was designed by architect Myron Hunt in 1921 and his design was influenced by the Yale Bowl in New Haven, which was built in 1913 and opened in 1914. The Arroyo Seco was selected as the location for the stadium, the Rose Bowl was under construction from 1921 to 1922.
The nearby Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum was under construction during this time, originally built as a horseshoe, the stadium was expanded several times. The southern stands were completed in 1928, making the stadium a complete bowl, the stadium is extremely hard to get to due to the traffic caused by single-lane residential street access. The stadium has no dedicated parking lot for visitors and parking issues have routinely caused visitors to two to three hours completing the last mile to the stadium on game days. In 2016, Rose Bowl contracted ParkJockey to streamline parking in, there are shuttles to help visitors get to the stadium and mobile lights powered by generators to provide visibility for people walking on the golf course at night. The first game was a regular season contest on October 28,1922 when Cal defeated USC 12–0 and this was the only loss for USC and California finished the season undefeated. California declined the invitation to the 1923 Rose Bowl game and USC went in their place, the stadium was dedicated officially on January 1,1923 when USC defeated Penn State 14–3.
The stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its construction in 1922, the South end was filled in to complete the bowl and more seats have been added. The original wooden benches were replaced by aluminum benches in 1969, All new grandstand and loge seats had been installed since 1971. New red seat backs had been added on 22,000 seats prior to the 1980 Rose Bowl, a Rose Bowl improvement was conducted because of UCLAs 1982 move and the 1984 Summer Olympics. This resulted in new seat backs for 50,000 seats, for many years, the Rose Bowl had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, eventually being surpassed by Michigan Stadium
Jessica Ann Johnson is an American singer and businesswoman. Simpson signed a contract with Columbia Records when she was sixteen. The album sold four million copies worldwide, and spawned the top three hit I Wanna Love You Forever. Hoping to achieve success with her second album, Simpson adopted a more mature image for the release of Irresistible. The albums title track, which served as the lead single, the album itself earned a gold certification from the Recording Industry Association of America. Simpson married singer Nick Lachey on October 26,2002 after four years of dating, the couple starred in the reality television series Newlyweds and Jessica on MTV, chronicling their marriage and careers. The show became a pop phenomenon, and made Simpson. Her third studio album, In This Skin, became her most successful album to date, the album was aided in part due to the success of the single With You, which topped the Mainstream Top 40 chart. She released a Christmas themed album, ReJoyce, The Christmas Album and she made her film debut as Daisy Duke in the film adaption of The Dukes of Hazard, it was commercially successful, though received a negative critical reaction.
She recorded the song These Boots Are Made for Walkin for the film, in November 2005, Simpson and Lachey confirmed they were separating, Simpson filed for divorce the following month. It was announced that Simpson had parted ways with Columbia, Simpson has sold over 30 million albums worldwide. Aside from her pursuits, she launched The Jessica Simpson Collection in 2005. The brand has gone on to earn over $1 billion in revenue and her fifth studio album, A Public Affair, saw a decline in sales for Simpson. She starred in the romantic comedy Employee of the Month, with the release of her sixth studio album, Simpson attempted to shift into the country music genre. The project was met harshly by critics, and failed to achieve commercial success, Simpson went on to star in the reality television series The Price of Beauty, and was a judge on two seasons of Fashion Star. She gave birth to her first child in 2012, and her second in 2013, the following year, she married Eric Johnson, the couple had been engaged since 2010.
Simpson has since announced work on her studio album, slated for release in 2017. Jessica Ann Simpson was born on July 10,1980, in Abilene and she is the first child of Tina Ann, a homemaker, and Joseph Joe Simpson who worked as a minister
Pasadena /ˌpæsəˈdiːnə/ is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. As of 2013, the population of Pasadena was 139,731. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County, Pasadena was incorporated on June 19,1886, becoming one of the first cities be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, the only one being incorporated earlier being its namesake. It is one of the cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game, the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They spoke the Tongva language and had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years, Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in thatched, dome-shape lodges and they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, and other small animals.
They traded for fish with the coastal Tongva. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island, the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon. When the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people Gabrielino Indians, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area. The Rancho comprised the lands of todays communities of Pasadena, before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area, Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton, much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians, owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles and he was the grandfather of WWII General George S.
