A hobo is a migrant worker or homeless vagrant one, impoverished. The term originated in the Western—probably Northwestern—United States around 1890. Unlike a "tramp", who works only when forced to, a "bum", who does not work at all, a "hobo" is a traveling worker; the origin of the term is unknown. According to etymologist Anatoly Liberman, the only certain detail about its origin is the word was first noticed in American English circa 1890. Liberman points out that many folk etymologies fail to answer the question: "Why did the word become known in California by the early Nineties?" Author Todd DePastino has suggested it may be derived from the term hoe-boy meaning "farmhand", or a greeting such as Ho, boy! Bill Bryson suggests in Made in America that it could either come from the railroad greeting, "Ho, beau!" or a syllabic abbreviation of "homeward bound". It could come from the words "homeless boy". H. L. Mencken, in his The American Language, wrote: Tramps and hobos are lumped together, but see themselves as differentiated.
A hobo or bo is a migrant laborer. Lower than either is the bum, who neither works nor travels, save when impelled to motion by the police, it is unclear when hobos first appeared on the American railroading scene. With the end of the American Civil War in the 1860s, many discharged veterans returning home began hopping freight trains. Others looking for work on the American frontier followed the railways west aboard freight trains in the late 19th century. In 1906, Professor Layal Shafee, after an exhaustive study, put the number of tramps in the United States at about 500,000, his article "What Tramps Cost Nation" was published by The New York Telegraph in 1911, when he estimated the number had surged to 700,000. The number of hobos increased during the Great Depression era of the 1930s. With no work and no prospects at home, many decided to travel for free by freight train and try their luck elsewhere. Life as a hobo was dangerous. In addition to the problems of being itinerant and far from home and support, plus the hostility of many train crews, they faced the railroads' security staff, nicknamed "bulls", who had a reputation of violence against trespassers.
Moreover, riding on a freight train is dangerous in itself. British poet W. H. Davies, author of The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp, lost a foot when he fell under the wheels when trying to jump aboard a train, it was easy to be trapped between cars, one could freeze to death in bad weather. When freezer cars were loaded at an ice factory, any hobo inside was to be killed. According to Ted Conover in Rolling Nowhere, at some unknown point in time, as many as 20,000 people were living a hobo life in North America. Modern freight trains are much faster and thus harder to ride than in the 1930s, but they can still be boarded in railyards. Many hobo terms have become part of common language, such as "big House", "glad rags", "main drag", others. To cope with the uncertainties of hobo life, hobos developed a system of a visual code. Hobos would write this code with chalk or coal to provide directions and warnings to others in "the brotherhood". A symbol would indicate "turn right here", "beware of hostile railroad police", "dangerous dog", "food available here", so on.
Some used signs: A cross signifies "angel food", that is, food served to the hobos after a sermon. A triangle with hands signifies. A horizontal zigzag signifies a barking dog. A square missing its top line signifies. A top hat and a triangle signify wealth. A spearhead signifies a warning to defend oneself. A circle with two parallel arrows means get out fast. Two interlocked circles, representing handcuffs, warn. A caduceus symbol signifies. A cross with a smiley face in one of the corners means the doctor at this office will treat hobos free of charge. A cat signifies. A wavy line above an X means a campsite. Three diagonal lines mean. A square with a slanted roof with an X through it means that the house has been "burned" or "tricked" by another hobo and is not a trusting house. Two shovels signify. Another version of the hobo code exists as a display in the Steamtown National Historic Site at Scranton, operated by the National Park Service. There is an exhibit of hobo codes at the National Cryptologic Museum in Annapolis Junction, Maryland.
