Bavarian Alps is a summarizing term of several mountain ranges of the Northern Limestone Alps in the German state of Bavaria. The term in its wider sense refers to that part of the Eastern Alps that lies on Bavarian state territory; however it is traditionally understood that the Bavarian Alps are only those ranges between the rivers Lech and Saalach. In this narrower sense, the Allgäu Alps in Swabia, which have only been part of Bavaria in more recent times, the Berchtesgaden Alps in the east are not considered part of the Bavarian Alps; the term is used, but does not correspond to the common classification of the Eastern Alps developed by the German and South Tyrol Alpine Clubs. It should not be confused with the term Bavarian Prealps either; the latter only covers the Bavarian section of the prealps between the River Loisach in the west and the River Inn in the east. According to the Italian Partizione delle Alpi classification, the Bavarian Alps comprise the Allgäu and Lechtal Alps as well as the adjacent Achen Lake mountains.
The Bavarian Alps in their broader sense include the following parts of the mountain ranges listed − in this tabular overview sorted according to AVE from west to east and with maximum heights above sea level. The highest peaks and elevations shown relate to that part of the mountain group that lies in Bavaria, not to the overall group. For example, the highest mountain of the Allgäu Alps, the 2,657 m above sea level high Großer Krottenkopf, lies in Tyrol and is not shown in the table; the highest peak in the Bavarian Alps and in Germany as a whole is the Zugspitze. It lies in the western part of the Wetterstein range and has a high Alpine character with its height of 2,962 m above NN as well as its two small glaciers. By clicking on the word "List" in the various rows of the Lists column, a list other mountains in the particular range may be viewed; the table may be sorted by clicking on the sort symbols in the column headers. Like the Alps as a whole, the Bavarian Alps as part of the Northern Limestone Alps were influenced by the last ice age.
Cirques and typical U-shaped valleys were formed by the glaciers. Depositions by ice age rivers and glaciers left behind a rolling landscape in the Alpine Foreland with lakes and bogs. DAV. Alpenvereins-Jahrbuch, "Berg'84": Die Einteilung der Ostalpen Bogner Franz X.. Die deutschen Alpen aus der Luft. Rosenheimer Verlag, ISBN 978-3475540752. Tour descriptions for the Bavarian Alps
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell, it is an allotrope of oxygen, much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to O2. Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere, it is present in low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation. Ozone's odour is reminiscent of chlorine, detectable by many people at concentrations of as little as 0.1 ppm in air. Ozone's O3 structure was determined in 1865; the molecule was proven to have a bent structure and to be diamagnetic. In standard conditions, ozone is a pale blue gas that condenses at progressively cryogenic temperatures to a dark blue liquid and a violet-black solid. Ozone's instability with regard to more common dioxygen is such that both concentrated gas and liquid ozone may decompose explosively at elevated temperatures or fast warming to the boiling point.
It is therefore used commercially only in low concentrations. Ozone has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation; this same high oxidising potential, causes ozone to damage mucous and respiratory tissues in animals, tissues in plants, above concentrations of about 0.1 ppm. While this makes ozone a potent respiratory hazard and pollutant near ground level, a higher concentration in the ozone layer is beneficial, preventing damaging UV light from reaching the Earth's surface; the trivial name ozone is the most used and preferred IUPAC name. The systematic names 2λ4-trioxidiene and catena-trioxygen, valid IUPAC names, are constructed according to the substitutive and additive nomenclatures, respectively; the name ozone derives from the Greek verb for smell, referring to ozone's distinctive smell. In appropriate contexts, ozone can be viewed as trioxidane with two hydrogen atoms removed, as such, trioxidanylidene may be used as a context-specific systematic name, according to substitutive nomenclature.
By default, these names pay no regard to the radicality of the ozone molecule. In more specific context, this can name the non-radical singlet ground state, whereas the diradical state is named trioxidanediyl. Trioxidanediyl is used, non-systematically. Care should be taken to avoid confusing the name of the group for the context-specific name for ozone given above. In 1785, the Dutch chemist Martinus van Marum was conducting experiments involving electrical sparking above water when he noticed an unusual smell, which he attributed to the electrical reactions, failing to realize that he had in fact created ozone. A half century Christian Friedrich Schönbein noticed the same pungent odour and recognized it as the smell following a bolt of lightning. In 1839, he succeeded in isolating the gaseous chemical and named it "ozone", from the Greek word ozein meaning "to smell". For this reason, Schönbein is credited with the discovery of ozone; the formula for ozone, O3, was not determined until 1865 by Jacques-Louis Soret and confirmed by Schönbein in 1867.