Patton, Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. Berry was an asthmatic and claimed that he had his best three nights sleep at Rancho San Pascual, to keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area Muscat after the grape that Wilson grew. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it. The newcomers were able to purchase a portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31,1874. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, at the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue
Hanson is an American pop rock band from Tulsa, United States, formed by brothers Isaac and Zac. Supporting members include Dimetres Collins, and Andrew Perusi who have toured and performed live with the band since 2007 and they are best known for the 1997 hit song MMMBop from their major label debut album Middle of Nowhere, which earned three Grammy nominations. Despite the enormous success of Middle of Nowhere, the band suffered from the merger that eliminated their label. The group was moved to Island Def Jam Music Group, which eventually left after a conflict with the label. Hanson has sold over 16 million records worldwide and have had 8 top 40 albums and 6 top 40 singles in the US, the band now records under its own label, 3CG Records. In the early to mid-1990s, Isaac and Zac sang a cappella and recorded such songs as Rockin Robin, Splish Splash. Goode, as well as their own material and their first performance as a professional group took place in 1992 at the Mayfest Arts Festival in Tulsa.
They were known as the Hanson Brothers, before shortening the name to Hanson in 1993, Hanson appeared on Carmans Yo. Kidz, The Vidz, which cast Taylor as a young Biblical David facing Goliath, Isaac as an event announcer, all three boys started their musical careers as pianists, but Isaac eventually started playing guitar and Zac started playing drums, while Taylor continued as the keyboard player. The band recorded two independent albums in their hometown of Tulsa, Boomerang and MMMBop, the latter featured the original version of the song MMMBop, which would become the runaway single on their debut commercial record Middle of Nowhere. The boys found themselves at the South By Southwest music festival in Austin, they were promptly signed by manager Christopher Sabec. After this performance, they were signed almost immediately by Mercury and they soon became a worldwide sensation with the release of their first major-label album, Middle of Nowhere, which was produced by the Dust Brothers. Middle of Nowhere was released in the U. S.
on May 6,1997, may 6 was declared Hanson Day in Tulsa by Oklahomas then-governor Frank Keating. Although Hanson Day was originally intended to be a one-time occurrence, Hanson launched MOE, a fan club magazine that ran for 12 issues. After numerous unauthorized biographies of each of the brothers were published, Hanson turned to their friend, Jarrod Gollihare of Admiral Twin. Hanson, The Official Book reached number 9 on the New York Times Best Sellers List on February 1,1998. The band was nominated for three Grammy Awards in 1998, Record of the Year, Best New Artist, and Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal, during the summer of 1998, Hanson began a highly successful concert tour, the Albertane Tour. They performed a string of shows throughout stadiums and arenas in the U. S. targeting young audiences with a playful, a live album, titled Live From Albertane, was released the following fall, as well as their second documentary The Road to Albertane
Anaheim is a city in Orange County, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County, Anaheim remained largely a rural community until Disneyland opened in the city in 1955. This led to the construction of hotels and motels around the area. The city developed into a center, producing electronics, aircraft parts. Anaheims city limits extend from Cypress in the west to the Riverside County line in the east and encompass a diverse collection of neighborhoods, Anaheim Hills is a master-planned community located in the citys eastern stretches that is home to many of the citys affluent. Downtown Anaheim has three historic districts, the largest of which is the Anaheim Colony. The Anaheim Resort, a district, includes Disneyland, Disney California Adventure. The Platinum Triangle, a redevelopment district surrounding Angel Stadium, is planned to be populated with mixed-use streets. Finally, Anaheim Canyon is a district north of California State Route 91.
Anaheims name is a blend of Ana, after the nearby Santa Ana River, and heim, the city of Anaheim was founded in 1857 by 50 German-Americans who were residents of San Francisco and whose families had originated in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Franconia in Bavaria. For $750 a share, the formed the Anaheim Vineyard Company. Their new community was named Annaheim, meaning home by the Santa Anna River in German, the name was altered to Anaheim. To the Spanish-speaking neighbors, the settlement was known as Campo Alemán, although grape and wine-making was their primary objective, the majority of the 50 settlers were mechanics and craftsmen with no experience in wine-making. The community set aside 40 acres for a center and a school was the first building erected there. The first home was built in 1857, the Anaheim Gazette newspaper was established in 1870, for 25 years, the area was the largest wine producer in California. However, in 1884, a disease infected the grape vines, other crops – walnuts and oranges – soon filled the void.
