Cardwell is a tropical coastal town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2011 census, Cardwell had a population of 1,176 people, the Bruce Highway National Highway 1 and the North Coast railway line are the dominant transport routes, connecting with the Queensland provincial cities of Cairns and Townsville. Cardwell suffered significant damage from Cyclone Yasi, a category 5 cyclone, west of Cardwell the rugged topography of the Cardwell Range intercepts the trade winds resulting in high rainfall. The coastal escarpment is covered in rainforest which transitions to the west to eucalypt woodland, Cardwell Range biodiversity has been protected by the introduction of Forestry Reserves, National Parks and Queensland World Heritage Wet Tropics Areas. Seaward lies the Coral Sea, the Great Barrier Reef and Lagoon, Rockingham Bay, Islands are visible from Cardwell including protected areas i. e. Hinchinbrook Island, Goold Island and the Brook Islands Group.
Oyster Point is one kilometre south of Cardwell and this location experienced one of Australias important conservation battles. The Cardwell Jetty is an important infrastructure asset, where visitors can socialize and view the coastal scenery, the Aboriginal heritage is defined by Language Groups, the boundary of the Dyirbal and Warrgamay lies between Cardwell and Tully in the north. The first Europeans settled in the area in January 1864 in order to create a port initially called Port Hinchinbrook, the town was renamed after Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell. Cardwell was the first port settlement on the Queensland coast north of Port Denison, the first party of non-indigenous people to settle at Rockingham Bay arrived in January 1864. They were 20 in number and they came from Bowen on the small schooner Policeman with the 3 ton cutter Heather Bell in tow, Cardwell Post Office opened on 10 July 1864. At the 2006 census, Cardwell had a population of 1,250, the monument was sent from Great Britain by his brothers intended for his grave at Valley of Lagoons.
On arrival at Cardwell, it was found to be too large to transport up the track to Valley of Lagoons. Cardwell railway station University of Queensland, Queensland Places, Cardwell
The Herbert River is a river located in Far North Queensland, Australia. The southernmost of Queenslands wet tropics river systems, it was named in 1864 by George Elphinstone Dalrymple explorer, after Robert George Wyndham Herbert, the first Premier of Queensland. The Herbert River flows in a southeastern direction through the Lumholtz National Park joined by fifteen tributaries including the Stone River. The Herbert River reaches its mouth where it enters the Coral Sea near Lucinda, the river descends 642 metres over its 288-kilometre course. Further south the catchment is drained by the Nanyeta and Rudd Creeks, in total, the river has a catchment of 10,130 square kilometres. The Wallaman Falls on Stony Creek, another tributary of the Herbert, are Australias tallest single-drop waterfall, other waterfalls on the river include Herbert River Falls, Blencoe Falls and Millstream Falls. Floodwater up to depths of 3 metres above ground level occurs in low parts of the town, requiring the evacuation of residents, the river experienced significant flooding during the 2010–2011 Queensland floods.
The catchment area holds a population of about 18,000, the rivers upper region is used mainly for cattle grazing, while the lower Herbert River floodplain is given over to sugar cane production. The middle reaches of the catchment include National Parks, State Forests, parts of the river, especially the Herbert River Gorge stretch, are used for kayaking and white water rafting. The Herbert River is one of Australias two finest extended whitewater journeys, the other the Franklin River in Tasmania. The second season of the U. S. reality television series, was filmed on the Goshen cattle station in the upper Herbert River region, near the Blencoe Falls, the Scheme was proposed in 1938 and abandoned in 1947. List of rivers of Queensland About the Herbert River Catchment Herbert River catchment, State of the rivers report for Herbert River. Department of Natural Resources and Water, office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel
Halifax is a town in the Shire of Hinchinbrook, Australia, on the Herbert River,15 kilometres northeast of Ingham. At the 2011 census, Halifax had a population of 431, August Anderssen, a blacksmith, purchased the land in 1880 after which time the land was turned into sugar plantations. Halifax Post Office opened on 23 August 1886, the town has a Town hall, public library and regular community markets. Halifax has a number of heritage-listed sites, Macrossan Street, Row of Street Trees Media related to Halifax, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons Wheris. com - map of Halifax, Queensland
Polygamy involves marriage with more than one spouse. When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry. If a marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be called a group marriage, in contrast, monogamy is marriage consisting of only two parties. Like monogamy, the term polygamy is often used in a de facto sense, in sociobiology and zoology, researchers use polygamy in a broad sense to mean any form of multiple mating. Polygamy is widely accepted among different societies worldwide, according to the Ethnographic Atlas, of 1,231 societies noted,588 had frequent polygyny,453 had occasional polygyny,186 were monogamous and 4 had polyandry. Polygamy is common among animals, such as the common fruit-fly. Polygyny is the practice wherein a man has more than one wife at the same time, the vast majority of polygamous marriages are polygynous. Polygyny is legally accepted in many Muslim majority countries and some countries with a sizeable Muslim minority, in some of the sparsely populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place in Africa, women do much of the work.
This favours polygamous marriages in which men sought to monopolize the production of women who are valued both as workers and as child bearers, goody however, observes that the correlation is imperfect and varied. Senior wives can benefit as well when their work load is lightened by the addition of junior wives to the family. Wives, especially wives, status in the community can be increased by the addition of other wives. For such reasons, senior wives sometimes work hard or contribute from their own resources to enable their husbands to accumulate the bride price for a second wife, Polygyny may result from the practice of levirate marriage. In such cases, the deceased mans heir may inherit his assets and wife, or, more usually and this provides support for the widow and her children and maintains the tie between the husband and wives kin groups. The sororate is like the levirate, in that a widower must marry the sister of his dead wife, the wifes family, in other words, must provide a replacement for her thus maintaining the ties between them.