The Free Art and Technology Lab released a QR Hobo Code, with a QR stenciler, in July 2011. An ethical code was created by Tourist Union #63 during its 1889 National Hobo Convention in St. Louis, Missouri; this code was voted upon as a concrete set of laws to govern the Nationwide Hobo Body. When in town, always respect the local law and officials, try to be a gentleman at all times. Don't take advantage of someone, in a vulnerable situation, locals or other hobos. Always try to find work if temporary, always seek out jobs nobody wants. By doing so you not only help a business along, but ensure employment should you return to that town again; when no employment is available, make your own work by using your added talents at crafts. Do not allow yourself to become a stupid drunk and set a bad example for locals' treatment of other hobos; when jungling in town, respect handouts, do not
A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are implemented and administered using radio communication; this implementation takes place at the physical level of the OSI model network structure. Examples of wireless networks include cell phone networks, wireless local area networks, wireless sensor networks, satellite communication networks, terrestrial microwave networks; the first professional wireless network was developed under the brand ALOHAnet in 1969 at the University of Hawaii and became operational in June 1971. The first commercial wireless network was the WaveLAN product family, developed by NCR in 1986. 1991 2G cell phone network June 1997 802.11 "Wi-Fi" protocol first release 1999 803.11 VoIP integration Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwave communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers resembling satellite dishes.
Terrestrial microwaves are in the low gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Relay stations are spaced 48 km apart. Communications satellites – Satellites communicate via microwave radio waves, which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere; the satellites are stationed in space in geosynchronous orbit 35,400 km above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, TV signals. Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies; the systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area. Radio and spread spectrum technologies – Wireless local area networks use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. IEEE 802.11 defines a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology known as.
Free-space optical communication uses invisible light for communications. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices. Wireless personal area networks connect devices within a small area, within a person's reach. For example, both Bluetooth radio and invisible infrared light provides a WPAN for interconnecting a headset to a laptop. ZigBee supports WPAN applications. Wi-Fi PANs are becoming commonplace as equipment designers start to integrate Wi-Fi into a variety of consumer electronic devices. Intel "My WiFi" and Windows 7 "virtual Wi-Fi" capabilities have made Wi-Fi PANs simpler and easier to set up and configure. A wireless local area network links two or more devices over a short distance using a wireless distribution method providing a connection through an access point for internet access; the use of spread-spectrum or OFDM technologies may allow users to move around within a local coverage area, still remain connected to the network.
Products using the IEEE 802.11 WLAN standards are marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name. Fixed wireless technology implements point-to-point links between computers or networks at two distant locations using dedicated microwave or modulated laser light beams over line of sight paths, it is used in cities to connect networks in two or more buildings without installing a wired link. To connect to Wi-Fi, sometimes are used devices like a router or connecting HotSpot using mobile smartphones. A wireless ad hoc network known as a wireless mesh network or mobile ad hoc network, is a wireless network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology; each node forwards messages on behalf of the other nodes and each node performs routing. Ad hoc networks can "self-heal", automatically re-routing around a node. Various network layer protocols are needed to realize ad hoc mobile networks, such as Distance Sequenced Distance Vector routing, Associativity-Based Routing, Ad hoc on-demand Distance Vector routing, Dynamic source routing.
Wireless metropolitan area networks are a type of wireless network that connects several wireless LANs. WiMAX is described by the IEEE 802.16 standard. Wireless wide area networks are wireless networks that cover large areas, such as between neighbouring towns and cities, or city and suburb; these networks can be used to connect branch offices of business or as a public Internet access system. The wireless connections between access points are point to point microwave links using parabolic dishes on the 2.4 GHz and 5.8Ghz band, rather than omnidirectional antennas used with smaller networks. A typical system contains access points and wireless bridging relays. Other configurations are mesh systems; when combined with renewable energy systems such as photovoltaic solar panels or wind systems they can be stand alone systems. A cellular network or mobile network is a radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell site or base station.
In a cellular network, each cell characteristically uses a different set of radio frequencies from all their immediate neighbouring cells to avoid any interference. When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area; this enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g. mo
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise different concepts and experiences. All communication is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize compassion; the variable'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space. In cartography, an organized collection of symbols forms a legend for a map; the word symbol derives from the Greek σύμβολον symbolon, meaning "token, watchword" from σύν syn "together" and βάλλω bállō " "I throw, put."
