Illegal immigration refers to the migration of people into a country in ways that violate the immigration laws of that country, or the remaining in a country of people who no longer have the legal right to remain. Illegal immigration, as well as immigration in general, is overwhelmingly financially upward, from a poorer to a richer country. Living in another country illegally includes a variety of restrictions, as well as the risk of being detained and deported or of facing other sanctions. Asylum seekers who were denied asylum may face impediment to expulsion, for example if the home country refuses to receive the person or if new asylum reasons occur after the decision. In some countries or cases, these people are considered as illegal immigrants, in others, they may get a temporary residence permit, for example with reference to the principle of non-refoulement in the international Refugee Convention; the European Court of Human Rights, referring to the European Convention on Human Rights, has shown in a number of indicative judgments that there are enforcement barriers to expulsion to certain countries, for example due to the risk of torture.
There are campaigns discouraging the use of the term "illegal immigrant" based on the argument that the act of immigrating illegally does not make the people themselves illegal, but rather they are "people who have immigrated illegally". In the United States, a "Drop the I-Word" campaign was launched in 2010 advocating for the use of terms such as undocumented immigrants or unauthorized immigrants when referring to the foreign nationals who reside in a country illegally. News associations that have discontinued or discourage the use of the adjective "illegal" to describe nouns that describe people include the US Associated Press, UK Press Association, European Journalism Observatory, European Journalism Centre, Association of European Journalists, Australian Press Council, Australian Media and Arts Alliance. Related terms that describe actions are not discouraged by these campaigns. For example, Associated Press continues to use the term "illegal immigration" to describe the action of entering or residing in a country illegally.
In contrast, in some contexts the term "illegal immigrants" is shortened pejoratively, to "illegals". On the other hand, the term undocumented has been cited by The New York Times, as a "term preferred by many immigrants and their advocates, but it has a flavor of euphemism and should be used with caution outside quotation". Newsweek questions the use of the phrase'undocumented immigrants' as a method of euphemistic framing, namely, "a psychological technique that can influence the perception of social phenomena". Newsweek suggests that persons who enter a country unlawfully cannot be "undocumented" because they "just lack the certain specific documents for legal residency and employment. Many have driver's licences, debit cards, library cards, school identifications which are useful documents in specific contexts but not nearly so much for immigration." For example, in the U. S. youths brought into the country illegally are granted access to public K-12 education and benefits regardless of citizenship status, so the youths are documented for educational purposes, are not undocumented.
U. S. immigration laws do use the phrase illegal immigrant at least in some contexts. A related term, irregular migration, is sometimes used e.g. by the International Organization for Migration, but it describes a somewhat wider concept which includes illegal emigration. In the U. S. the term illegal alien is used in elsewhere. U. S. law uses the term "unauthorized alien", but U. S. law provides no overarching explicit definition of the term illegal alien. According to PolitiFact, the term "illegal alien" does so scarcely. PolitiFact notes that, "where the term does appear, it’s undefined or part of an introductory title or limited to apply to certain individuals convicted of felonies." Overstaying a visa is a civil violation handled by immigration court, while entering the US without approval from an immigration officer is a crime: a misdemeanor on the first offense. Illegal reentry after deportation is a federal offense; this is the distinction between the larger group referred to as unauthorized immigrants and the smaller subgroup referred to as criminal immigrants.