Fruits and vegetables had become viable cash crops when the Los Angeles – Orange County region was connected to the railroad network in 1887. The famous Polish actress Helena Modjeska settled in Anaheim with her husband and various friends, among them Henryk Sienkiewicz, Julian Sypniewski, while living in Anaheim, Helena Modjeska became good friends with Clementine Langenberger, the second wife of August Langenberger
Gloria Estefan is a Cuban-American singer, songwriter and businesswoman. She started off her career as the singer in the group called Miami Latin Boys which was eventually known as Miami Sound Machine. Estefans breakthrough success with Conga in 1985 made her known worldwide and it won the grand prix in the 15th annual Tokyo Music Festival in Japan. In the middle of 1988 she and the band got their first number-one hit for the song Anything for You, in March 1990, Estefan had a severe accident in her tour bus. She made her comeback in March 1991 with a new world tour and her 1993 Spanish-language album Mi Tierra won the first of her three Grammy Awards for Best Tropical Latin Album. It was the first number-one album on the Billboard Top Latin Albums chart and it was the first Diamond album in Spain. Many of her songs like Rhythm Is Gonna Get You, 1-2-3, Get On Your Feet, Here We Are, Coming Out of the Dark, Bad Boy, party Time and a remake of Vicki Sue Robinsons Turn the Beat Around became international hits, with chart-topping scores.
Estefan has sold an estimated 100 million records worldwide, including 31.5 million in the United States alone and she has won seven Grammy Awards. Estefan received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in 2015, she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her contributions to American music. Estefan won an MTV Video Music Award, and two ACE Awards and she was honored with the American Music Award for Lifetime Achievement as well as being named BMI Songwriter of the Year. She was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame and has received multiple Billboard Awards and she is on the list of VH1 top 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, and in Billboards Top 100 Greatest Artists Of All time. Estefan was born Gloria María Milagrosa Fajardo García in Havana, Cuba, to José Fajardo and Gloria García, prior to the Cuban Revolution, her father was a Cuban soldier and a bodyguard for the wife of Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. The Fajardo family fled to Miami, Florida as a result of the Cuban Revolution, shortly after they moved to the United States, Glorias father joined the US military and fought in the Vietnam War and moved to Houston after his participation in the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion.
Estefan was raised Catholic and attended St. Michael-Archangel School and Our Lady of Lourdes Academy in Miami, Estefan father became ill after returning from Vietnam and Gloria helped her mother, Gloria Fajardo, care for him. Her mother worked as a schoolteacher for the Dade County Public School system, Gloria Estefan graduated from college in 1979 with a BA in psychology, with a minor in French, from the University of Miami. Estefan became a citizen of the United States in 1974, under the name Gloria Garcia Fajardo. Estefan became romantically involved with the Miami Sound Machines band leader, Emilio Estefan, as she revealed, he was my first and only boyfriend. She and Emilio married on September 2,1978 and they have a son, Nayib and a daughter Emily
Enrique Miguel Iglesias Preysler, known professionally as Enrique Iglesias, is a Spanish singer, songwriter and record producer. He is widely regarded as the King of Latin Pop, in 2010, he parted with Interscope Records and signed with another Universal Music Group label Republic Records to release bilingual albums. In 2015, Iglesias parted ways with Universal Music Group after a decade and he signed with Sony Music, his upcoming albums will be by Sony Music Latin in Spanish and RCA Records in English. Iglesias has sold over 159 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling Spanish artists ever, Iglesias has scored over 150 number-one hits across all of the Billboard charts. He has had five Billboard Hot 100 top five singles, including two number-ones, and holds the record for producing 27 number-one Spanish-language singles on the Billboards Hot Latin Tracks and he holds the record for most number-one hits and the longest-running number-one hit on that chart. Iglesias has 14 number-ones on Billboards Dance charts, more than any male artist.
