Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv
George, Duke of Bavaria
George of Bavaria referred to as the Rich, was the last Duke of Bavaria-Landshut. He was Amalia of Saxony. Together with his cousin Albert IV of Bavaria-Munich George tried to extend his influence in Further Austria, but in 1489 he abandoned these plans to settle the difference with Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. George became a strong ally of Emperor Maximilian I and supported his campaigns in Swabia, Switzerland and Hungary, his wedding with the princess Hedwig Jagiellon, a daughter of King Casimir IV of Poland, in 1475 was celebrated in the Landshut Wedding with one of the most splendid festivals of the Middle Ages. The couple had three sons and two daughters. However, none of their sons survived until George's death, per the restrictions of the Salic law practiced in medieval Germany, their daughters could not inherit the duchy. However, George tried to bequeath the duchy to his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Ruprecht of the Palatinate, third son of Philip, Elector Palatine; this led to a destructive war of succession after George's death in 1503/1504.
He was succeeded by Albert IV of Bavaria-Munich. Only the new duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg passed to Ruprecht's sons Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine and Philip; the most southern districts of Bavaria-Landshut Kufstein, Kitzbühel and Rattenberg passed to Emperor Maximilian and were united with Tyrol. George and Hedwig had the following children: Ludwig of Bavaria Rupert of Bavaria Elisabeth of Bavaria, married Ruprecht of the Palatinate and was mother of Otto Henry, Elector Palatine. Margaret of Bavaria Wolfgang of Bavaria
Heidelberg Castle is a ruin in Germany and landmark of Heidelberg. The castle ruins are among the most important Renaissance structures north of the Alps; the castle has only been rebuilt since its demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is located 80 metres up the northern part of the Königstuhl hillside, thereby dominates the view of the old downtown, it is served by an intermediate station on the Heidelberger Bergbahn funicular railway that runs from Heidelberg's Kornmarkt to the summit of the Königstuhl. The earliest castle structure was built before 1214 and expanded into two castles circa 1294; the present structures had been expanded by 1650, before damage by wars and fires. In 1764, another lightning bolt caused a fire. Heidelberg was first mentioned in 1196 as "Heidelberch". In 1155 Conrad of Hohenstaufen was made the Count Palatine by his half-brother Frederick Barbarossa, the region became known as the Electorate of the Palatinate; the claim that Conrad's main residence was on the Schlossberg, known as the Jettenbühl, cannot be substantiated.
The name "Jettenbühl" comes from the soothsayer Jetta, said to have lived there. She is associated with Wolfsbrunnen and the Heidenloch; the first mention of a castle in Heidelberg is in 1214, when Louis I, Duke of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach received it from Hohenstaufen Emperor Friedrich II. The last mention of a single castle is in 1294. In another document from 1303, two castles are mentioned for the first time: The upper castle on Kleiner Gaisberg Mountain, near today's Hotel Molkenkur. All, known about the founding of the lower castle is that it took place sometime between 1294 and 1303; the oldest documented references to Heidelberg Castle are found during the 1600s: The Thesaurus Pictuarum of the Palatinate church counsel Markus zum Lamb. All of these works do not contain much information. In 1615, Merian's Topographia Palatinatus Rheni described Prince Elector Ludwig V as he "started building a new castle one hundred and more years ago". Most of the descriptions of the castle up until the 18th century are based on Merian's information.
Under Ruprecht I, the court chapel was erected on the Jettenbühl. When Ruprecht became the King of Germany in 1401, the castle was so small that on his return from his coronation, he had to camp out in the Augustinians' monastery, on the site of today's University Square. What he desired was more space for his entourage and court and to impress his guests, but additional defences to turn the castle into a fortress. After Ruprecht's death in 1410, his land was divided between his four sons; the Palatinate, the heart of his territories, was given to the eldest son, Ludwig III. Ludwig was the representative of the emperor and the supreme judge, it was in this capacity that he, after the Council of Constance in 1415 and at the behest of Emperor Sigismund, held the deposed Antipope John XXIII in custody before he was taken to Burg Eichelsheim. On a visit to Heidelberg in 1838, the French author Victor Hugo took particular pleasure in strolling among the ruins of the castle, he summarised its history in this letter: Historic etching from the "alley of philosophers" towards the Old Town area of Heidelberg in south-central Germany.
Heidelberg Castle, Heiliggeist Church, the Old Bridge are visible in the background. It was during the reign of Louis V, Elector Palatine that Martin Luther came to Heidelberg to defend one of his theses and paid a visit to the castle, he was shown around by Louis's younger brother, Count Palatine, in a letter to his friend George Spalatin praises the castle's beauty and its defenses. In 1619, Protestants rebelling against the Holy Roman Empire offered the crown of Bohemia to Frederick V, Elector Palatine who accepted despite misgivings and in doing so triggered the outbreak of the Thirty Years War, it was during the Thirty Years War. This period marks the end of the castle's construction. After his defeat at the Battle of White Mountain on 8 November 1620, Frederick V was on the run as an outlaw and had to release his troops prematurely, leaving the Palatinate undefended against General Tilly, the supreme commander of the Imperial and Holy Roman Empire's troops. On 26 August 1622, Tilly commenced his attack on Heidelberg, taking the town on 16 September, the castle few days later.
When the Swedes captured Heidelberg on 5 May 1633 and opened fire on the castle from the Königstuhl hill behind it, Tilly handed over the castle. The following year, the emperor's troops tried to recapture the castle, but it was not until July 1635 that they succeeded, it remained in their possession until the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years War was signed. The new ruler, Charles Louis and his family did not move into the ruined castle until 7 October 1649. Victor Hugo summarized these and the following events: After the death of Charles II, Elector Palatine, the last in line of the House of Palatinate-Simmern, Louis X
Otto Henry, Elector Palatine
Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine, a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty was Count Palatine of Palatinate-Neuburg from 1505 to 1559 and prince elector of the Palatinate from 1556 to 1559. He was a son of Count Palatine, third son of Philip, Elector Palatine; as grandson of George of Bavaria, the young Otto Henry became regent of the new duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg after the Palatinate had lost the Landshut War of Succession against Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria. After the so-called Kölner Spruch the duchy was created from the territories north of the Danube for Otto Henry and Philipp, the sons of Ruprecht of the Palatinate. While they were minors, their grandfather Philip, Elector Palatine, ruled the duchy until his death in 1508, followed by Elector Frederick II, their uncle. In 1541 elector Otto Henry converted to Lutheranism and his palace chapel at Neuburg Castle was the first newly built protestant church of all, consecrated on 25 April 1543 by the reformed theologian Andreas Osiander. Otto Henry ordered to upgrade the Neuburg Castle, patronised the arts and was involved in several conflicts, due to his expensive holding of court a huge burden of debts caused his bankruptcy until he inherited the Electoral Palatinate in 1556.
In the 1550s Otto Henry established the Bibliotheca Palatina. In September 1546 Neuburg was occupied by the troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor as Otto Henry had supported the Schmalkaldic League. In 1552 in occasion of the Peace of Passau Otto Henry could return to Neuburg; as Elector from 1556 he re-introduced the Protestant Reformation. Otto Henry married Susanna of Bavaria, daughter of Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria, on October 16, 1529 in Neuburg an der Donau, he was her second husband after Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. They had no children, she left him a widower 14 years in 1543. Otto Henry died in Heidelberg in 1559, he is buried in the Heiliggeistkirche in Heidelberg. Andreas Edel, "Ottheinrich", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 19, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 655–656 Robert Salzer, "Otto Heinrich", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 24, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 713–719 "Otto Henry, Elector Palatine". Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. Hans Kilian, Drawings from Elector Ottheinrich's alchemical laboratory Digital exhibition of the Ottheinrich-Bible
Neuburg an der Donau
Neuburg an der Donau Newcastle on the river Danube, is a town, the capital of the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district in the state of Bavaria in Germany. The municipality has 16 divisions: Neuburg was an episcopal see. In the 10th century it passed to the counts of Scheyern and through them to Bavaria, being ceded to the Rhenish Palatinate at the close of a war in 1507. From 1557 to 1742 it was the capital of a small principality ruled by a cadet branch of the family of the elector palatine of the Rhine; this principality of Palatinate-Neuburg had an area of about 2,600 square kilometres and about 100,000 inhabitants. In 1742 it was united again with the Rhenish Palatinate. In 1806 in became part of firstly Altmühlkreis between 1806 and 1808 Oberdonaukreis, it was a rural district center in Schwaben region in 29 November 1837. On 30 June 1972, Neuburg an der Donau became a Grosse Kreisstadt and was passed to Upper Bavaria region. Neuburg an der Donau has a defensive wall around the old town; the old town contains some well worth seeing institutions and happenings, such as the'Birdland Jazz Club Neuburg', one of the best locations for jazz auditions in Germany.
The Renaissance Ducal Palace, Neuburg Castle, built 1530-45 under Otto Henry, Elector Palatine and took on its present-day form during the reign of Philip William, Elector Palatine, today houses several museums including a Baroque gallery of the Bavarian State Picture Collection and the Archäologie-Museum Schloss Neuburg an der Donau, a branch of the Bavarian State Archaeological Collection. Other main sights include the late Renaissance court church Hofkirche, the Town Hall, the rococo Provinzialbibliothek and the baroque churches of St. Peter and St. Ursula. Grünau is a renaissance hunting lodge of Elector Otto Henry, situated 7 km further east. Neuburg an der Donau is twinned with: Sète, France Jeseník, Czech RepublicNeuburg an der Donau is linked with: Hamburg, GermanyNeuburg an der Donau was part of the 1998 summit of worldwide cities named "New Castle" with: Eduard von Lutz Bavarian Major General and War Minister. Heinrich Schlier a theologian with the Evangelical Church and with the Catholic Church.
Günter Hirsch, President of the Federal Supreme Court 2000-2008 Bernd Eichinger, German film producer and screenwriter Hans-Peter Ferner, middle distance runner, participated in the 1984 Summer Olympics Doris Schröder-Köpf, journalist and author, fourth wife of former chancellor Gerhard Schröder 1997-2016 Diana Kobzanová, Miss Czech Republic 2001 Verena Rehm, backing vocalist and pianist of the Eurodance dance group Groove Coverage www.neuburg-donau.de — official website Birdland Jazz Club Neuburg http://www.cybercastle.org — summit of cities named "new castle" photographs of Neuburg an der Donau
The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Eastern Europe; the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km, passing through or bordering Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea, its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, huchen, Wels catfish and tench, it is home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass and eel, inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river. Since ancient times, the Danube has become a traditional trade route in Europe, nowadays 2,415 km of its total length being navigable; the river is an important source of energy and drinking water. Danube is an Old European river name derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu.
Other river names from the same root include the Dunaj, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr, Dysna and Tuoni. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means "fluid, drop", in Avestan, the same word means "river". In the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra, "a dragon blocking the course of the rivers"; the Finnish word for Danube is Tonava, most derived from the word for the river in Swedish and German, Donau. Its Sámi name Deatnu means "Great River", it is possible that dānu in Scythian as in Avestan was a generic word for "river": Dnieper and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are presumed to continue Scythian *dānu apara "far river" and *dānu nazdya- "near river", respectively. The river was known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift", from a root also encountered in the ancient name of the Dniester and akin to Iranic turos “swift” and Sanskrit iṣiras "swift", from the PIE *isro-, *sreu “to flow”. In the Middle Ages, the Greek Tiras was borrowed into Italian as Tyrlo and into Turkic languages as Tyrla, the latter further borrowed into Romanian as a regionalism.
The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, "the bringer of luck". In Latin, the Danube was variously known as Ister; the Latin name is masculine, except Slovenian. The German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe "wetland". Romanian differs from other surrounding languages in designating the river with a feminine term, Dunărea; this form was not inherited from Latin. To explain the loss of the Latin name, scholars who suppose that Romanian developed near the large river propose that the Romanian name descends from a hypotetical Thracian *Donaris that shares the same PIE root with the Iranic don-/dan-, with the suffix -aris encountered in the ancient name of the Ialomița River, in the unidentified Miliare river mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica. Gábor Vékony says that this hypothesis is not plausible, because the Greeks borrowed the Istros form from the native Thracians, he proposes. The modern languages spoken in the Danube basin all use names related to Dānuvius: German: Donau.
Dunav. Dunai. Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg; the Danube flows southeast for about 2,730 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine. Once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of 10 countries: Romania, Serbia, Germany, Slovakia, Croatia and Moldova, its drainage basin extends into nine more. In addition to the bordering countries, the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, Montenegro, Italy, North Macedonia and Albania, its total drainage basin is 801,463 km2. The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border, at 4,049 metres; the land drained by the Danube extends into many other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges and other shallow-draught boats.
From its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tribu