United States Secretary of War
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. A similar position, called either Secretary at War or Secretary of War, had appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and Henry Knox held the position, when Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving. The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department, at first, he was responsible for all military affairs, including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, from 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States and the Secretary of State. The office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britains Secretary at War, the office of Secretary at War was meant replaced both the Commander-in-Chief and the Board of War, and like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia.
The Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Commissary General, and Adjutant General served on the Secretarys staff, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men. Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Confederate States Secretary of War Bell, commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005, Portraits and Biographical Sketches. United States Army Center of Military History, encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet 1789-2010. Charlottesville, The Judge Advocate Generals School, U. S. Army
John A. Logan
John Alexander Logan was an American soldier and political leader. He served in the Mexican-American War and was a general in the Union Army in the American Civil War and he served the state of Illinois as a State Senator, a Congressman, and a U. S. Senator and was a candidate for Vice President of the United States with James G. Blaine in the election of 1884. As the 3rd Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic and his likeness appears on a statue at the center of Logan Circle, Washington, D. C. He is honored with a statue in Grant Park in Chicago, Logan is one of only three people mentioned by name in the Illinois state song. Upon his death, he lay in state in the United States Capitol rotunda. He is the father of U. S. Army officer and Medal of Honor recipient John Alexander Logan, Jr. John A. Logan was born near what is now Murphysboro, Jackson County, Illinois. He studied with his father, who was a physician, and with a private tutor and he enlisted in the 1st Illinois Infantry for the Mexican-American War, and received a commission as a second lieutenant and assignment as the regimental quartermaster.
After the war Logan studied law in the office of an uncle, graduated from the Law Department of the University of Louisville in 1851, in 1858 and 1860, he was elected as a Democrat to the U. S. House of Representatives. In 1853, John A. Logan helped pass a law to prohibit all African Americans, including freedmen, from settling in the state. Soon after the victory at Donelson, he resigned his seat on April 2,1862 and was promoted to general in the volunteers. Major John Hotaling served as his chief of staff, to confuse matters, the 32nd Illinois was commanded at Shiloh by a different Colonel John Logan. During the Siege of Corinth, John A. Logan commanded first a brigade, in the spring of 1863, he was promoted to major general to rank from November 29,1862. In Grants Vicksburg Campaign, Logan commanded the 3rd Division of James B, mcPhersons XVII Corps, which was the first to enter the city of Vicksburg in July 1863 after its capture. Logan served as the military governor. In November 1863 he succeeded William Tecumseh Sherman in command of the XV Corps, mcPherson during the day, he assumed command of the Army of the Tennessee.
He was relieved a short time afterward by Oliver O. Howard and he returned to Illinois for the 1864 elections but rejoined the army afterward and commanded his XV corps in Shermans Carolinas Campaign. In December 1864, Grant became impatient with George H. Thomass unwillingness to attack immediately at Nashville, Logan was stopped in Louisville when news came that Thomas had completely smashed John Bell Hoods Confederate army in the Battle of Nashville
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a movement to end the African and Indian slave trade. An abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, soon after his death in 1785, they joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal, freedom suits challenging slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the state, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans, during the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, and Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. France abolished slavery within the French Kingdom in 1315, Haiti achieved independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory.
The northern states in the U. S. all abolished slavery by 1804, the United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia and it was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania, where it was officially abolished by presidential decree in 1981. In 1315, Louis X, king of France, published a decree proclaiming that France signifies freedom and this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Some cases of African slaves freed by setting foot on the French soil were recorded such as example of a Norman slave merchant who tried to sell slaves in Bordeaux in 1571. He was arrested and his slaves were freed according to a declaration of the Parlement of Guyenne which stated that slavery was intolerable in France, born into slavery in Saint Domingue, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas became free when his father brought him to France in 1776.
As in other New World colonies, the French relied on the Atlantic slave trade for labour for their sugar plantations in their Caribbean colonies. In addition, French colonists in Louisiane in North America held slaves, particularly in the South around New Orleans, Louis XIVs Code Noir regulated the slave trade and institution in the colonies. It gave unparalleled rights to slaves and it includes the right to marry, gather publicly, or take Sundays off. Although the Code Noir authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions and it forced the owners to instruct them in the Catholic faith, implying that Africans were human beings endowed with a soul, a fact that was not seen as evident until then. It resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free in 1830 and they were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses and even slaves. Other free people of colour, such as Julien Raimond, spoke out against slavery, during the Age of Enlightenment, many philosophers wrote pamphlets against slavery and its moral and economical justifications, including Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws or in the Encyclopédie
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other.
One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other.