Both levirate and sororate may result in a man having multiple wives and this is a form of de facto polygyny that is referred to as concubinage. In many polygynous marriages the husbands wives may live in separate households often at a great distance and they can thus be described as a series of linked nuclear families with a father in common. Polyandry is the practice wherein a woman has more than one husband at the same time, polyandry is much less popular than polygyny and is illegal in virtually every state in the world. It occurs only in remote communities, polyandry is believed to be more likely in societies with scarce environmental resources, as it is believed to limit human population growth and enhance child survival
SOAS, University of London
SOAS University of London, is a public research university in London, and a constituent college of the University of London. Founded in 1916, SOAS was ranked within the top 30 universities in the United Kingdom by The Guardian University Guide 2017, the School is organised into faculties of humanities and social sciences. It is home to the SOAS School of Law, SOAS offers around 350 undergraduate bachelors degree combinations, over 100 one-year masters degrees and PhD programmes in nearly every department. SOAS has produced several heads of states, government ministers, Supreme Court judges, the School of Oriental Studies was founded in 1916 at 2 Finsbury Circus, the premises of the London Institution. The school received its charter on 5 June 1916 and admitted its first students on 18 January 1917. The school was inaugurated a month on 23 February 1917 by King George V. Among those in attendance were Earl Curzon of Kedleston, formerly Viceroy of India, the School of Oriental Studies was founded by the British state as an instrument to strengthen Britains political and military presence in Asia and Africa.
The school immediately became integral in training British administrators, colonial officials, Africa was added to the schools name in 1938. Its move to new premises in Bloomsbury was held up by delays in construction, with the onset of the Second World War, many University of London colleges were evacuated from London in 1939 and billeted on universities all over the provinces. The School was, on the Governments advice, transferred to Christs College, Cambridge. In 1940, when it became apparent that a return to London was possible, in 1942, the War Office joined with the schools Japanese department to help alleviate the shortage in Japanese linguists. State scholarships were offered to select grammar and public school boys to train as military translators, lodged at Dulwich College in south London, the students became affectionately known as the Dulwich boys. The courses were directed by army cryptographer, Col. John Tiltman, the SOAS School of Law was established in 1947 with Professor Vesey-Fitzgerald as its first head.
Growth however was curtailed by following years of austerity, and upon Sir Cyril Philips assuming the directorship in 1956. Over his twenty-year stewardship, Phillips transformed the school, raising funds, a college of the University of London, the Schools fields include Law, Social Sciences and Languages with special reference to Asia and Africa. The SOAS Library, located in the Philips Building, is the UKs national resource for materials relating to Asia and Africa and is the largest of its kind in the world. The school has grown considerably over the past thirty years, from fewer than 1,000 students in the 1970s to more than 6,000 students today, nearly half of them postgraduates. SOAS is partnered with the Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales in Paris which is considered the French equivalent of SOAS
Hinchinbrook Island lies east of Cardwell and north of Lucinda, separated from the northern coast of Queensland, Australia by the narrow Hinchinbrook Channel. Hinchinbrook Island is part of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and wholly protected within the Hinchinbrook Island National Park, except for a small and it is the largest island on the Great Barrier Reef. It is the largest island park in Australia. Hinchinbrook Island is made up of late Palaeozoic igneous rocks, the main 16-kilometre-long pluton in the east of the island, the Hinchinbrook Granite, is composed of various hypersolvus granites and intrudes volcanics and granites. The Hinchinbrook Channel that separates the island from the mainland is considered to be fault controlled, since the last Ice Age 18,000 years ago sea level has risen. Once there was a significant rugged coastal range, now there is Hinchinbrook Island, to the west is the mangrove-fringed Hinchinbrook Channel with 164 km2 of robust mangrove estuaries. The channel is the valley of the Herbert River flooded following the last glacial period.
The island is separated from the mainland at times of high sea-level such as the present and is thought to have had dry land connections to the mainland for most of the past few million years. Further west is the Cardwell Range Escarpment rainforest, east of Hinchinbrook Island lies the Coral Sea, Great Barrier Reef Lagoon and Great Barrier Reef. South of Hinchinbrook Island, the Cardwell Range gives way to the Herbert River floodplain, missionary Bay is at the northern end of Hinchinbrook Island National Park. Natural features of this area include 50 km2 of dense mangrove communities lining the shoreline. Many botanists believe the mangrove forests along the western coast are the most diverse in the country. 31 different species of mangrove has been identified, a shallow subhorizontal tidal zone has extensive offshore sea grass beds grazed by dugong. The beach stone-curlew thrives on the island, unlike on mainland beaches because vehicles are banned, the eastern coastline of Hinchinbrook Island is punctuated with headland outcrops, incised drainage conduits, secluded sandy pocket beaches and sand dunes.
Mangroves are in proximity to freshwater streams, at Ramsay Bay on the northeast coast, a transgressive dune barrier or tombolo links Cape Sandwich, a granite outlier at the northeastern tip of the island, to the main part of the island. The barrier is widest in the north with a width of about one kilometre. The barrier, which consists mainly of aeolian sands, extends more than 30 metres below the present sea level in places, Hinchinbrook Island is described as a wilderness area and rugged with soaring mountainous peaks. Hinchinbrook Islands highest mountain is Mount Bowen,1,121 metres above sea level, terrestrial vegetation types include thick shrubs, heath and forest
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker