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War of Jenkins' Ear

The War of Jenkins' Ear was a conflict between Britain and Spain lasting from 1739 to 1748 in New Granada and among the West Indies of the Caribbean Sea, with major operations ended by 1742. Its name, coined by British historian Thomas Carlyle in 1858, refers to Robert Jenkins, a captain of a British merchant ship, having suffered having his ear severed when Spanish sailors boarded his ship at a time of peace. There is no evidence that supports the stories that the severed ear was exhibited before the British Parliament; the seeds of conflict began with the injury to Jenkins following the boarding of his vessel by Spanish coast guards in 1731, eight years before the war began. Popular response to the incident was tepid until several years when opposition politicians and the British South Sea Company played it up, hoping to spur outrage against Spain, believing that a victorious war would improve Britain's trading opportunities in the Caribbean. In addition, the British wanted to keep pressure on Spain to honour their lucrative asiento contract, which gave British slave traders permission to sell slaves in Spanish America.

The Spanish refer to this asiento in their name for this war. British attacks on Spanish possessions in Central America resulted in high casualties from disease. After 1742, the war was subsumed by the wider War of the Austrian Succession, which involved most of the powers of Europe. Peace arrived with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748; the cause of the war is traditionally seen as a dispute between Britain and Spain over access to markets in Spanish America. Historians such as Anderson and Woodfine argue it was one of several issues, including tensions with France and British expansion in North America, they suggest the decisive factor in turning a commercial dispute into war was the domestic political campaign to remove Robert Walpole, long-serving British Prime Minister. The 18th century economic theory of mercantilism viewed trade as a finite resource; the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht gave British merchants access to markets in Spanish America, including the Asiento de Negros, a monopoly to supply 5,000 slaves a year.

Another was the Navio de Permiso, permitting two ships a year to sell 500 tons of goods each in Porto Bello and Veracruz. These rights were assigned to the South Sea Company, acquired by the British government in 1720. However, trade between Britain and mainland Spain was far more significant. British goods were imported through Cadiz, either for sale locally or re-exported to Spanish colonies, with Spanish dye and wool being sold to England. A leading City of London merchant called the trade ‘the best flower in our garden.’ The asiento itself was marginally profitable and has been described as a'commercial illusion'. Previous holders made money by carrying smuggled goods that evaded customs duties, demand from Spanish colonists creating a large and profitable black market. Accepting the trade was too widespread to be stopped, the Spanish authorities used it as an instrument of policy. During the 1727 to 1729 Anglo-Spanish War, French ships carrying contraband were let through, while British ships were stopped and severe restrictions imposed on British merchants in Cadiz.

This was reversed during the 1733 to 1735 War of the Polish Succession, when Britain supported Spanish acquisitions in Italy. The 1729 Treaty of Seville allowed the Spanish to board British vessels trading with the Americas. In 1731, Robert Jenkins claimed his ear was amputated by coast guard officers after they discovered contraband aboard his ship Rebecca; such incidents were seen as the cost of doing business and were forgotten after the easing of restrictions in 1732. Although an earless Jenkins was exhibited in the House of Commons, war declared in 1739, the legend that his severed ear was shown to the House of Commons has no basis in fact. Tensions increased after the founding of the British colony of Georgia in 1732, which Spain considered a threat to Spanish Florida, vital to protect shipping routes with mainland Spain. For their part, the British viewed the 1733 Pacte de Famille between Louis XV and his uncle Philip V as the first step in being replaced by France as Spain's largest trading partner.

A second round of "depredations" in 1738 led to demands for compensation, British newsletters and pamphlets presenting them as inspired by France. Linking these allowed the Tory opposition to imply failure to act was due to George II's concerns over exposing Hanover to French attack. Resistance to European'entanglements' was an ongoing theme in English politics, going back to the 17th century; the January 1739 Convention of Pardo set up a Commission to resolve the Georgia-Florida boundary dispute and agreed Spain would pay damages of £95,000 for ships seized. In return, the South Sea Company would pay £68,000 to Philip V as his share of profits on the asiento. Despite being controlled by the government, the company refused and Walpole reluctantly accepted his political opponents wanted war. On 10 July 1739, the Admiralty was authorised to begin naval operations against Spain and on 20th, a force under Admiral Vernon sailed for the West Indies, he reached Antigua in early October. The incident that gave its name to the war had occurred in 1731, off the coast of Florida, when the British brig Rebecca was boarded by the Spanish patrol boat La Isabela, commanded by the guarda costa Juan de León Fandiño.