They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures
History of the United States Republican Party
The Republican Party, commonly called the GOP, is one of the worlds oldest extant political parties. It is the second oldest existing political party in the United States after its primary rival, the Democratic Party. The Party had almost no presence in the Southern United States, with its election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, and its success in guiding the Union to victory and abolishing slavery, the party came to dominate the national political scene until 1932. The Republican Party was based on northern white Protestants, small business owners, factory workers, farmers and it was pro-business, supporting banks, the gold standard and high tariffs to protect factory workers and grow industry faster. Under William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, it emphasized a foreign policy. The GOP lost its majorities during the Great Depression, the Democrats under Franklin D. Roosevelt formed a winning New Deal coalition, which was dominant from 1932 through 1964. That coalition collapsed in the mid-1960s, partly because of white Southern Democrats disaffection with passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Republicans won five of the six presidential elections from 1968 to 1988, with Ronald Reagan as the partys iconic conservative hero.
The GOP expanded its base throughout the South after 1968, largely due to its strength among socially conservative white Evangelical Protestants and traditionalist Roman Catholics. The Republican Partys transforming leader by 1980 was Reagan, whose conservative policies called for reduced government spending and regulation, lower taxes, and his influence upon the party persists, as nearly every GOP speaker still reveres him. This includes current US President Donald Trump, who utilized his own version of Reagans Make America Great Again slogan during the 2016 US Election. Social scientists Theodore Caplow et al. argue, The Republican party, moved from right-center toward the center in the 1940s and 1950s, moved right again in the 1970s and 1980s. The Republican party began as a coalition of anti-slavery Conscience Whigs and Free Soil Democrats opposed to the Kansas–Nebraska Act and this change was viewed by Free Soil and Abolitionist Northerners as an aggressive, expansionist maneuver by the slave-owning South.
The Act was supported by all Southerners, by Northern Doughface Democrats, in the North, the old Whig Party was almost defunct. The opponents were motivated and began forming a new party. The new party went well beyond the issue of slavery in the territories and it envisioned modernizing the United States—emphasizing giving free western land to farmers as opposed to letting slave owners buy up the best lands, expanded banking, more railroads, and factories. They vigorously argued that free labor was superior to slavery. The Republicans absorbed the traditions of its members, most of whom had been Whigs. Many Democrats who joined were rewarded with governorships, or seats in the U. S. Senate, or House of Representatives
Battle of Chickamauga
The Battle of Chickamauga, fought September 18–20,1863, marked the end of a Union offensive in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia called the Chickamauga Campaign. The battle was the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of the American Civil War and it was the first major battle of the war that was fought in Georgia. After his successful Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed the offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga, in early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Braggs army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Daviss Cross Roads, Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecranss army, defeat it, and move back into the city. On September 17 he headed north, intending to attack the isolated XXI Corps, as Bragg marched north on September 18, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry, which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles.
Fighting began in earnest on the morning of September 19, Braggs men strongly assaulted but could not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg resumed his assault, in late morning, Rosecrans was misinformed that he had a gap in his line. Longstreets attack drove one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, Union units spontaneously rallied to create a defensive line on Horseshoe Ridge, forming a new right wing for the line of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, who assumed overall command of remaining forces. Although the Confederates launched costly and determined assaults and his men held until twilight, Union forces retired to Chattanooga while the Confederates occupied the surrounding heights, besieging the city. General-in-chief Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln were insistent that Rosecrans move quickly to take Chattanooga, seizing the city would open the door for the Union to advance toward Atlanta and the heartland of the South. Chattanooga was a rail hub, and an important manufacturing center for the production of iron and coke.
Situated between Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Raccoon Mountain, and Stringers Ridge, Chattanooga occupied an important, defensible position. Although Braxton Braggs Army of Tennessee had about 52,000 men at the end of July, into Braggs Department of Tennessee, which added 17,800 men to Braggs army, but extended his command responsibilities northward to the Knoxville area. This brought a third subordinate into Braggs command who had little or no respect for him, Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee had already made their animosity well known. Buckners attitude was colored by Braggs unsuccessful invasion of Buckners native Kentucky in 1862, as well as by the loss of his command through the merger. A positive aspect for Bragg was Hardees request to be transferred to Mississippi in July, but he was replaced by Lt. Gen. D. H. Hill, a general who did not get along with Robert E. Lee in Virginia. The Confederate War Department asked Bragg in early August whether he could assume the offensive against Rosecrans if he were given reinforcements for Mississippi and he demurred, concerned about the daunting geographical obstacles and logistical challenges, preferring to wait for Rosecrans to solve those same problems and attack him.