The sense evolution in Greek is from "throwing things together" to "contrasting" to "comparing" to "token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine." Hence, "outward sign" of something. The meaning "something which stands for something else" was first recorded in 1590, in Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene. Symbols are a means of complex communication that can have multiple levels of meaning. Symbols are the basis of all human understanding and serve as vehicles of conception for all human knowledge. Symbols facilitate understanding of the world in which we live, thus serving as the grounds upon which we make judgments. In this way, people use symbols not only to make sense of the world around them, but to identify and cooperate in society through constitutive rhetoric. Human cultures use symbols to express specific ideologies and social structures and to represent aspects of their specific culture. Thus, symbols carry meanings. In considering the effect of a symbol on the psyche, in his seminal essay The Symbol without Meaning Joseph Campbell proposes the following definition: A symbol is an energy evoking, directing, agent.
Expanding on what he means by this definition Campbell says: a symbol, like everything else, shows a double aspect. We must distinguish, therefore between the ` meaning' of the symbol, it seems to me clear that all the great and little symbolical systems of the past functioned on three levels: the corporeal of waking consciousness, the spiritual of dream, the ineffable of the unknowable. The term'meaning' can refer only to the first two but these, are in the charge of science –, the province as we have said, not of symbols but of signs; the ineffable, the unknowable, can be only sensed. It is the province of art, not'expression' or primarily, but a quest for, formulation of, experience evoking, energy-waking images: yielding what Sir Herbert Read has aptly termed a'sensuous apprehension of being'. Heinrich Zimmer gives a concise overview of the nature, perennial relevance, of symbols. Concepts and words are symbols, just as visions and images are. Through all of these a transcendent reality is mirrored.
There are so many metaphors reflecting and implying something which, though thus variously expressed, is ineffable, though thus rendered multiform, remains inscrutable. Symbols hold the mind to truth but are not themselves the truth, hence it is delusory to borrow them; each civilisation, every age, must bring forth its own." In the book Signs and Symbols, it is stated that A symbol... is a visual image or sign representing an idea -- a deeper indicator of a universal truth. Semiotics is the study of signs and signification as communicative behavior. Semiotics studies focus on the relationship of the signifier and the signified taking into account interpretation of visual cues, body language and other contextual clues. Semiotics is linked with psychology. Semioticians thus not only study what a symbol implies, but how it got its meaning and how it functions to make meaning in society. Symbols allow the human brain continuously to create meaning using sensory input and decode symbols through both denotation and connotation.
An alternative definition of symbol, distinguishing it from the term sign was proposed by Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung. In his studies on what is now called Jungian archetypes, a sign stands for something known, as a word stands for its referent, he contrasted a sign with a symbol: something, unknown and that cannot be made clear or precise. An example of a symbol in this sense is Christ. Kenneth Burke described Homo sapiens as a "symbol-using, symbol making, symbol misusing animal" to suggest that a person creates symbols as well as misuses them. One example he uses to indicate what he means by the misuse of symbol is the story of a man who, when told that a particular food item was whale blubber, could keep from throwing it up, his friend discovered it was just a dumpling. But the man's reaction was a direct consequence of the symbol of "blubber" representing something inedible in his mind. In addition, the symbol of "blubber" was created by the man through various kinds of learning. Burke goes on to describe symbols as being derived from Sigmund Freud's work on condensation and displacement, further stating that symbols are not just relevant to the theory of dreams but to "normal symbol systems".
He says they are relat
A public space is a place, open and accessible to people. Roads, public squares and beaches are considered public space. To a limited extent, government buildings which are open to the public, such as public libraries are public spaces, although they tend to have restricted areas and greater limits upon use. Although not considered public space owned buildings or property visible from sidewalks and public thoroughfares may affect the public visual landscape, for example, by outdoor advertising; the concept of Shared space has been advanced to enhance the experience of pedestrians in public space jointly used by automobiles and other vehicles. Public space has become something of a touchstone for critical theory in relation to philosophy, visual art, cultural studies, social studies and urban design; the term'public space' is often misconstrued to mean other things such as'gathering place', an element of the larger concept of social space. One of the earliest examples of public spaces are commons.