After boarding, Fandiño cut off the left ear of the

List of battles of the Polish–Soviet War

List of battles of the Polish-Soviet War by chronology: Soviet "Target Vistula" offensive Battle of Bereza Kartuska Vilna offensive: Polish offensive to Vilna First Battle of Lida Battle of Berezina Operation Minsk: Polish offensive to Minsk Battles of Chorupań and Dubno Battle of Daugavpils: joint Polish-Latvian operation Battle of Latyczów Battle of Koziatyn Battle of Czarnobyl Battle of the Berezina Kiev Offensive Battle of Wołodarka Battle of Bystryk Battle of Boryspil Battle of Borodzianka Battle of Głębokie Battle of Mironówka Battle of Olszanica Battle of Żywotów Battle of Miedwiedówka Battle of Dziunków Battle of Wasylkowce Battle of Grodno Battle of Brody Battle of Serock Battle of Ostrołęka Battle of Lwów Battle of Tarnopol Battle of Warsaw Battle of Nasielsk, Battle of Radzymin, Battle of Ossów, Battle of Borkowo, Battle of Kock Battle of Cyców Battle of Dęblin and Mińsk Mazowiecki Battle of Zadwórze: the "Polish Thermopylæ" Battle of Przasnysz Battle of Sarnowa Góra Battle of Białystok Battle of Zamość - Budyonny's attempt to take Zamość Battle of Komarów: great cavalry battle, ending in Budyonny's defeat Battle of Hrubieszów Battle of Sejny Battle of Kobryń Battle of Dytiatyn Battle of Brzostowica Battle of the Niemen River Battles of Obuchowe and Krwawy Bór Battle of Zboiska Battle of Minsk

Norman Mawle

Group Captain Norman William Reginald Mawle was a British World War I flying ace. He was credited with 12 official aerial victories during the First World War. During World War II, he returned to his country's service, not retiring until 1954. Norman William Reginald Mawle was born in Banbury on 27 February 1897. Cadet Norman Mawle of the Inns of Court Officers' Training Corps was commissioned as a second lieutenant on 5 September 1916, he was seconded as a flying officer to the Royal Flying Corps on 27 December 1917. He was attached to No. 5 Squadron RFC for five weeks. Mawle was promoted to lieutenant on 5 March 1918. On 22 May 1918, Mawle was assigned to No. 84 Squadron RAF as a Royal Aircraft Factory SE.5 pilot. His original assigned aircraft was substandard, he would not have success until it was wrecked by another pilot, replaced. Using SE.5 serial number D6917, he destroyed a German observation balloon at Proyart for his first victory, on 17 July 1918. Three days he busted another balloon and destroyed a Fokker D.

VII. A broken connecting rod in the engine moved Mawle out of his customary plane into SE.5 serial number C1868. VII over Warfusée. Once back in his familiar machine, he helped destroy an LVG reconnaissance plane on 29 July 1918 for his fifth win; the following day, he drove one Fokker D. VII spinning down out of control. Two other Fokker D. VIIs in the fight went down. On 4 August, he destroyed another balloon. Three days Mawle destroyed a Fokker D. VII and drove another down out of control; the following day, he burned a German balloon for final victory. While strafing two horse-drawn German balloons, Mawle was wounded in the stomach and arm by ground fire, he was removed from combat duty. On 2 November 1918, Mawle received the Distinguished Flying Cross for his exploits, his citation read: Lieutenant Norman William Reginald Mawle "A courageous and skillful leader, who has destroyed nine enemy machines and four kite balloons. While leading his patrol of five scouts, he observed a hostile formation of fifteen scouts.