He was concerned about a sizable Union force under Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside that was threatening Knoxville, Bragg withdrew his forces from advanced positions around Bridgeport, which left Rosecrans free to maneuver on the northern side of the Tennessee River
John Adams Dix
John Adams Dix was Secretary of the Treasury, Governor of New York and Union major general during the Civil War. Dix was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire, the son of Timothy Dix and Abigail Wilkins and he joined the US Army as an ensign in May 1813, serving under his father. He attained the rank of captain in August 1825, and resigned from the Army in December 1828, in 1826, Dix married Catherine Morgan, the adopted daughter of Congressman John J. Morgan, who gave Dix a job overseeing his upstate New York land holdings in Cooperstown. Dix and his moved to Cooperstown in 1828, and he practiced law in addition to overseeing the land holdings. In 1830, he was appointed by Governor Enos T. Throop as Adjutant General of the New York State Militia and he was Secretary of State of New York from 1833 to 1839, and a member of the New York State Assembly in 1842. Dix was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Silas Wright, Jr. in November 1848, he was the Barnburner/Free-Soil candidate for Governor of New York, but was defeated by Whig Hamilton Fish.
In February 1849, he ran for re-election to the U. S. Senate as the Barnburners candidate, in 1853 Dix was president of the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad. He was appointed Postmaster of New York City and served from 1860 to 1861, in addition to his military and public duties, Dix was the president of the Union Pacific from 1863 to 1868 during construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. He was the figurehead for rail baron Thomas C, durant, in both of his railroad presidencies. He was briefly President of the Erie Railroad in 1872, Dix was appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury by President James Buchanan in January 1861. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he sent a telegram to the Treasury agents in New Orleans ordering that, If any one attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot. The saying is found on many Civil War tokens minted during the war, at the start of the American Civil War, Dix was appointed a major general in the New York Militia. He joined the Union Army as the highest ranking general of volunteers during the war, effective May 16,1861.
Banks and Benjamin Franklin Butler, but Dixs name appeared first on the promotion list, in the summer of 1861, he commanded the Department of Maryland and the Department of Pennsylvania. His importance at the beginning of the Civil War was in arresting six members of the Maryland legislature and this prevented Maryland from seceding, and earned him President Lincolns gratitude. That winter, he commanded a regional organization known as Dixs Command within Maj. Gen. George B, Dix commanded the Department of Virginia from June 1862 until July 1863, and the Department of the East from July 1863 until April 1865. On July 22,1862, Dix and Confederate Major General Daniel Harvey Hill concluded an agreement for the exchange of prisoners between the Union and Confederate armies. This agreement became known as the Dix-Hill Cartel, Chase for General John A. Dix
Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. He was a U. S. representative, a U. S. senator, Douglas had previously defeated Lincoln in a Senate contest, noted for the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. He was nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short in physical stature, Douglas was well known as a resourceful party leader, and an adroit, skillful tactician in debate and passage of legislation. He was a champion of the Young America movement which sought to modernize politics and replace the agrarian, as chairman of the Committee on Territories, Douglas dominated the Senate in the 1850s. Opposition to this led to the formation of the Republican Party, Douglas initially endorsed the Dred Scott decision of 1857. But during the 1858 Senate campaign, he argued its effect could be negated by popular sovereignty and he opposed the efforts of President James Buchanan and his Southern allies to enact a Federal slave code and impose the Lecompton Constitution on Kansas.
In 1860, the conflict over slavery led to the split in the Democratic Party in the 1860 Convention, hardline pro-slavery Southerners rejected Douglas, and nominated their own candidate, Vice President John C. Breckinridge, while the Northern Democrats nominated Douglas, Douglas deeply believed in democracy, arguing the will of the people should always be decisive. When civil war came in April 1861, he rallied his supporters to the Union cause with all his energies and he was born Stephen Arnold Douglass in Brandon, Vermont, to Stephen Arnold Douglass and Sarah Fisk. Douglas dropped the s from his name some years later. His father, a physician and Middlebury College graduate, died suddenly when Stephen was just a few months old and he grew up with his mother and was educated in the local schools. As a teenager, he was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker in Middlebury and his mother remarried in 1830 and moved to western New York. Although he wished to attend Middlebury College like his father, his family couldnt support his continued formal education, instead, he began to teach school while studying law with Walter and Levi Hubbell.
While studying law he became friendly with Henry B, payne, a law student in another attorneys office. Payne became a prominent businessman and politician in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1833 Douglas migrated first to Cleveland, and to Winchester, where he served as an itinerant teacher and opened a school for three months at three dollars a pupil. He settled in Jacksonville, where he was admitted to the bar, Douglas became a member of the Masonic fraternity in Springfield Lodge No.4 in Springfield, Illinois in 1839. He was a member of several Masonic organizations in Springfield, in March 1847 he married Martha Martin, the 21-year-old daughter of wealthy Colonel Robert Martin of North Carolina. The year after their marriage, her father died and bequeathed Martha a 2, 500-acre cotton plantation with 100 slaves on the Pearl River in Lawrence County, Mississippi