Iglesias was born in Madrid, and is the third and youngest child of Spanish singer Julio Iglesias and Filipina socialite, isabels aunt is actress Neile Adams, the first wife of American actor Steve McQueen and grandmother of actor Steven R. McQueen. He was raised with two siblings and Julio. His mother is Filipina and his father is Spanish, with family from Galicia and Andalusia and his father is of Jewish ancestry and has claimed Puerto Rican ancestry on his mothers side. At first and his two siblings stayed with their mother, but in 1986, Iglesias grandfather, Dr. Julio Iglesias Puga, was kidnapped by the armed Basque terrorist group ETA. For their safety and his brother Julio were sent to live with their father in Miami, they were brought up mostly by the nanny, Elvira Olivares, to whom he dedicated his first album. He lived in Belgrade, for one year with his mother, as his fathers career kept him on the road, the young Iglesias was raised by the family nanny. He attended the prestigious Gulliver Preparatory School and went on to business at the University of Miami.
Iglesias did not want his father to know about his plans for a musical career and he borrowed money from his family nanny and he recorded a demo cassette tape which consisted of a Spanish song and two English songs. Approaching his fathers former publicist, Fernán Martínez, the two promoted the songs under the stage name Enrique Martínez with the backstory of being a singer from Guatemala. Iglesias was signed on to Fonovisa Records, after dropping out of college, he traveled to Toronto to record his first album. On 12 July 1995, Iglesias released Enrique Iglesias, a collection of rock ballads, including hits such as Si Tú Te Vas, Experiencia Religiosa. This album Vivir, along with Iglesias next two albums, was released by the Mexican label Fonovisa and his song Por Amarte was included in Televisas telenovela Marisol, but with a twist, instead of Por amarte daría mi vida, the words were Por amarte Marisol, moriría
UB40 are an English reggae and pop band, formed in December 1978 in Birmingham, England. The band has had more than 50 singles in the UK Singles Chart and they have been nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album four times, and in 1984 were nominated for the Brit Award for Best British Group. One of the worlds best-selling music artists, UB40 have sold over 70 million records, the ethnic make-up of the bands original line-up was diverse, with musicians of English, Jamaican and Yemeni parentage. Their hit singles include their debut Food for Thought and two Billboard Hot 100 number ones with Red Red Wine and Cant Help Falling in Love, both of these topped the UK Singles Chart, as did the bands version of I Got You Babe. Their two most successful albums, Labour of Love and Promises and Lies, reached number one on the UK Albums Chart. The bands line-up was stable for nearly 29 years, from March 1979 until January 2008, another member, remained with the band until November 2013, when he departed the original band to team up with Campbell and Virtue in a new version of UB40.
In 2014, legal advice was sought by the band against the group containing Campbell, Virtue. The band members began as friends who each other from various schools across Birmingham. The name UB40 was selected in reference to the document issued to people claiming unemployment benefit from the UK governments Department of Employment at the time of the bands formation. The designation UB40 stood for Unemployment Benefit, Form 40, following a serious assault on Ali Campbell, he received a hefty compensation package which he put towards funding musical instruments for the fledgling band members. They were soon joined by several of their friends, firstly percussionists Yomi Babayemi and Norman Hassan, prior to this, Travers had work as an electrical apprentice for NG Bailey, whilst Robin Campbell had been an apprentice toolmaker. A month UB40s classic lineup was rounded out with the inclusion of percussionist and vocalist Astro, Astro had previously been working for Duke Alloys sound system attending reggae dances in Birmingham.
Before some of them could play their instruments, Ali Campbell and Brian Travers travelled around Birmingham promoting the band and their sound was created and honed through many long jam sessions at various locations in Birmingham. Their first gig took place on 9 February 1979 at The Hare & Hounds Pub in Kings Heath and this was commemorated in October 2011 by the unveiling of a plaque at the venue, indicating the band receiving the Performing Rights Societys Music Heritage Award. UB40 caught their first break when Chrissie Hynde saw them at a pub and gave them an opportunity as an act to her band. UB40s first single, King/Food for Thought was released on Graduate Records and it reached No.4 on the UK Singles Chart. The title of their first album, Signing Off, indicates the band was signing off from, or ending and it was recorded in a bedsit in Birmingham and was produced by Bob Lamb. Norman Hassan said of the recording, if you stripped my track down and this is because his tracks were recorded outside in the garden