A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Town Brook (Massachusetts)
Town Brook is a 1.5-mile stream in Plymouth, Massachusetts that provided drinking water to the Pilgrims who made their homes adjacent to the brook on Leyden Street in Plymouth. Town Brook's headwaters are a 269-acre freshwater pond; the brook passes through numerous small ponds, including Jenny Pond. It passes by the Plimoth Grist Mill and the Brewster Gardens before emptying into Plymouth Harbor. A nature trail runs along the entire length of the brook; the Pilgrims first made landfall at the tip of Cape Cod, but were reluctant to settle there due to the lack of fresh water. They sailed across to the mainland, observed what one person described as “a sweet brook,” fed by cool springs of “as good water as can be drunk.” At the brook’s mouth was a salt marsh, where the colonists could anchor their boats. The Pilgrims built their houses near the fresh water supply; the brook led to upstream spawning grounds for river herring. It attracted eels and fresh water fowl. Squanto, an Indian interpreter, taught the colonists to use the fish to fertilize their corn crop.
The first corn mill was built along the brook. John Jenney arrived in the Plymouth Colony from Leyden in 1623, built a grist mill on Town Brook in 1636; the original mill burned down in 1847. The banks of the brook were used for industrial purposes well into the 20th century; each Spring, the brook sees thousands of alewives, an anadromous type of herring, swimming up its path to spawn in the Billington Sea. The number of alewives spotted were enough so that one could "walk across their backs" to the other side of the water. In the time since the Pilgrims' arrival, the number of alewives have dwindled drastically due to the increasing human population and industrialization of the area. In recent times, significant efforts have been pursued in the hopes of increasing those numbers for ecological improvement of the brook. Although an estimate of 7,000 herring were counted in 2003, counts before and after that time until 2008 remain sketchy at best. Starting in 2008, counts began receiving considerable recognition and recording by Plymouth's Department of Marine and Environmental Affairs and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
In 2016, the count was 199,368 alewives. Additionally, projects around the region to remove old dams have helped the alewife numbers increase, have received support from the Environmental Protection Agency, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U. S. Army Reserves, more. Eleven roads pass over Town Brook, including two major highways. Little Pond Road Route 3 Billington Street Driveway to 96R Billington Street Off Billington Street Newfield Street Willard Place Spring Court Pleasant Street Route 3A Water Street Two small streams flow into Town Brook in downtown Plymouth, but they are not named. Many attractions are near Town Brook since Plymouth is of such historical importance; this is a list of the attractions within one quarter of a mile from Town Brook. Morton Park Jenney Grist Mill Brewster Gardens Plymouth Rock Massasoit Statue State Pier Plymouth Yacht Club Burton Park National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
An estuary is a enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments, they are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, they can have many different names, such as bays, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not meet the above definition of an estuary and may be saline.
The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation and other poor farming practices; the word "estuary" is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, which in itself is derived from the term aestus, meaning tide. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary; the most accepted definition is: "a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which has a free connection with the open sea, within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage". However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. A more comprehensive definition of an estuary is "a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff.
This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides; the sea water entering the estuary streams. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of fresh water, the tidal range, the extent of evaporation of the water in the estuary. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and the topography of the estuary remains similar to that of a river valley; this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border; the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths exceed 30 m.
Examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. Bar-built estuaries are found in place where the deposition of sediment has kept pace with rising sea level so that the estuaries are shallow and separated from the sea by sand spits or barrier islands, they are common in tropical and subtropical locations. These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries develop on sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts, they are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 m. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: building up of offshore bars by wave action, in which sand from the sea floor is deposited in elongated bars parallel to the shoreline, reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, dunes, engulfment of mainland beach ridges due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands due to the action of longshore currents, with the spits growing in the direction of the littoral drift.
Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is less than 5 m, exceeds 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries are Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Fjords were formed where pleistocene glaciers deepened and widened existing river valleys so that they become U-shaped in cross s
Carver is a town in Plymouth County, United States. The population was 11,509 at the 2010 census, it is named for the first governor of the Plymouth Colony. The town features two popular tourist attractions: Edaville USA theme park and King Richard's Faire, the largest and longest-running renaissance fair in New England. Archaeological research revealed 9,000 years of settlement at the Annasnappet Pond Site in Carver, from 10,000 to 1,000 years ago; the site contained 1600 stone tools and a human burial. Carver separated from Plympton and was incorporated in 1790 because many residents lived too far away to attend church in Plympton; the town was named for the first Governor of the Plymouth Colony. Agricultural, Carver was known for the iron ore from its swamp lands used to make cooking tools by the 1730s; the first iron works was "Pope's Point Furnace", built in 1732, which operated for a century by using the bogs and Sampson's Pond. Over the next 150 years, sheep shearing and lumber mills were important in Carver.