Nothing daunted by the disparity in numbers, he at once engaged them. During a recent patrol he engaged two kite balloons, one of which he shot down in flames at 25 feet altitude, he attacked an anti-tank gun, stampeding the horses and causing the gun to overturn in a ditch. In this patrol he was wounded, but flew his machine back to his aerodrome." In November 1934, Mawle was executor on an estate in Hounslow. Mawle was promoted from flight lieutenant to squadron leader and transferred from No. 913 Balloon Squadron AAF to command of No. 911 Balloon Squadron AAF on 6 June 1939. On 1 September 1941, Mawle was promoted to temporary wing commander in the Balloon Branch of the Auxiliary Air Force of the Royal Air Force; as of 1 July 1942, he dropped the "temporary" designation. On 24 April 1944, Mawle transferred to administrative duties. Mawle retired from the Royal Auxiliary Air Force on 10 February 1954, as a wing commander retaining the rank of group captain. Mawle was serving as a magistrate and as Chairman of the West Bromwich Savings Committee, when he was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1962 Birthday Honours.

Shores, Christopher. Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces, 1915–1920. London: Grub Street. ISBN 0-948817-19-4

1987–88 FIS Alpine Ski World Cup

The 22nd World Cup season began in November 1987 in Italy and concluded in March 1988 in Austria. The overall champions were both of Switzerland. Zurbriggen won his third overall title. Beginning this year, the limitation on the number of events that would count for overall and discipline championships, present since the founding of the World Cup, was eliminated; the intent was to eliminate ties for discipline titles. A break in the schedule in February was for the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada; the alpine events were held at the new Nakiska ski area. As the Olympics was in the process of eliminating its prior ban on professionals being allowed to compete, Swedish star Ingemar Stenmark returned to the Olympics after having been banned in 1984. Accordingly, from this point forward, skiers were able to turn professional and still continue to compete in the World Cup, which caused the demise of the former professional skiing circuit within a decade. See complete table In Men's Overall World Cup 1987/88 all results count.

Pirmin Zurbriggen won his third Overall World Cup. The two parallel slaloms did not count for the Overall World Cup. See complete table In Men's Downhill World Cup 1987/88 all results count. See complete table In Men's Super G World Cup 1987/88 all four results count. Pirmin Zurbriggen won the cup without a single race-win. All events were won by a different racer. See complete table In Men's Giant Slalom World Cup 1987/88 all results count. See complete table In Men's Slalom World Cup 1987/88 all results count. Alberto Tomba was able to win six races out of eight. See complete table In Men's Combined World Cup 1987/88 both results count. See complete table In Women's Overall World Cup 1987/88 all results count; the two parallel slaloms did not count for the Overall World Cup. See complete table In Women's Downhill World Cup 1987/88 all results count. Michela Figini won her third Downhill World Cup. Swiss athletes were able to win all races. See complete table In Women's Super G World Cup 1987/88 all four results count.

See complete table In Women's Giant Slalom World Cup 1987/88 all results count. See complete table In Women's Slalom World Cup 1987/88 all results count; every race saw a different winner. See complete table In Women's Combined World Cup 1987/88 both results count. All points were shown, but without parallel slaloms, because result? All points were shown, but without parallel slaloms, because result? - World Cup standings - 1988

Jurong Region MRT line

The Jurong Region line is an elevated Mass Rapid Transit line which will open in 2026 to serve the western part of Singapore. It reaches north to Choa Chu Kang, south to Jurong Pier, west to Peng Kang Hill and east to Pandan Reservoir and will be the seventh MRT line; the line is coloured turquoise on the rail map. The Jurong Region line is the third MRT line in Singapore to be constructed with elevated tracks after the East West line and the North South line, the first MRT line to be built elevated with no underground or ground level sections, the fourth medium capacity line in Singapore; the Jurong Region line serves Jurong and the surrounding area and has three branches centered around Bahar Junction station. Trains travelling from Choa Chu Kang will terminate at Jurong Pier. Trains travelling from Jurong Pier will terminate Peng Kang Hill. Lastly, trains travelling from Peng Kang Hill will head towards Choa Chu Kang, with Bahar Junction acting as an interchange point for the 3 converging services.