For much of the second half of the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth, ozone was considered a healthy component of the environment by naturalists and health-seekers. Beaumont, California had as its official slogan "Beaumont: Zone of Ozone", as evidenced on postcards and Chamber of Commerce letterhead. Naturalists working outdoors considered the higher elevations beneficial because of their ozone content. "There is quite a different atmosphere with enough ozone to sustain the necessary energy ", wrote naturalist Henry Henshaw, working in Hawaii. Seaside air was considered to be healthy because of its believed ozone content. Much of ozone's appeal seems to have resulted from its "fresh" smell, which evoked associations with purifying properties. Scientists, noted its harmful effects. In 1873 James Dewar and John Gray McKendrick documented that frogs grew sluggish, birds gasped for breath, rabbits’ blood showed decreased levels of oxygen after exposure to "ozonized air", which "exercised a destructive action".
Schönbein himself reported that chest pains, irritation of the mucous membranes and difficulty breathing occurred as a result of inhaling ozone, small mammals died. In 1911, Leonard Hill and Martin Flack stated in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B that ozone's healthful effects "have, by mere iteration, become part and parcel of common belief; the only well-ascertained knowledge concerning the physiological effect of ozone, so far attained, is that it causes irritation and œdema of the lungs, death if inhaled in strong concentration for any time."During World War I, ozone was tested at Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital in London as a possible disinfectant for wounds. The gas was applied directly to wounds for as long as 15 minutes; this resulted in damage to human tissue. Other sanitizing techniques, such as irrigation with antiseptics, were found preferable. Ozone is a colourless or pale blue gas soluble in water and much more soluble in inert non-polar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride or fluorocarbons, in which it forms a blue solution.
At 161 K (−112 °C.
The Zugspitze, at 2,962 m above sea level, is the highest peak of the Wetterstein Mountains as well as the highest mountain in Germany. It lies south of the town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, the Austria–Germany border runs over its western summit. South of the mountain is a high karst plateau with numerous caves. On the flanks of the Zugspitze are three glaciers, including the two largest in Germany: the Northern Schneeferner with an area of 30.7 hectares and the Höllentalferner with an area of 24.7 hectares. The third is the Southern Schneeferner; the Zugspitze was first climbed on 27 August 1820 by Josef Naus, his survey assistant and mountain guide, Johann Georg Tauschl. Today there are three normal routes to the summit: one from the Höllental valley to the northeast. One of the best known ridge routes in the Eastern Alps runs along the knife-edged Jubilee Ridge to the summit, linking the Zugspitze, the Hochblassen and the Alpspitze. For mountaineers there is plenty of nearby accommodation. On the western summit of the Zugspitze itself is the Münchner Haus and on the western slopes is the Wiener-Neustädter Hut.
Three cable cars run to the top of the Zugspitze. The first, the Tyrolean Zugspitze Cable Car, was built in 1926 by the German company Adolf Bleichert & Co and terminated on an arête below the summit at 2.805 m.a.s.l, the so-called Kammstation, before the terminus was moved to the actual summit at 2.951 m.a.s.l. in 1991. A rack railway, the Bavarian Zugspitze Railway, runs inside the northern flank of the mountain and ends on the Zugspitzplatt, from where a second cable car takes passengers to the top; the rack railway and the Eibsee Cable Car, the third cableway, transport an average of 500,000 people to the summit each year. In winter, nine ski lifts cover the ski area on the Zugspitzplatt; the weather station, opened in 1900, the research station in the Schneefernerhaus are used to conduct climate research. The Zugspitze belongs to the Wetterstein range of the Northern Limestone Alps; the Austria–Germany border goes right over the mountain. There used to be a border checkpoint at the summit but, since Germany and Austria are now both part of the Schengen zone, the border crossing is no longer manned.
The exact height of the Zugspitze was a matter of debate for quite a while. Given figures ranged from 2,690–2,970 metres, but it is now accepted that the peak is 2,962 m above sea level as a result of a survey carried out by the Bavarian State Survey Office; the lounge at the new café is named "2962" for this reason. At 2,962 metres the Zugspitze is the highest mountain of the Zugspitze massif; this height is referenced to the Amsterdam Gauge and is given by the Bavarian State Office for Survey and Geoinformation. The same height is recorded against the Trieste Gauge used in Austria, 27 cm lower; the Zugspitze had three peaks: the east and west summits. The only one that has remained in its original form is the east summit, the only one that lies on German territory; the middle summit fell victim to one of the cable car summit stations in 1930. In 1938 the west summit was blown up to create a building site for a planned flight control room for the Wehrmacht; this was never built however. The height of the west summit was given as 2,964 m.
The mountain rises eleven kilometres southwest of Garmisch-Partenkirchen and just under six kilometres east of Ehrwald. The border between Germany and Austria runs over the west summit; the municipalities responsible for it are Ehrwald. To the west the Zugspitze massif drops into the valley of the River Loisach, which flows around the massif towards the northeast in a curve whilst, in the east, the streams of Hammersbach and Partnach have their source. To the south the Gaistal valley and its river, the Leutascher Ache, separate the Wetterstein Mountains from the Mieming Chain. To the north at the foot of the Zugspitze is the lake of Eibsee; the next highest mountain in the area is the Acherkogel in the Stubai Alps, which gives the Zugspitze a topographic isolation value of 24.6 kilometres. The reference point for the prominence is the Parseierspitze. In order to climb it from the Zugspitze, a descent to the Fern Pass is required, so that the prominence is 1,746 m. Zugspitze Massif The massif of the Zugspitze has several other peaks.
To the south the Zugspitzplatt is surrounded in an arc by the Zugspitzeck and Schneefernerkopf, the Wetterspitzen, the Wetterwandeck, the Plattspitzen and the Gatterlköpfen. The massif ends in a wind gap between it and the Hochwanner. Running eastwards away from the Zugspitze is the famous Jubilee Ridge or Jubiläumsgrat over the Höllentalspitzen towards the Alpspitze and Hochblassen; the short crest of the Riffelwandkamm runs northeast over the summits of the Riffelwandspitzen and the Riffelköpfe, to the Riffel wind gap. From here the ridge of the Waxensteinkamm stretches away over the Riffelspitzen to the Waxenstein. Zugspitzplatt The Platt or Zugspitzplatt is a plateau below the summit of the Zugspitze to the south and southeast whic
Beech is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe and North America. Recent classification systems of the genus recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera and Fagus; the Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. Further differentiating characteristics include the whitish bloom on the underside of the leaves, the visible tertiary leaf veins, a long, smooth cupule-peduncle. Fagus japonica, Fagus engleriana, the species F. okamotoi, proposed by the botanist Chung-Fu Shen in 1992, comprise this subgenus. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark; this group includes Fagus sylvatica, Fagus grandifolia, Fagus crenata, Fagus lucida, Fagus longipetiolata, Fagus hayatae. The classification of the European beech, Fagus sylvatica is complex, with a variety of different names proposed for different species and subspecies within this region.
Research suggests that beeches in Eurasia differentiated late in evolutionary history, during the Miocene. The populations in this area represent a range of overlapping morphotypes, though genetic analysis does not support separate species. Within its family, the Fagaceae, recent research has suggested that Fagus is the evolutionarily most basal group; the southern beeches thought related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, the Nothofagaceae. They are found in Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, New Caledonia and Chile; the European beech is the most cultivated, although few important differences are seen between species aside from detail elements such as leaf shape. The leaves of beech trees are entire or sparsely toothed, from 5 -- 4 -- 10 cm broad. Beeches are monoecious; the small flowers are unisexual, the female flowers borne in pairs, the male flowers wind-pollinating catkins. They are produced in spring; the bark is light grey. The fruit is a small three–angled nut 10–15 mm long, borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks 1.5–2.5 cm long, known as cupules.
The husk can have a variety of spine- to scale-like appendages, the character of which is, in addition to leaf shape, one of the primary ways beeches are differentiated. The nuts are edible, though bitter with a high tannin content, are called beechnuts or beechmast; the name of the tree is of Indo-European origin, played an important role in early debates on the geographical origins of the Indo-European people. Greek φηγός is from the same root, but the word was transferred to the oak tree as a result of the absence of beech trees in Greece. Beech grows on a wide range of soil types, provided they are not waterlogged; the tree canopy casts dense shade, carpets the ground thickly with leaf litter. In North America, they form beech-maple climax forests by partnering with the sugar maple; the beech blight aphid is a common pest of American beech trees. Beeches are used as food plants by some species of Lepidoptera. Beech bark is thin and scars easily. Since the beech tree has such delicate bark, such as lovers' initials and other forms of graffiti, remain because the tree is unable to heal itself.
