Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose, under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa. The greatest diversity of wild species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds, the fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, China is the worlds largest producer of cotton, but most of this is used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years, in the United States, cotton is usually measured in bales, which measure approximately 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms.
Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India, for example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC. Cotton fabrics discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico have been dated to around 5800 BC, the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico is dated between 3400 and 2300 BC. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and this may be a reference to tree cotton, Gossypium arboreum, which is a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, Cotton has been spun, woven and it clothed the people of ancient India and China.
Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, in Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran, in Persian poets poems, especially Ferdowsis Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited the Safavid Persia, during the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt, and dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops
John VI of Portugal
John VI, nicknamed the Clement, was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1816 to 1822. Although the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist de facto beginning in 1822, after the recognition of Brazilian independence under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro of 1825, he continued as King of Portugal and the Algarves until his death in 1826. Under the same treaty, he became titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son. Born in Lisbon in 1767, the son of Maria I and Peter III of Portugal and he only became heir to the throne when his older brother José, Prince of Brazil, died of smallpox in 1788 at the age of 27. Before his accession to the Portuguese throne, John VI bore the titles Duke of Braganza and Duke of Beja, from 1799, he served as prince regent of Portugal, due to the mental illness of his mother, Queen Maria I. In 1816, he succeeded his mother as monarch of the Portuguese Empire, with no change in his authority. One of the last representatives of absolute monarchy in Europe, he lived during a turbulent period, throughout his period of rule, major powers, such as Spain and Great Britain, continually intervened in Portuguese affairs.
His marriage was no less conflictual, as his wife, Carlota Joaquina of Spain and he lost Brazil when his son Pedro declared independence, and his other son Miguel led a rebellion that sought to depose him. According to recent scholarly research, his death may well have been caused by arsenic poisoning, João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael was born 13 May 1767, during the reign of his grandfather, Joseph I of Portugal. He was the son of the future Queen Maria I, Josephs daughter, and her husband. At the time of Johns birth they were, Princess of Brazil and he was ten years old when his grandfather died and his mother ascended to the throne. His childhood and youth were lived quietly, as he was a mere infante in the shadow of his elder brother José, Prince of Brazil and 14th Duke of Braganza, the heir-apparent to the throne. Folklore has John as a rather uncultured youth, but according to Jorge Pedreira e Costa, still, a French ambassador of the time painted him in unfavorable colors, seeing him as hesitant and dim.
The record of this period of his life is too vague for historians to form any definitive picture, little is known of the substance of his education. He surely received instruction in religion, law and etiquette, and would presumably have learned history through reading the works of Duarte Nunes de Leão and João de Barros. In 1785, Henrique de Meneses, 3rd Marquis of Louriçal, arranged a marriage between John and the Infanta Carlota Joaquina of Spain, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain, like her betrothed, Carlota was a junior member of a royal family. Fearing a new Iberian Union, some in the Portuguese court viewed the marriage to a Spanish infanta unfavorably and she endured four days of testing by the Portuguese ambassadors before the marriage pact was confirmed. Because John and Carlota were related, and because of the brides youth, after being confirmed, the marriage capitulation was signed in the throne room of the Spanish court with great pomp and with the participation of both kingdoms
The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several conflicts, mostly in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the Allied side at World War I, most of its commanders were mercenaries and Portuguese officers loyal to Dom Pedro. During the 1850s and early 1860s, the Army along with Navy, entered in action against Argentinian and Uruguayan forces, the Brazilian success with such Gun Diplomacy, eventually lead to a shock of interests with another country with similar aspirations, the Paraguay in December,1864. On May 1,1865, Brazil and Argentina signed the Triple Alliance to defend themselves against aggression from Paraguay, which was ruled by the dictator Francisco López. López troops, after invading Brazilian territory through the state of Mato Grosso, many slaves had been incorporated into the Brazilian forces to face the increasingly serious situation. As a result of their performance during the conflict, the Armed Forces developed a strong sense against slavery.
After five years of a terrible warfare, the Alliance led by Brazil defeated Lopez, in November 1889, after a long attrition with the monarchical regime deepened by the abolition of slavery, the army imposes the republic through a coup détat. During World War I the Brazilian government sent three small groups to Europe soon after declaring war upon Central Powers in October 1917. The first two units were from the army, one consisted of staff and the other of a sergeants-officers corps. In this period, the Army defeated the Constitutionalist Revolt in 1932, the Army helped to formalize the dictatorship in 1937. In August 1942, after German and Italian submarines sunk Brazilian merchant ships, popular mobilization forced the Brazilian government to war on Fascist Italy. In July 1944, after almost two years of pressure and negotiations with US authorities, an expeditionary force was sent to join the Allied forces in the Italian campaign. With the defeat of right wing totalitarian regimes in World War II, Vargas is removed by the head of the army, General Dutra, who in 1946 won the Election dispute against Air Marshall, Eduardo Gomes.