For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry. Non-government-owned malls are examples of'private space' with the appearance of being'public space'. In Nordic countries like Norway, Sweden and Estonia, all nature areas are considered public space, due to a law, the allemansrätten. In the United States the right of the people to engage in speech and assembly in public places may not be unreasonably restricted by the federal or state government; the government cannot limit one's speech beyond what is reasonable in a public space, considered to be a public forum. In a private—that is, non-public—forum, the government can control one's speech to a much greater degree; this is not to say that the government can control what one says to others. The concept of a public forum is not limited to physical space or public property, for example, a newspaper might be considered a public forum, but see forum in the legal sense as the term has a specific meaning in United States law. Parks, beaches, waiting rooms, etc. may be closed at night.
As this does not exclude any specific group, it is not considered a restriction on public use. Entry to public parks cannot be restricted based upon a user's residence. In some cultures, there is no expectation of privacy in a public space, however civil inattention is a process whereby individuals are able to maintain their privacy within a crowd. Public space is shared and created for open usage throughout the community, whereas private space is individually or corporately owned; the area is built for a range of various types of entertainment. The physical setting is constructed, which creates a behavior influence. Limitations are imposed in the space to prevent certain actions from occurring--public behavior, considered obnoxious or out of character --and are supported by law or ordinance. Through the landscape and spatial organization of public space, the social construction is considered to be ruled by the implicit and explicit rules and expectations of the space that are enforced. Whilst it is considered that everyone has a right to access and use public space, as opposed to private space which may have restrictions, there has been some academic interest in how public spaces are managed to exclude certain groups - homeless people and young people.
Measures are taken to make the public space less attractive to them, including the removal or design of benches to restrict their use for sleeping and resting, restricting access to certain times, locking indoor/enclosed areas. Police forces are sometimes involved in moving'unwanted' members of the public from public spaces. In fact, by not being provided suitable access, disabled people are implicitly excluded from some spaces. Human geographers have argued that in spite of the exclusions that are part of public space, it can nonetheless be conceived of as a site where democracy becomes possible. Geographer Don Mitchell has written extensively on the topic of public space and its relation to democracy, employing Henri Lefebvre's notion of the right to the city in articulating his argument. While democracy and public space don't coincide, it is the potential of their intersection that becomes politically important. Other geographers like Gill Valentine have focused on performativity and visibility in public spaces, which brings a theatrical component or'space of appearance', central to the functioning of a democratic space.
A owned public space known as a owned public open space, is a public space, open to the public, but owned by a private entity a commercial property developer. Conversion of publicly owned public spaces to owned public spaces is referred to as the privatization of public space, is a common result of urban redevelopment. Beginning in the 1960s, the privatization of public space has faced criticism from citizen groups such as the Open Spaces Society. Private-public partnerships have taken significant control of public parks and playgrounds through conservancy groups set up to manage what is considered unmanageable by public agencies. Corporate sponsorship of public leisure areas is ubiquitous, giving open space to the public in excha
A hotspot is a physical location where people may obtain Internet access using Wi-Fi technology, via a wireless local area network using a router connected to an internet service provider. Public hotspots may be created by a business for use by customers, such as coffee hotels. Public hotspots are created from wireless access points configured to provide Internet access, controlled to some degree by the venue. In its simplest form, venues that have broadband Internet access can create public wireless access by configuring an access point, in conjunction with a router and connecting the AP to the Internet connection. A single wireless router combining these functions may suffice. Private hotspots may be configured on a smartphone or tablet with a mobile network data plan to allow Internet access to other devices via Bluetooth pairing or if both the hotspot device and the device/s accessing it are connected to the same Wi-Fi network; the public can use a laptop or other suitable portable device to access the wireless connection provided.