Research on the economic effects of illegal immigration is scant but existing studies suggest that the effects can be positive for the native population, for public coffers. A 2015 study shows that "increasing deportation rates and tightening border control weakens low-skilled labor markets, increasing unemployment of native low-skilled workers. Legalization, decreases the unemployment rate of low-skilled natives and increases income per native." Studies show that legalization of illegal immigrants would boost the U. S. economy. A 2018 National Bureau of Economic Research paper found that undocumented immigrants to the United States "generate higher surplus for US firms relative to natives, hence restricting their entry has a depressing effect on job creation and, in turn, on native labor markets". A paper by Spanish economists found that upon legalizing the undocumented immigrant population in Spain, the fiscal revenues increased by around €4,189 per newly legalized immigrant; the paper found that the wages of the newly legalized im
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Office of Alien Property Custodian
The Office of Alien Property Custodian was an office within the Government of the United States during World War I and again during World War II, serving as a Custodian of Enemy Property to property that belonged to US enemies. The office was created under the Trading with the Enemy Act 1917. Sec. 6 of TWEA authorizes the President to appoint an official known as the "alien property custodian", responsible for "receiv... hold and account for" "all money and property in the United States due or belonging to an enemy, or ally of enemy...." TWEA was enacted during World War I "to permit, under careful safeguards and restrictions, certain kinds of business to be carried on" among warring nations, to "provid for the care and administration of the property and property rights of enemies and their allies in this country pending the war." President Woodrow Wilson appointed A. Mitchell Palmer, a political ally and former Congressman, Alien Property Custodian in October 1917. Palmer held the position from October 22, 1917 until March 4, 1919.
A wartime agency, the Custodian had responsibility for the seizure and sometimes the sale of enemy property in the United States. Palmer was allowed to take control of property that might hinder the war effort, including all property belonging to interned immigrants, whether they had been charged with a crime or not. Palmer's background in law and banking qualified him for the position, along with his party loyalty and intimate knowledge of political patronage. Under Palmer's leadership, the Custodian employed hundreds of officials; the size of the assets the Custodian controlled only became clear over the next year. Late in 1918, Palmer reported he was managing 30,000 trusts with assets worth half a billion dollars, he estimated. Many of the enterprises in question produced materials significant to the war effort, such as medicines, glycerin for explosives, charcoal for gas masks. Others included mines and newspaper publishing. Palmer built a team of professionals with banking expertise as well as an investigative bureau to track down well-hidden assets.
Below the top-level positions, he distributed jobs as patronage. Always thinking like a politician, he made sure. For example, he appointed one of his fellow members of the Democratic National Committee to serve as counsel for a textile company and another the vice-president of a shipping line. In September 1918, Palmer testified at hearings held by the U. S. Senate's Overman Committee that the United States Brewers Association and the rest of the overwhelmingly German liquor industry harbored pro-German sentiments, he stated that "German brewers of America, in association with the United States Brewers' Association" had attempted "to buy a great newspaper" and "control the government of State and Nation", had been "unpatriotic", had "pro-German sympathies". Criticism of Palmer's performance focused less on his appointments or the fees earned by political cronies than on his sales of enemy assets, he campaigned to have his powers to dispose of assets by sale increased to counter Germany's long-term plan to conquer the world by industrial expansion after the war.
There were safeguards in place, but competitive bidding meant nothing when an auction was rigged by withholding information from all participants. More revelations took years to surface and the connections between Palmer and direct profits proved too tenuous to support indictments. After Germany's surrender, Palmer insisted on continuing his campaign to make American industry independent of German investment, with major sales in the metals industry in the spring of 1919, for example, he offered his rationale in a speech to an audience of lawyers: "The war power is of necessity an inherent power in every sovereign nation. It is the power of self-preservation and that power has no limits other than the extent of the emergency." Among other sales, the United States assets of the chemical company Bayer were auctioned off and it lost its U. S. patent for Aspirin. On 11 March 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9095 establishing the Office of the Alien Property Custodian as an independent agency under his direct authority.
He appointed Leo Crowley, a former banker and chair of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as APC. During the war the APC amassed a vast portfolio of enemy property including real estate, business enterprises and intellectual property in the form of trademarks, copyrights and pending patent applications. Following Nikola Tesla's death at the New Yorker Hotel in 1943, the Custodian seized much of Tesla's work from his hotel room though Tesla was an American citizen. In 1953, President Dwight Eisenhower appointed Dallas Townsend Sr. Assistant United States Attorney General, heading the Justice Department's Alien Property Office, an office he held until 1960. Townsend supervised the seizure of enemy property and assets, seized during World War II. Testifying before a U. S. Subcommittee in 1957, Townsend argued that a return of 10% of seized enemy property was a sufficient amount. "One of the most unfair aspects of the a general return of all German and Japanese property is that it would donate huge windfalls to large enemy corporations and their agents, many of whom were strong supporters of the militaristic and aggressive policies of the former Governments of Germany and Japan," he told Senators.
Townsend seized $329 million in proceeds of Interhandel, a Swiss holding company, saying that it was a front for the real owner, I. G. Farbenindustrie, the German chemical cartel. On
Robert P. Patterson
Robert Porter Patterson Sr. was United States Under Secretary of War under President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the United States Secretary of War under President Harry S. Truman, he was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Born on February 12, 1891, in Glen Falls, New York, the son of Lodice Edna and Charles Robert Patterson, Patterson received an Artium Baccalaureus degree in 1912 from Union College and a Bachelor of Laws in 1915 from Harvard Law School, he entered private practice in New York City from 1915 to 1916, with what today is the law firm of Patterson Belknap Webb & Tyler serving with that firm in subsequent periods of private practice. He served in the New York Army National Guard from 1916 to 1917, he served in the United States Army from 1917 to 1919. He received the Distinguished Service Silver Star for heroism in France.
Patterson served in the 306th Infantry Regiment, assigned to the 77th Infantry Division. He returned to private practice in New York City from 1919 to 1930. Patterson was nominated by President Herbert Hoover on April 24, 1930, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York vacated by Judge Thomas D. Thacher, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 13, 1930, received his commission the same day. His service terminated on March 1939, due to his elevation to the Second Circuit. Patterson was nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 9, 1939, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit vacated by Judge Martin Thomas Manton, he was confirmed by the Senate on March 20, 1939, received his commission on March 21, 1939. His service terminated on July 1940, due to his resignation. Patterson served as a United States Assistant Secretary of War in 1940, he served as United States Under Secretary of War from 1940 to 1945.
He was instrumental in the mobilization of the armed forces preparatory to and during World War II. President Harry S. Truman appointed Patterson as United States Secretary of War in 1945. Truman was set to offer Patterson a seat on the United States Supreme Court, left vacant by Justice Owen J. Roberts, with the resignation of Henry L. Stimson, Patterson instead became the Secretary of War. Patterson advocated having a single chief of staff. Steps to this effect were begun by the National Security Act of 1947 and revised several times by the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986. Patterson worked to promote more black participation and promotion with in the military during the late stages of World War II, he was instrumental in creating an African-American fighter group, known now as the Tuskeegee airmen. While sympathetic to black grievances and recommendations he was concerned that radical change would impede military preparedness during war. After the war the "Board for Utilization of Negro Manpower".
Released a report, "Utilization of Negro Manpower in the Postwar Army Policy", in April 1946., signed off by Patterson: it recommended the retention of segregation, as, a policy external to the military, but that the military introduce equal opportunity, as that would be the best use of military manpower. Patterson served until 1947. After declining an offer by President Truman to be reappointed to his former judgeship, Patterson returned to private practice in New York City from 1947 to 1952, Later he became the President of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, the President of the Council on Foreign Relations. On January 3, 1920, Patterson married Margaret Tarleton Winchester. Robert P. Patterson Jr. was a federal judge in the Southern District of New York, until his death in 2015. Patterson housed William L. Marbury Jr. at his Georgetown home. After the war, he recommended Marbury to succeed him at the United Nations. Patterson died on January 22, 1952, returning from meeting a client, onboard American Airlines Flight 6780 which crashed on the approach to Newark Liberty International Airport in Elizabeth, New Jersey.