After the Vargas suicide, due to a crisis, army sectors led by Marshal Lott, ensured the inauguration of Juscelino Kubitscheks Term. This coup was the first of a series of coups détat in South America that replaced democratically elected governments with military regimes and these dictatorships dominated South America until the 1980s. Internationally, in 1965 the Brazilian Army joined forces with US Marines intervening in the Dominican Republic, in the mid 1970s, despite the dissent annulled, the leftist guerrillas defeated and the legal opposition tamed, repression was not reduced. In the destructive earthquake that occurred in Haiti on January 12,2010, the Brazilian Army has now about 1.250 troops in Haiti and will send 900 more until March 2010, to help the reconstruction of that country
The Americas, collectively called America, encompass the totality of the continents of North America and South America. Together they make up most of the land in Earths western hemisphere, along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earths total surface area and 28. 4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, Mississippi. Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago, a second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Ericson, the colonization never became permanent and was abandoned.
The voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European powers, diseases introduced from Europe and Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including numbers of indentured servants. Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in 1776, the population is over 1 billion, with over 65% of them living in one of the three most populous countries. As of the beginning of the 2010s, the most populous urban agglomerations are Mexico City, New York, Sao Paulo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro, all of them megacities. The name America was first recorded in 1507 in the Cosmographiae Introductio, apparently written by Matthias Ringmann and it first applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. Amerigen means land of Amerigo and derives from Amerigo and gen, America accorded with the feminine names of Asia and Europa. When conceived as a continent, the form is generally the continent of America in the singular.
However, without a context, singular America in English commonly refers to the United States of America. In some countries of the world, America is considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents, the first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the glacial maximum
John Pascoe Grenfell
John Pascoe Grenfell was a British-Brazilian officer and diplomat of the Empire of Brazil. He spent most of his service in South America campaigns, most notably under the leadership of Lord Cochrane and he was the nephew of British politician Pascoe Grenfell and grandfather to General Sir John Grenfell Maxwell. He was a grand cross of the Imperial Order of the Rose. John Pascoe Grenfell was born on 20 September 1800 to John Maugham Grenfell, in 1811 he entered the service of the British East India Company, and in 1819 he joined the Chilean republic under Lord Cochrane. He took part in most of the conflicts undertaken by Lord Cochrane during the War of Chilean Independence, on 5 November 1820 Grenfell was injured in the cutting of the Esmeralda the last major Spanish warship in the South Pacific. In 1823 now holding the rank of commander he followed Lord Cochrane to Brazil, on 29 July 1826, under the command of Commodore Norton, he lost his arm in the Cisplatine War. He returned to England to recuperate, in 1828 Grenfell returned to Brazil, and during 1835–36 he commanded a squadron of ships on the lakes of Rio Grande do Sul against rebel flotillas.
He was successful in defeating his opponents which forced the surrender of the rebel army, in 1841 he was promoted to rear-admiral and in 1846 was consul general in England and he returned to Britain to live in Liverpool. In 1848 when supervising the Brazilian warship Dom Afonso he was involved in the rescuing of passengers from the Ocean Monarch off the coast of England, in 1851 war broke out between Brazil and Argentina and he was posted to Brazil to take control of their Navy. In December of that year he successfully forced the passage of the Paraná River, after the conflict ended he was promoted to vice-admiral and finally admiral. He again returned to Liverpool to resume his role as consul-general and they had eight children, John Granville, Maria Dolores, Maria Emma, Flora, Harry Tremenheere and Thomas Cochrane. Grand Cross of Brazilian Order of the Rose, officer of the Brazilian Order of the Southern Cross. Medal for the Battle of The Tonelero Pass, * A War Betwixt Englishmen, Brazil Against Argentina on the River Plate 1825-1830.
Media related to John Pascoe Grenfell at Wikimedia Commons
War of Independence of Brazil
It lasted from February 1822, when the first skirmishes took place, to March 1824, when the last Portuguese garrison of Montevideo surrendered to Commander Sinian Kersey. The war was fought on land and sea and involved both regular forces and civilian militia, there is a shortage of reliable casualty data. Casualty estimates are based on reports of battles and historical data. The population of Colonial Brazil at the turn of the 19th century was 3.4 million, 60% of them were free men, mostly of Portuguese descent. At that time slaves were not counted as free people and it is difficult to say how many Reinóis lived in Brazil in 1822, since all inhabitants were subjects of Portugal. The majority of the population lived near the Atlantic ocean, mainly in the provinces of Pernambuco and these three regions dominated economic and political life of the colony. The Pernambuco region thrived by producing sugar, a crop of value at the time. The southern Bahia region produced sugar, cotton and molasses and it was the most densely populated and richest region.