Transfer to the east branch can only be done at Tengah. Feasibility studies for an extension to connect the east branch to the Circle line at Haw Par Villa are ongoing. However, this sector was not mentioned in the Land Transport Master Plan 2040 despite it being first announced in Aug 2015; as early as 1996, consideration was given to provide a rail connection to the Nanyang Technological University from the rest of Singapore. The white paper published by the Land Transport Authority indicated that a Light Rail Transit line would run west of Boon Lay station on the East West line towards the university campus; the Jurong Region line was subsequently put on hold. It was only decided in 2013 that the line would be a Mass Rapid Transit line running from Choa Chu Kang, crossing Boon Lay and Tengah, Jurong East, Jurong Industrial Estate and Jurong West, following plans to develop Tengah New Town; the stations and alignment were announced on 9 May 2018 as a 24-kilometre line with 24 stations. The Choa Chu Kang Bus Interchange and one HDB block will all be acquired for the construction of the line.

Construction will begin in 2020 and operations will commence in 3 phases, from 2026 to 2028. The Jurong Region line would have 24 kilometres of tracks with 24 stations. There are four branches: to Choa Chu Kang in the north, Jurong Pier in the south, Pandan Reservoir in the east and Peng Kang Hill in the west. Notes: Names stated are working names, except for current operational stations. There will be a depot at Tengah and a stabling facility near Peng Kang Hill to support the operations of the Jurong Region line. Rolling stock will be kept at both locations; the Tengah Depot, which will house the Operations Control Centre, will have a bus depot and a workers’ dormitory integrated with it to optimise land use. The Peng Kang Hill stabling facility is located near Peng Kang Hill station, whereas Tengah Depot is located along the western perimeter of Tengah; the Jurong Region Line will be operated by three-car CJ151 trains that can be expanded to four-cars when ridership increases. Each carriage is 18.6m by 2.75m, smaller than those used on other MRT lines because of the elevated nature of the line and the need for trains to maneuver through sharp bends in densely populated areas.

On 6 February 2020, Hyundai Rotem of South Korea was awarded the contract to build 62 of these train sets for the Jurong Region Line. A proposed extension from Pandan Reservoir to Haw Par Villa via Pasir Panjang would connect the Jurong Region line to the Circle line and improve the connectivity between the western part of Singapore and the Central Business District, it would support the future developments along the line while enhancing the overall resilience of the Mass Rapid Transit network. New stations would be added in Pasir Panjang; the plan was announced in 2015. As of 2019, feasibility studies are ongoing. If built, the extension would be ready in 2030. Jurong Region Line

Holy See–European Union relations

Holy See–European Union relations is the relationship between the European Union and the Holy See. This is framed by the geography of the Holy See's territory while being unable to join. According to the EU's Copenhagen criteria which define what states are eligible to join the EU, a candidate state must be a free market democracy. Given that the Holy See is an elective absolute monarchy, with only one major economic actor it does not meet the criteria. However, as it is so small, surrounded by an EU state, it is intrinsically linked to the EU. Vatican City has an open border with Italy, therefore with the entire Schengen Area of which Italy is part, in 2006 indicated an interest in joining the Schengen Information System, it uses the euro as its sole currency and has an agreement with the EU allowing it to mint its own coins. The EU gave Italy authority to negotiate a deal with the Holy See in 2000 which allowed the Holy See to mint a maximum of €670,000. After a review of the arrangements, a new agreement came into force in 2010, which allowed it to mint €1 million a year.

Vatican City is not part of the EU's customs union or its VAT area like some other small European states are. However Vatican City is exempt from duties and taxes and the small amount of goods exported from Vatican City are exempt from duty; the first representative from the Holy See, an Apostolic Nuncio, was accredited to the EU in 1970. The role of the EU's representative to the Holy See is accorded to the EU representative to the UN in Rome: Ambassador Yves Gazzo; the first EU representative to the Holy See was Luis Ritto, accredited in 2006. This accreditation followed a visit by Commission President José Manuel Barroso who wished to create open full diplomatic relations between the two; some of the more recent events in the relationship have been. Additionally its economy is of a unique non-commercial nature. Overall, the mission of the Vatican City state, tied to the mission of the Holy See, has little to do with the objectives of the EU Treaty, thus EU membership is not discussed though it is in the heart of an EU member state.

Apostolic Nunciature to the European Union Holy See–France relations Holy See–Germany relations Holy See–Italy relations Religion in the European Union Microstates and the European Union EU delegation in Rome