In 2012, the University of Tennessee Press published The World War I Memoirs of Robert P. Patterson: A Captain in the Great War, edited by J. Garry Clifford. In 2014, the University of Tennessee Press published his unpublished 1947 memoir Arming the Nation for War, with a foreword by Robert M. Morgenthau, former Manhattan district attorney, edited by Brian Waddell, associate professor at the University of Connecticut; the World War I Memoirs of Robert P. Patterson: A Captain in the Great War Arming the Nation for War: Mobilization and the American War Effort in World War II Eiler, Keith. Mobilizing America: Robert P. Patterson and the War Effort, 1940-1945. Cornell University Press. Robert Porter Patterson Sr. at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center
Hatton W. Sumners
Hatton William Sumners was a Democratic Congressman from the Dallas, Texas area, serving from 1913 to 1947. He rose to become Chairman of the powerful House Judiciary Committee. Hatton Sumners, the second of three children of William A. and Anna Elizabeth Walker Sumners, was born near Fayetteville, Tennessee on May 30, 1875. He attended local schools. In 1893, he moved to Garland, near Dallas, at a time when the city was beginning to industrialize and was a booming business center. In 1895, as a 20-year-old newcomer to Dallas County, Sumners persuaded the Dallas City Attorney, Alfred P. Wozencraft, to let him "read law" in his office, a common alternative to law school. Sumners commenced practice in Dallas. Sumners was elected as prosecuting attorney of Dallas County in 1900, serving two non-consecutive terms; as prosecutor, he brought charges against gamblers in an attempt to clean up Dallas. As a result of his investigations and his campaign against drinking and vice, Sumners was not re-elected in 1902.
He continued his campaign against gambling and voting irregularities in Dallas influencing state legislation enacted to reform the system. After that, Sumners was elected Dallas County prosecutor again. Instead of continuing in that position for additional terms, he accepted the presidency of the district and county attorneys' association of Texas in 1906 and 1907, where he campaigned against betting interests. Sumners ran for and was elected in 1912 to an at-large seat as a Democrat to the Sixty-third Congress, taking office on March 4, 1913, he was the first of the 132 freshmen congressmen. In 1914, he ran for the seat from Texas's 5th congressional district, which included Dallas, Rockwall and Bosque counties, he was elected. Sumners was a lifetime defender of states' rights, he was quoted as saying, "There are but two sorts of government – a government by the people and a government the voice of which comes from the top downward. With us more and more, the voice of the government is spoken in Washington downward to the people.
What we need in America is a people conscious of their responsibility, conscious of their power, conscious they are the government and get on the job."In the 1920s, Sumners spoke out against the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, introduced by a Republican congressman from Saint Louis, Missouri. Sumners said that the bill's sponsors did not have adequate statistics to prove their case, that the bill would increase racial mob violence. Sumners questioned the constitutionality of the bill and posited the bill impinged on states' rights. Sumners held, he believed. In his zeal to protect states’ rights he stated the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill “would mark the greatest advance toward the obliteration of the states as independent governmental agencies which has yet been registered by any expression of legislative or public attitude." He marked the bill as a direct threat to local and state responsibility stating, “This bill strikes at the heart of state sovereignty and the sense of local responsibility. When you destroy these, what sort of protection have the people who live in a community,” and “it permits the Federal Government to lay coercive hands on states, establishes a precedent of sweeping encroachment on states’ rights."Speaking on the House floor while some African Americans watched from the balcony, Sumners attacked the bill using racial stereotypes: "Only a short time ago... their ancestors roamed the jungles of Africa in absolute savagery…ou do not know where the beast is among them.
Somewhere in that black mass of people is the man who would outrage your wife or your child, every man who lives in the country knows it."Sumners served on the powerful Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives and was appointed to investigate allegations of corruption among federal judges. He served on the impeachment committees for three federal judges: George W. English, Harold Louderback, Halsted L. Ritter. In 1924, Sumners became acquainted with Supreme Court Chief Justice William H. Taft and worked with him to pass a bill amending the judicial code known as the "Judges Bill." Sumners appeared before the Supreme Court several times on behalf of Congress, including for the Pocket Veto Case of 1928, the McCracken Contempt Case of 1934, the Municipal Bankruptcy Act Case of 1936. Sumners became Chairman of the Judiciary Committee in 1932. In 1934, he drafted a constitution for the Philippines, developing a reputation as an authority on constitutional law. Sumners was responsible for bringing the Federal Reserve Bank to Dallas.