Further south was Rio de Janeiro, which controlled the gold, the Portuguese army in Brazil consisted of professional troops and militiamen. All officers were appointed by the Court of Lisbon, in 1817, a Republican revolt broke out in Pernambuco. As a result,2,000 soldiers of Auxiliary Division were sent to Brazil, with the arrival of the troops, native officers in Brazil were not given many responsibilities. At the start of the war there were about 10,000 Portuguese soldiers, about 3,000 soldiers were besieged in Montevideo. A similar number of soldiers occupied Salvador and the rest of the troops were scattered throughout the Brazil, during the late 1821 and early 1822 the inhabitants of Brazil took sides in the political upheavals that took place in Rio de Janeiro and Lisbon. Fights between Portuguese soldiers and local militias broke out in the streets of the cities in 1822 and quickly spread inland. There was a split in the Luso-Brazilian Army which was garrisoned in the Cisplatina province, Portuguese regiments retreated to Montevideo and were surrounded by Brazilians, led by Baron de Laguna.
Remote and sparsely populated provinces of Pará and Maranhão declared loyalty to Portugal. Pernambuco was in favor of independence, but in Bahia there was no consensus among the population, supporters of Brazilian Independence created and enlarged the Brazilian Army and the Brazilian Navy by forced enlistment of citizens, foreign immigrants and mercenaries. They enlisted Brazilian slaves into militias and freed slaves in order to enlist them in the army, by 1823, the Brazilian Army had grown, replacing its early losses in terms of both personnel and supplies
Pedro I of Brazil
Dom Pedro I, nicknamed the Liberator, was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned briefly over Portugal, born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, and thus a member of the House of Braganza. When their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugals largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil. The outbreak of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Lisbon compelled Pedro Is father to return to Portugal in April 1821 and he had to deal with threats from revolutionaries and insubordination by Portuguese troops, all of which he subdued. The Portuguese governments threat to revoke the autonomy that Brazil had enjoyed since 1808 was met with widespread discontent in Brazil. Pedro I chose the Brazilian side and declared Brazils independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822, on 12 October, he was acclaimed Brazilian emperor and by March 1824 had defeated all armies loyal to Portugal.
A few months later, Pedro I crushed the short-lived Confederation of the Equator, in March 1826, Pedro I briefly became king of Portugal before abdicating in favor of his eldest daughter, Dona Maria II. The situation worsened in 1828 when the war in the south resulted in Brazils loss of Cisplatina, during the same year in Lisbon, Maria IIs throne was usurped by Prince Dom Miguel, Pedro Is younger brother. The Emperors concurrent and scandalous affair with a female courtier tarnished his reputation. Other difficulties arose in the Brazilian parliament, where a struggle over whether the government would be chosen by the monarch or by the legislature dominated political debates from 1826 to 1831. Unable to deal with problems in both Brazil and Portugal simultaneously, on 7 April 1831 Pedro I abdicated in favor of his son Dom Pedro II, Pedro I invaded Portugal at the head of an army in July 1832. Pedro I died of tuberculosis on 24 September 1834, just a few months after he, Pedro was born at 08,00 on 12 October 1798 in the Queluz Royal Palace near Lisbon, Portugal.
He was named after St. Peter of Alcantara, and his name was Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim. He was referred to using the honorific Dom from birth and his mother, Doña Carlota Joaquina, was the daughter of King Don Carlos IV of Spain. Pedros parents had an unhappy marriage, Carlota Joaquina was an ambitious woman, who always sought to advance Spains interests, even to the detriment of Portugals. Reputedly unfaithful to her husband, she went as far as to plot his overthrow in league with dissatisfied Portuguese nobles, as the second eldest son, Pedro became his fathers heir apparent and Prince of Beira upon the death of his elder brother Francisco António in 1801. Prince Dom João had been acting as regent on behalf of his mother, Queen Maria I, by 1802, Pedros parents were estranged, João lived in the Mafra National Palace and Carlota Joaquina in Ramalhão Palace. Pedro and his siblings resided in the Queluz Palace with their grandmother Maria I, far from their parents, in late November 1807, when Pedro was nine, the royal family escaped from Portugal as an invading French army sent by Napoleon approached Lisbon
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazils third-most populous state. Part of the city has designated as a World Heritage Site, named Rio de Janeiro. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822 and this is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, the home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.
The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the city is divided into 33 administrative regions. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabrals fleet, allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Botocudo, in 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Consequently, Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony, Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay. Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc, on 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
The kingdoms capital was transferred to the city, thus, as there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes. The first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, from the colonial period until the first independent decades, Rio de Janeiro was a city of slaves. There was an influx of African slaves to Rio de Janeiro, in 1819. In 1840, the number of slaves reached 220,000 people, the Port of Rio de Janeiro was the largest port of slaves in America. As a political center of the country, Rio concentrated the political-partisan life of the Empire and it was the main stage of the abolitionist and republican movements in the last half of the 19th century. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic, until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre, on the mouth of Guanabara Bay.
Expansion of the city to the north and south was facilitated by the consolidation and electrification of Rios streetcar transit system after 1905, though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasília built, at great cost, by 1960