Of the estimated 150 million laptops, 14 million PDAs, other emerging Wi-Fi devices sold per year for the last few years, most include the Wi-Fi feature. The iPass 2014 interactive map, that shows data provided by the analysts Maravedis Rethink, shows that in December 2014 there are 46,000,000 hotspots worldwide and more than 22,000,000 roamable hotspots. More than 10,900 hotspots are on trains and airports and more than 8,500,000 are "branded" hotspots; the region with the largest number of public hotspots is Europe, followed by North Asia. Libraries throughout the United States are implementing hotspot lending programs to extend access to online library services to users at home who cannot afford in-home Internet access or do not have access to Internet infrastructure; the New York Public Library was the largest program. Similar programs have existed in Kansas and Oklahoma. Security is a serious concern in connection with private hotspots. There are three possible attack scenarios. First, there is the wireless connection between the client and the access point, which needs to be encrypted, so that the connection cannot be eavesdropped or attacked by a man-in-the-middle attack.
Second, there is the hotspot itself. The WLAN encryption ends at the interface travels its network stack unencrypted and third, travels over the wired connection up to the BRAS of the ISP. Depending upon the set up of a public hotspot, the provider of the hotspot has access to the metadata and content accessed by users of the hotspot; the safest method when accessing the Internet over a hotspot, with unknown security measures, is end-to-end encryption. Examples of strong end-to-end encryption are HTTPS and SSH; some hotspots authenticate users. Some vendors provide a download option; this conflicts with enterprise configurations that have solutions specific to their internal WLAN. In order to provide robust security to hotspot users, the Wi-Fi Alliance is developing a new hotspot program that aims to encrypt hotspot traffic with WPA2 security; the program was scheduled to launch in the first half of 2012. The Opportunistic Wireless Encryption standard provides encrypted communication in open Wi-Fi networks, alongside the WPA3 standard.
Public hotspots are found at airports, coffee shops, department stores, fuel stations, hospitals, public pay phones, restaurants, RV parks and campgrounds, train stations, other public places. Additionally, many schools and universities have wireless networks on their campuses. Free hotspots operate in two ways: Using an open public network is the easiest way to create a free hotspot. All, needed is a Wi-Fi router; when users of private wireless routers turn off their authentication requirements, opening their connection, intentionally or not, they permit piggybacking by anyone in range. Closed public networks use a HotSpot Management System to control access to hotspots; this software runs on the router itself or an external computer allowing operators to authorize only specific users to access the Internet. Providers of such hotspots associate the free access with a menu, membership, or purchase limit. Operators may limit each user's available bandwidth to ensure that everyone gets a good quality service.
This is done through service-level agreements. A commercial hotspot may feature: A captive portal / login screen / splash page that users are redirected to for authentication and/or payment; the captive portal / splash page sometimes includes the social login buttons. A payment option using a credit card, iPass, PayPal, or another payment service A walled garden feature that allows free access to certain sites Service-oriented provisioning to allow for improved revenue Data analytics and data capture tools, to analyze and export data from Wi-Fi clientsMany services provide payment services to hotspot providers, for a monthly fee or commission from the end-user income. For example, Amazingports can be used to set up hotspots that intend to offer both fee-based and free internet access, ZoneCD is a Linux distribution that provides payment services for hotspot providers who wish to deploy their own service. Major airports and business hotels are more to charge for service, though most hotels provide free service to guests.
Retail shops, public ve
Wi-Fi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that complete after many years of testing the 802.11 committee interoperability certification testing. Devices that can use Wi-Fi technologies include, among others and laptops, video game consoles and tablets, smart TVs, digital audio players, digital cameras and drones. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the Internet via a wireless access point; such an access point has a range of about 20 meters indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping access points. Different versions of Wi-Fi exist, with radio bands and speeds. Wi-Fi most uses the 2.4 gigahertz UHF and 5 gigahertz SHF ISM radio bands. Each channel can be time-shared by multiple networks.