As a loyal Democrat, he supported much of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal legislation. He drew the line at Roosevelt's plan to expand the US Supreme Court, after the Court began to rule that key parts of the New Deal were unconstitutional. Roosevelt announced his so-called court-packing plan in 1936; as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, Sumners discreetly worked in opposition. When the plan's bill was in trouble, Sumners said, "Boys, here's where I cash in my chips," referring to his waning support for the President. Chairman Sumners came out formally against the Court-packing plan, he and two other Texans, Vice President John Nance Garner and Senator Thomas T. Connally, led the fight against the court plan because they saw the president’s request as a symbolic desire for unlimited power. Sumners, as chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, decided that the reor
United States Code
The Code of Laws of the United States of America is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States. It contains 53 titles; the main edition is published every six years by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives, cumulative supplements are published annually. The official version of those laws not codified in the United States Code can be found in United States Statutes at Large; the official text of an Act of Congress is that of the "enrolled bill" presented to the President for his signature or disapproval. Upon enactment of a law, the original bill is delivered to the Office of the Federal Register within the National Archives and Records Administration. After authorization from the OFR, copies are distributed as "slip laws" by the Government Printing Office; the Archivist assembles annual volumes of the enacted laws and publishes them as the United States Statutes at Large. By law, the text of the Statutes at Large is "legal evidence" of the laws enacted by Congress.
Slip laws are competent evidence. The Statutes at Large, however, is not a convenient tool for legal research, it is arranged in chronological order so that statutes addressing related topics may be scattered across many volumes. Statutes repeal or amend earlier laws, extensive cross-referencing is required to determine what laws are in force at any given time; the United States Code is the result of an effort to make finding relevant and effective statutes simpler by reorganizing them by subject matter, eliminating expired and amended sections. The Code is maintained by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U. S. House of Representatives; the LRC determines which statutes in the United States Statutes at Large should be codified, which existing statutes are affected by amendments or repeals, or have expired by their own terms. The LRC updates the Code accordingly; because of this codification approach, a single named statute may or may not appear in a single place in the Code. Complex legislation bundles a series of provisions together as a means of addressing a social or governmental problem.
For example, an Act providing relief for family farms might affect items in Title 7, Title 26, Title 43. When the Act is codified, its various provisions might well be placed in different parts of those various Titles. Traces of this process are found in the Notes accompanying the "lead section" associated with the popular name, in cross-reference tables that identify Code sections corresponding to particular Acts of Congress; the individual sections of a statute are incorporated into the Code as enacted. Though authorized by statute, these changes do not constitute positive law; the authority for the material in the United States Code comes from its enactment through the legislative process and not from its presentation in the Code. For example, the United States Code omitted 12 U. S. C. § 92 for decades because it was thought to have been repealed. In its 1993 ruling in U. S. National Bank of Oregon v. Independent Insurance Agents of America, the Supreme Court ruled that § 92 was still valid law.
By law, those titles of the United States Code that have not been enacted into positive law are "prima facie evidence" of the law in effect. The United States Statutes at Large remains the ultimate authority. If a dispute arises as to the accuracy or completeness of the codification of an unenacted title, the courts will turn to the language in the United States Statutes at Large. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. In contrast, if Congress enacts a particular title of the Code into positive law, the enactment repeals all of the previous Acts of Congress from which that title of the Code derives; this process makes that title of the United States Code "legal evidence" of the law in force. Where a title has been enacted into positive law, a court may neither permit nor require proof of the underlying original Acts of Congress.
The distinction between enacted and unenacted titles is academic because the Code is nearly always accurate. The United States Code is cited by the Supreme Court and other federal courts without mentioning this theoretical caveat. On a day-to-day basis few lawyers cross-reference the Code to the Statutes at Large. Attempting to capitalize on the possibility that the text of the United States Code can differ from the United States Statutes at Large, Bancroft-Whitney for many years published a series of volumes known as United States Code Service, which used the actual text of the United States Statutes at Large. Only "general and permanent" laws are codified in the United States Code. If these limited provisions are significant, they may be printed as "notes" underneath related sectio