SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan, code named Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Freedom's Sentinel, followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of 7 October 2001, when the United States of America and its allies drove the Taliban from power in order to deny al-Qaeda a safe base of operations in Afghanistan. Since the initial objectives were completed, a coalition of over 40 countries formed a security mission in the country; the war has since involved US and allied Afghan government troops battling Taliban insurgents. The war in Afghanistan is the longest war in US history. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001 on the US, which President George W. Bush blamed on Osama bin Laden, living or hiding in Afghanistan and had been wanted since 1998, President Bush demanded that the Taliban, who were de facto ruling the country, hand over bin Laden; the Taliban declined to extradite him unless they were provided clear evidence of his involvement in the attacks, which the US refused to provide and dismissed as a delaying tactic and on 7 October 2001 launched Operation Enduring Freedom with the United Kingdom.

To justify the War, the Bush administration claimed that Afghanistan only had "selective sovereignty", that intervention was necessary because the Taliban threatened the sovereignty of other states. The two were joined by other forces, including the Northern Alliance – the Afghan opposition, fighting the Taliban in the ongoing civil war since 1996. By December 2001, the Taliban and their al-Qaeda allies were defeated in the country, at the Bonn Conference new Afghan interim authorities elected Hamid Karzai to head the Afghan Interim Administration; the United Nations Security Council established the International Security Assistance Force to assist the new authority with securing Kabul, which after a 2002 loya jirga became the Afghan Transitional Administration. A nationwide rebuilding effort was made following the end of the totalitarian Taliban regime. In the popular elections of 2004, Karzai was elected president of the country, now named the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. NATO became involved in ISAF in August 2003, that year assumed leadership of it.

At this stage, ISAF included troops from 43 countries with NATO members providing the majority of the force. One portion of US forces in Afghanistan operated under NATO command. Following defeat in the initial invasion, the Taliban was reorganized by its leader Mullah Omar, launched an insurgency against the Afghan government and ISAF in 2003. Though outgunned and outnumbered, insurgents from the Taliban —and to a lesser extent Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin and other groups—waged asymmetric warfare with guerrilla raids and ambushes in the countryside, suicide attacks against urban targets, turncoat killings against coalition forces; the Taliban exploited weaknesses in the Afghan government to reassert influence across rural areas of southern and eastern Afghanistan. From 2006 the Taliban made significant gains and showed an increased willingness to commit atrocities against civilians – ISAF responded by increasing troops for counter-insurgency operations to "clear and hold" villages. Violence escalated from 2007 to 2009.

Troop numbers began to surge in 2009 and continued to increase through 2011 when 140,000 foreign troops operated under ISAF and US command in Afghanistan. Of these 100,000 were from the US On 1 May 2011, United States Navy SEALs killed Osama bin Laden in Abbotabad, Pakistan. NATO leaders in 2012 commended an exit strategy for withdrawing their forces, the United States announced that its major combat operations would end in December 2014, leaving a residual force in the country. In October 2014, British forces handed over the last bases in Helmand to the Afghan military ending their combat operations in the war. On 28 December 2014, NATO formally ended ISAF combat operations in Afghanistan and transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government; the NATO-led Operation Resolute Support was formed the same day as a successor to ISAF. At the beginning of Donald Trump's presidency in early 2017, there were fewer than 9,000 American troops in Afghanistan. By early summer 2017, troop levels increased by about 50%.

In August 2019, the Taliban planned to negotiate with the US to reduce troop levels back to where they had been when Trump took office, but Trump canceled the negotiations after a Taliban attack. The Taliban remains by far the largest single group fighting against the Afghan government and foreign troops. On 29 February 2020, the United States and the Taliban signed a conditional peace deal in Doha, which requires that U. S. troops to withdraw from Afghanistan within 14 months so long as the Taliban cooperates with the terms of the agreement. Over a hundred thousand people have been killed in the war. Over 4,000 ISAF soldiers and civilian contractors, over 62,000 Afghan national security forces were killed, as well as over 31,000 civilians and more Taliban. Afghanistan's political order began to break down with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah by his distant cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan in a bloodless 1973 Afghan coup d'état. Daoud Khan had served as prime minister since 1953 and promoted economic modernization, emancipation of women, Pashtun nationalism.

This was threatening to neighboring Pakistan, faced with its own restive Pashtun population. In the mid-1970s, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto began to encourage Afghan Islamist leaders such as Burhanuddin Rabbani and Gulbuddin Hekmatyar to fight against the regime

Machon L'Madrichei Chutz La'Aretz

Machon Le Madrichim known as Machon L'Madrichei Chutz La'Aretz, is a gathering of young people in Jerusalem from different Zionist youth movements which educate and strengthen youth leadership, focused on Israel and Zionism. Machon is a tool to implement a common vision through Zionist youth movements. Machon integrates the methods of informal outreach, appropriate to the world of youth movements, with a focus on formal and content-driven activities to develop a sense of commitment to themselves, their communities and the Jewish people. All this in order to foster graduates of the programs to become agents of change in their home communities and encourage them to contribute in different ways to transform Israel as a state and strengthen its Jewish and democratic identity; the Machon Le Madrichim holds four core believes: Guided by content: A belief that to become an effective Jewish leader, for education and culture per se, members must possess a basic understanding of core content areas of Jewish life and the place of Israel within the Jewish people.