These wavelengths work best for line-of-sight. Many common materials absorb or reflect them, which further restricts range, but can tend to help minimise interference between different networks in crowded environments. At close range, some versions of Wi-Fi, running on suitable hardware, can achieve speeds of over 1 Gbit/s. Anyone within range with a wireless network interface controller can attempt to access a network. Wi-Fi Protected Access is a family of technologies created to protect information moving across Wi-Fi networks and includes solutions for personal and enterprise networks. Security features of WPA have included stronger protections and new security practices as the security landscape has changed over time. In 1971, ALOHAnet connected the Hawaiian Islands with a UHF wireless packet network. ALOHAnet and the ALOHA protocol were early forerunners to Ethernet, the IEEE 802.11 protocols, respectively. A 1985 ruling by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission released the ISM band for unlicensed use.
These frequency bands are the same ones used by equipment such as microwave ovens and are subject to interference. In 1991, NCR Corporation with AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier systems, under the name WaveLAN. The Australian radio-astronomer Dr John O'Sullivan with his colleagues Terence Percival, Graham Daniels, Diet Ostry, John Deane developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation research project, "a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle". Dr O'Sullivan and his colleagues are credited with inventing Wi-Fi. In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents for a method used in Wi-Fi to "unsmear" the signal; the first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds, this proved to be popular. In 1999, the Wi-Fi Alliance formed as a trade association to hold the Wi-Fi trademark under which most products are sold.
Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations. In April 2009, 14 technology companies agreed to pay CSIRO $1 billion for infringements on CSIRO patents; this led to Australia labeling Wi-Fi as an Australian invention, though this has been the subject of some controversy. CSIRO won a further $220 million settlement for Wi-Fi patent-infringements in 2012 with global firms in the United States required to pay the CSIRO licensing rights estimated to be worth an additional $1 billion in royalties. In 2016, the wireless local area network Test Bed was chosen as Australia's contribution to the exhibition A History of the World in 100 Objects held in the National Museum of Australia; the name Wi-Fi, commercially used at least as early as August 1999, was coined by the brand-consulting firm Interbrand. The Wi-Fi Alliance had hired Interbrand to create a name, "a little catchier than'IEEE 802.11b Direct Sequence'." Phil Belanger, a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alliance who presided over the selection of the name "Wi-Fi", has stated that Interbrand invented Wi-Fi as a pun on the word hi-fi, a term for high-quality audio technology.
Interbrand created the Wi-Fi logo. The yin-yang Wi-Fi logo indicates the certification of a product for interoperability; the Wi-Fi Alliance used the advertising slogan "The Standard for Wireless Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was created. While inspired by the term hi-fi, the name was never "Wireless Fidelity"; the Wi-Fi Alliance was called the "Wireless Fidelity Alliance Inc" in some publications. Non-Wi-Fi technologies intended for fixed points, such as Motorola Canopy, are described as fixed wireless. Alternative wireless technologies include mobile phone standards, such as 2G, 3G, 4G, LTE; the name is sometimes written as WiFi, Wifi, or wifi, but these are not approved by the Wi-Fi Alliance. IEEE is a separate, but related organization and their website has stated "WiFi is a short name for Wireless Fidelity". To connect to a Wi-Fi LAN, a computer has to be equipped with a wireless network interface controller; the combination of computer and interface controllers is called a station.