Beech bark disease is a fungal infection that attacks the American beech through damage caused by scale insects. Infection can lead to the death of the tree. Fagus sylvatica was a late entrant to Great Britain after the last glaciation, may have been restricted to basic soils in the south of England; some suggest. The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is removed from'native' woods. Large areas of the Chilterns are covered with beech woods, which are habitat to the common bluebell and other flora; the Cwm Clydach National Nature Reserve in southeast Wales was designated for its beech woodlands, which are believed to be on the western edge of their natural range in this steep limestone gorge. Beech is not native to Ireland; the Friends of the Irish Environment say that the best policy is to remove young regenerating beech, while retaining veteran specimens with biodiversity value. A campaign by Friends of the Rusland Beeches and South Lakeland Friends of the Earth launched in 2007 to reclassify the beech as native in Cumbria.
The campaign is backed by Tim Farron, MP, who tabled a motion on 3 December 2007 regarding the status of beech in Cumbria. Today, beech is planted for hedging and in deciduous woodlands, mature, regenerating stands occur throughout mainland Britain below about 650 m; the tallest and longest hedge in the world is the Meikleour Beech Hedge in Meikleour and Kinross, Scotland. The common European beech grows in Denmark and southern Norway and Sweden up to about the 57–59°N; the most northern known growing beech trees are found in a few small forests around the city of Bergen on th
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is known as quicksilver and was named hydrargyrum. A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element, liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world as cinnabar; the red pigment vermilion is obtained by synthetic mercuric sulfide. Mercury is used in thermometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, mercury switches, mercury relays, fluorescent lamps and other devices, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being phased out in clinical environments in favor of alternatives such as alcohol- or galinstan-filled glass thermometers and thermistor- or infrared-based electronic instruments. Mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers. Mercury remains in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some locales.
It is used in fluorescent lighting. Electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light, which causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light. Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury, by inhalation of mercury vapor, or by ingesting any form of mercury. Mercury is a silvery-white liquid metal. Compared to other metals, it is a fair conductor of electricity, it has a freezing point of −38.83 °C and a boiling point of 356.73 °C, both the lowest of any stable metal, although preliminary experiments on copernicium and flerovium have indicated that they have lower boiling points. Upon freezing, the volume of mercury decreases by 3.59% and its density changes from 13.69 g/cm3 when liquid to 14.184 g/cm3 when solid. The coefficient of volume expansion is 181.59 × 10−6 at 0 °C, 181.71 × 10−6 at 20 °C and 182.50 × 10−6 at 100 °C. Solid mercury can be cut with a knife. A complete explanation of mercury's extreme volatility delves deep into the realm of quantum physics, but it can be summarized as follows: mercury has a unique electron configuration where electrons fill up all the available 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5d, 6s subshells.
Because this configuration resists removal of an electron, mercury behaves to noble gases, which form weak bonds and hence melt at low temperatures. The stability of the 6s shell is due to the presence of a filled 4f shell. An f shell poorly screens the nuclear charge that increases the attractive Coulomb interaction of the 6s shell and the nucleus; the absence of a filled inner f shell is the reason for the somewhat higher melting temperature of cadmium and zinc, although both these metals still melt and, in addition, have unusually low boiling points. Mercury does not react with most acids, such as dilute sulfuric acid, although oxidizing acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid or aqua regia dissolve it to give sulfate and chloride. Like silver, mercury reacts with atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Mercury reacts with solid sulfur flakes. Mercury dissolves many metals such as silver to form amalgams. Iron is an exception, iron flasks have traditionally been used to trade mercury.
Several other first row transition metals with the exception of manganese and zinc are resistant in forming amalgams. Other elements that do not form amalgams with mercury include platinum. Sodium amalgam is a common reducing agent in organic synthesis, is used in high-pressure sodium lamps. Mercury combines with aluminium to form a mercury-aluminium amalgam when the two pure metals come into contact. Since the amalgam destroys the aluminium oxide layer which protects metallic aluminium from oxidizing in-depth small amounts of mercury can corrode aluminium. For this reason, mercury is not allowed aboard an aircraft under most circumstances because of the risk of it forming an amalgam with exposed aluminium parts in the aircraft. Mercury embrittlement is the most common type of liquid metal embrittlement. There are seven stable isotopes of mercury, with 202Hg being the most abundant; the longest-lived radioisotopes are 194Hg with a half-life of 444 years, 203Hg with a half-life of 46.612 days. Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives.
199Hg and 201Hg are the most studied NMR-active nuclei, having spins of 1⁄2 and 3⁄2 respectively. Hg is the modern chemical symbol for mercury, it comes from hydrargyrum, a Latinized form of the Greek word ὑδράργυρος, a compound word meaning "water-silver" – since it is liquid like water and shiny like silver. The element was named after the Roman god Mercury, known for his mobility, it is associated with the planet Mercury. Mercury is the only metal for which the al
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M