The contents of the MLM program is organized around five areas: Zionism, Jewish history, Judaism and Hebrew. The objective is not limited only to the acquisition of knowledge, but based on the same development of self-understanding and values which in turn lead to actions. Leadership and action: MLM believes in the importance of the development of Jewish leadership and activists around the world, both in the short term, as hadracha providers and activities in their own movements, answering the needs of key partners in the youth movements, in the long term, the development of effective leadership for the Jewish people in Israel and the Jewish diaspora. MLM graduates return to their communities and become active in leadership positions, while working with a wide variety of organizations and youth movements. Stressing the importance of training agents of social change and that these leaders should be treated with mutual respect. Open and pluralistic environment: MLM believes that the essential component in developing Jewish guides and educators is an open educational vision, able to challenge existing beliefs and opinions and encourage openness to new ideas and different beliefs, whether it's in the political, religious or educational arenas.

MLM aims at creating an environment where members can connect with Jews who come from diverse backgrounds and beliefs and learn from each other in an atmosphere of tolerance and acceptance. At the center of this vision is the attempt to create a diverse educational community, creating a space to provide for each individual's personal development process, from which they can choose their own path. Development of core commitments: MLM believes in the importance of community as the principle of kol Israel arevim ze laze, its graduates have an active commitment and involvement with the Jewish people with Israel at its center; the graduates examine and strengthen their Jewish identity, their connection with the various dimensions of Israel and within that to develop a love of Israel and learning what the meaning of Zionism is for them, including the belief in the importance of building relationships and true cooperation between Israelis and Jews outside of Israel. The Machon opened in 1946, at the initiative of World Zionist Organization before the creation of the state of Israel.

At that time the main mission was for Machon to be a training program for youth movement graduates outside of Israel, to help them meet the central challenge of Zionism, to encourage allies and settlement in Israel as the main objectives of the movements. The first group of students, 30 Jewish high school graduates from South Africa, were housed at an agricultural school near Ness Ziona. In 1949, the Machon moved to a building in the Katamon neighborhood of Jerusalem. Since 1972, it has been located in East Talpiot. During its history, 17,000 young people from around the world have been trained to occupy influential positions among the Jewish people; the contribution of the Machon graduates can be found in the leadership of Jewish communities in Jewish-Zionist education, as well as in public life in Israel. A third of Machon graduates made Aliyah and were integrated into different areas of life in Israel, have had a significant influence on the existence of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state.

Participants have traveled from most countries of South and Central America and New Zealand, United States and Canada, South Africa, North Africa, Great Britain and many others countries from the 1950s, more from the Commonwealth of Independent States. At this time, Machon is composed of four departments; each of the departments works with different audiences and to its values and principles, specifically: English speakers Latin American languages speakers Russian speakers Machon Ma'ayan There was for some time a program for French speakers. Works with the majority of youth movements in the English-speaking world, it operates two cycles per year – The cycle north to the students from England and the United States, conducted between September and December. In total 120 English speakers complete the program each year. Since 2006, there has been a small group of Israeli students that join the British program, coming from the area of the Galilee. Works with ten youth gro

Dinesh Mohaniya

Dinesh Mohaniya is an Indian politician belonging to Aam Aadmi Party. He is an MLA from Sangam Vihar constituency, he defeated the BJP candidate Shiv Charan Lal Gupta and Congress candidate Jag Parvesh in the 2013 Delhi Legislative Assembly election. In 2014, Mohaniya alleged that the BJP leader Sher Singh Dagar offered him ₹ 40,000,000 to help BJP form the state government in Dehli. AAP released sting footage of the conversation between the two. In 2015 Mohaniya again contested from Sangam Vihar and won by 44000, he again contested in 2015 and won by 44000 by defeating again Dr SCL Gupta, In feb. 2020 He again defeated Dr SCL Gupta, contesting against him on JDU ticket by 42522 votes. He again won Delhi Assembly Election 2020 from Sangam Vihar, with a margin of 42522 votes by defeating Shiv Charan Lal Gupta. Dinesh Mohaniya was born in New Delhi on 31 December 1977, he went to M. B. DAV for schooling and further went for B. A. in Political Sciences from Deshbandhu College, University of Delhi and B.

B. A from Amity University, he is pursuing M. B. A from Amity University through distant learning programme. Dinesh Mohaniya's father Shri Bhagat Singh Mohaniya is a retired private sector employee and his mother is a homemaker, he is married to Smt. Rani Mohaniya and they have a daughter. Dinesh Mohaniya started his career in print and publishing after completion of college in 1999. Further, in 2010 he joined Parivartan, a grass-roots activist organisation based in the Sundar Nagari area of New Delhi, which campaigned for Right to Information Act, 2005. Dinesh Mohaniya was a founder member of the Aam Aadmi Party since the formation of the party in 2012. In 2013, he contested in Legislative Assembly election from Sangam Vihar constituency and was elected as the MLA, he won from Sangam Vihar again in 2015 elections. Sangam Vihar has always been neglected by all political parties, it is. Dinesh Mohaniya on Twitter Delhi Assembly MLA Profile Aap Aadmi Party