A service set is the set of all the devices associated with a particular Wi-Fi network. The service set can be local, extended or mesh; each service set has an associated identifier, the 32-byte Service Set Identifier, which identifies the partic
Wardriving is the act of searching for Wi-Fi wireless networks by a person in a moving vehicle, using a laptop or smartphone. Software for wardriving is available on the Internet. Warbiking or warcycling is similar to wardriving, but is done from a moving bicycle or motorcycle; this practice is sometimes facilitated by mounting a Wi-Fi enabled device on the vehicle. Warwalking, or warjogging, is similar to wardriving, but is done on foot rather than from a moving vehicle. Warrailing, or wartraining, is similar to wardriving, but is done on trains, buses or by any other means of public transport. Wardroning is accomplished with a drone. War driving originated from wardialing, a method popularized by a character played by Matthew Broderick in the film WarGames, named after that film. War dialing consists of dialing every phone number in a specific sequence in search of modems. Warbiking or warcycling is similar to wardriving, but is done from a moving bicycle or motorcycle; this practice is sometimes facilitated by mounting a Wi-Fi enabled device on the vehicle.
Warwalking, or warjogging, is similar to wardriving, but is done on foot rather than from a moving vehicle. The disadvantages of this method are slower speed of travel and the absence of a convenient computing environment. Handheld devices such as pocket computers, which can perform such tasks while users are walking or standing, have dominated this practice. Technology advances and developments in the early 2000s expanded the extent of this practice. Advances include computers with integrated Wi-Fi, rather than CompactFlash or PC Card add-in cards in computers such as Dell Axim, Compaq iPAQ and Toshiba pocket computers starting in 2002. More the active Nintendo DS and Sony PSP enthusiast communities gained Wi-Fi abilities on these devices. Further, many newer smartphones integrate Global Positioning System. Warrailing, or Wartraining, is similar to wardriving, but is done on a train or tram rather than from a slower more controllable vehicle; the disadvantages of this method are higher speed of travel and limited to major roads with a higher traffic.
Warkitting is a combination of rootkitting. In a warkitting attack, a hacker replaces the firmware of an attacked router; this allows them to control all traffic for the victim, could permit them to disable TLS by replacing HTML content as it is being downloaded. Warkitting was identified by Tsow, Jakobsson and Wetzel in 2006, their discovery indicated that 10% of the wireless routers were susceptible to WAPjacking and 4.4% of wireless routers were vulnerable to WAPkitting. Their analysis showed that the volume of credential theft possible through Warkitting exceeded the estimates of credential theft due to phishing. Wardrivers use a Wifi-equipped device together with a GPS device to record the location of wireless networks; the results can be uploaded to websites like WiGLE, openBmap or Geomena where the data is processed to form maps of the network neighborhood. There are clients available for smartphones running Android that can upload data directly. For better range and sensitivity, antennas are built or bought, vary from omnidirectional to directional.
The maps of known network IDs can be used as a geolocation system—an alternative to GPS—by triangulating the current position from the signal strengths of known network IDs. Examples include Place Lab by Intel, Navizon by Cyril Houri, SeekerLocate from Seeker Wireless, openBmap and Geomena. Navizon and openBmap combines information from Wi-Fi and cell phone tower maps contributed by users from Wi-Fi-equipped cell phones. In addition to location finding, this provides navigation information, allows for the tracking of the position of friends, geotagging. In December 2004, a class of 100 undergraduates worked to map the city of Seattle, Washington over several weeks, they found 5,225 access points. They noticed trends in the security of the networks depending on location. Many of the open networks were intended to be used by the general public, with network names like "Open to share, no porn please" or "Free access, be nice." The information was collected into high-resolution maps. Previous efforts had mapped cities such as Dublin.
Some portray wardriving as a questionable practice, from a technical viewpoint, everything is working as designed: many access points broadcast identifying data accessible to anyone with a suitable receiver. It could be compared to making a map of a neighborhood's house numbers and mail box labels. While some may claim that wardriving is illegal, there are no laws that prohibit or allow wardriving, though many localities have laws forbidding unauthorized access of computer networks and protecting personal privacy. Google created a privacy storm in some countries after it admitted systematically but surreptitiously gathering WiFi data while capturing video footage and mapping data for its Street View service, it has since been using Android-based mobile devices to gather this data. Passive, listen-only wardriving does not communicate at all with the networks logging broadcast addresses; this can be likened to listening to a radio station that happens to be broadcasting in the area or with other forms of DXing.
With other types of