Most people at the time lived in the villages of South and North Carver and Wenham called East Carver. European settlers had given the names "Colchester" and "Lakenham" to what is now North Carver, settled in what was known as South Meadow; each village supported at least one schoolhouse. As the market for iron ore declined in the latter part of the 19th century, Carver began cranberry farming as a new use for the town's swamp lands. Farmers began growing cranberries in the 1870s, by 1900 it was Carver's farmers who raised a fifth of all cranberries grown in the United States. A railroad line connected Carver to New Boston in 1920, further establishing the town. Money from the iron helped the community to grow, as evidenced by several mansions still in existence in the town. Located in Carver is Savery's Avenue, the first divided highway in America, opened to the public in 1860 by William Savery; the trees between the roads and on the outside of them were to be left for "shade and ornament for man and beast".
Both road beds were macadamized in 1907. A portion of the expense was advanced by the daughters of the builder, Mrs. Mary P. S. Jowitt and Ms. H. D. Savery. By the 1940s the cranberry harvest was the largest in the world, today it is still a major business in town; because of the land taken for the bogs, growth is limited, giving the town a rural flavor it takes pride in. In 2012, most cranberry bogs are being replanted in favor of a new hybrid cranberry crop. Carver has two notable tourist attractions. Edaville Railroad is a narrow-gauge railroad attraction which opened in 1949, it has long been a family tourist attraction in Southeastern Massachusetts for its festival of lights around Christmastime. It has experienced a revival after being sold in 1991 and nearly closing; the town is the site of King Richard's Faire, a re-creation of a 16th-century English fair, open on weekends throughout September and October. It is New England's largest Renaissance fair. Pro wrestler Mike Bennett is from Carver.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 40 square miles, of which 37.4 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles, or 5.87%, is water. It is locally famous for the large number of cranberry bogs throughout the town. Carver is bordered by Plympton to the north, Kingston to the northeast, Plymouth to the east, Wareham to the south, Middleborough to the west. Carver is located 45 miles south-southeast of Boston and 38 miles east of Providence, Rhode Island. Carver's geography is shaped by its many small brooks and ponds including Vaughn Pond and Bates Pond; the majority of them drain into Buzzards Bay, although some in the north of town lead to Cape Cod Bay or Narragansett Bay. The town has an abundance of pine and cedar trees, a portion of Myles Standish State Forest takes up much of the southeast corner of town. A large cedar swamp occupies the geographic center of the town; the town is the site of a campground, a sportsmen's club, a small town park at the center of town.
As of the census of 2000, there were 11,163 people, 3,984 households, 3,011 families residing in the town. The population density was 297.3 people per square mile. There were 4,127 housing units at an average density of 109.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.78% White, 1.22% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.96% from other races, 1.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population. There were 3,984 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.3% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.4% were non-families. 19.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.23. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $53,506, the median income for a family was $61,738. Males had a median income of $46,414 versus $28,336 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,398. About 4.6% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those
The Cochato River is a stream rising from Avon and running several miles north to its confluence with the Monatiquot River in Braintree. It empties into Boston Harbor; the river serves as the boundary between Randolph. The river fed the Richardi Reservoir, a water system serving nearly 90,000 people in the Towns of Holbrook and Braintree; this use ended in the 1980s, due to severe pollution from the Baird & McGuire company. From 1912 to 1983, the Baird & McGuire chemical manufacturing facility was operated near the river in Holbrook, manufacturing products such as pesticides, disinfectants and solvents. Between 1954 and 1977, the company was fined at least 35 times by various state and federal agencies for numerous violations; because of their poor storage and disposal practices, industrial waste was discharged into the soil, wetlands, a gravel pit. The facility declared a "superfund" site; the Environmental Protection Agency dredged and treated over 4,000 cubic yards of sediments in the Cochato, with cleanup completed in 1997.
The river has been monitored since that time. Fore River Watershed Association Environmental Protection Agency
Wareham is a town in Plymouth County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 21,822. Wareham has long been recognized as not part of Cape Cod. Wareham was first settled in 1678 by Europeans as part of the towns of Rochester, it was incorporated in 1739 and named after the town of Wareham in England. Because of its geography, Wareham's early industry revolved around shipbuilding and the related industries, it served as a resort town, with many smaller resorts scattered around the town in Onset. Like Sandwich, its waterways Buttermilk Bay, were considered as possible pathways for the Cape Cod Canal. Although the canal proper goes through Bourne and Sandwich, the southern approach to Buzzards Bay passes just south of the peninsulas that make up the topography of the town. Wareham is home of the oldest nail manufacturer in the United States; the factory was established in 1819. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 46.3 square miles, of which 35.8 square miles is land and 10.5 square miles is water.
The total area is 22.64% water. Wareham is bordered by Marion to the southwest, Rochester to the west, Middleborough to the northwest and Plymouth to the north, Bourne to the east; the town's localities are numerous, the most important being East Wareham, Point Independence, Wareham Center, West Wareham. The town is just west of Cape Cod, is 18 miles east of New Bedford 45 miles east of Providence, Rhode Island and 55 miles south-southeast of Boston. Wareham is the innermost town on the north shore of Buzzards Bay; the Weweantic River empties in the southwest corner of town, with the Sippican River and other brooks emptying into it. The Wareham River, formed at the confluence of the Wankinco and Agawam rivers, flows into the harbor east of the Weweantic, has brooks and the Mill Pond River as tributaries. To the east lie Onset Bay and Buttermilk Bay, both of which empty into the head of the bay, at the right-of-way of the Cape Cod Canal. Between these rivers and bays lie several points and necks, including Cromesett Point, Swift's Neck, Long Beach Point, Indian Neck, Stony Point, Cedar Island Point, Codman's Point, Sias Point and Whittemore's Point.
The southern boundary of Myles Standish State Forest is concurrent with the town line between Wareham and Plymouth. The town of Wareham encompasses a number of neighborhoods and named places, including Onset, Wareham Center, West Wareham, East Wareham, Weweantic. There are a number of ponds and lakes in Wareharm, including Blackmore Pond, Horseshoe Pond, Marys Pond; as of the census of 2000, there were 20,335 people, 8,200 households, 5,338 families residing in the town. The population density was 568.1 people per square mile. There were 10,670 housing units at an average density of 298.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 57.42% White, 32.92% African American, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 5.20% from other races, 3.43% from two or more races. Of the population 1.44 % were Latino of any race. There were 8,200 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.4% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families.
29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.02. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $40,422, the median income for a family was $45,750. Males had a median income of $37,601 versus $28,306 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,312. 10.7% of the population and 8.1% of families were below the poverty line. Of those 16.6% under the age of 18 and 13.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Today, Wareham is residential, although it still has a strong summer tourism industry, it has retail centers along Routes 6 and 28, including Wareham Crossing, opened in 2007.
The cranberry industry has dominated Wareham's economy, as evidenced by the fact that the main local road is known as Cranberry Highway and one of the world's largest cranberry growers, the A. D. Makepeace Company, is headquartered in Wareham; the University of Massachusetts Cranberry Research Station is located in Wareham, as is the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Cranberry Marketing Committee. Wareham is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives as a part of the Second Plymouth district, which includes Carver and part of Middleboro; the town is represented in the Massachusetts Senate as a part of the First Plymouth and Bristol district, which includes Berkley, Carver, Marion, Middleborough and Taunton. The town is patrolled by the Seventh Barracks of Troop D of the Massachusetts State Police. On the national level, Wareham is part of Massachusetts's 9th congressional district and is represented by William R. Keating, its senators are Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey. Wareham is governed by the open town meeting form of government, led by a town administrator and a board of selectmen.
There is a central police station located along Route 28
Muddy River (Massachusetts)
The Muddy River is a series of brooks and ponds that runs through sections of Boston's Emerald Necklace, including along the south boundary of Brookline, Massachusetts. The river, narrower than most waterways designated as rivers in the United States, is a protected public recreation area surrounded by parks and hiking trails, managed by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation; the river flows from Jamaica Pond through Olmsted Park's Wards Pond, Willow Pond, Leverett Pond. It flows through a conduit under Route 9 and into a narrow park called the Riverway, from which it flows through three culverts: the Riverway Culvert, the Brookline Avenue Culvert, the Avenue Louis Pasteur Culvert; the Muddy River continues from the Fens toward its connection with the Charles River via the Charlesgate area, running through a stone-paved channel surrounded by a narrow strip of parklands. In a series of stone bridges and tunnels, it passes under Boylston Street, Massachusetts Turnpike, Commonwealth Avenue, Storrow Drive, a series of elevated connecting ramps.
In its natural state, the outlet of the Muddy River into the tidal Charles was much wider. It formed the eastern Brookline border with Boston and Roxbury, from Brookline's incorporation in 1705 until Boston's annexation of Allston–Brighton in 1873; the present form of the river and surrounding parks was created by the Emerald Necklace project, between 1880 and 1900. Under the direction of designer Frederick Law Olmsted, the project reclaimed marshland, creating sculpted and planted riverbanks; the Muddy River is mentioned by John Winthrop, in his famous "Journal of John Winthrop," as the site of an unidentified flying object in March 1638 or 1639, as described to him by witness James Everell. This event is considered by some to be the first recorded instance of such occurrences; the river is undergoing a two phase restoration project to improve flood control and water quality, enhance its aquatic and riparian habitats, restore the landscape and historic resources, implement improved management practices.
The project is being managed by the Army Corps of Engineers working with the City of Boston, the State of Massachusetts and the Town of Brookline. Phase 1 was completed in 2016. Phase 2 will begin in 2019; this project is intended to prevent repeat occurrences of the Muddy River's past damaging floods. Muddy River Restoration Project Emerald Necklace Conservancy Riverway history page