U.S. Route 23 in Georgia
U. S. Route 23 in the U. S. state of Georgia, is a north–south United States highway that travels from the St. Marys River south-southeast of Folkston to the North Carolina state line, in the northern part of Dillard. US 23 is signed concurrently with various state highways, it uses SR 4 from Florida to a point north of Alma, SR 15 from Florida to Racepond, SR 23 in Folkston, SR 121 from Folkston to Racepond, SR 520 and SR 38 in Waycross, SR 19 from north of Alma to Lumber City, SR 135 Truck in Hazlehurst, SR 27 from Hazlehurst to Eastman, SR 165 in Chauncey, SR 27 Bus. and SR 117 in Eastman, SR 87 from Eastman to Macon, SR 257 in the Empire area, SR 112 near Cochran, SR 19 from East Macon to the northern part of Macon, SR 540 from East Macon to the eastern part of Macon, SR 11/SR 49 in Macon, SR 87 from Macon to Flovilla, SR 42 from Flovilla to Atlanta, SR 16 and SR 36 in Jackson, SR 138 in the Stockbridge area, SR 10 from Atlanta to Druid Hills, SR 8 from Atlanta to Decatur, SR 155 from Decatur to the Brookhaven–Chamblee line, SR 13 from the Brookhaven–Chamblee line to the Sugar Hill–Buford line, SR 20 within Buford, SR 365 from Buford to east-southeast of Clarkesville, SR 15 from northwest of Cornelia to the North Carolina state line, SR 2 in Clayton.
Concurrencies of US 23 with U. S. Highways in Georgia are US 1 from Florida to north of Alma, US 301 from Florida to the Folkston–Homeland line, US 82 in Waycross, US 84 in Waycross, US 221 Truck in Hazlehurst, US 341 from Hazlehurst to Eastman, US 129 Alt. from north of Cochran to Macon, US 80 from East Macon to Macon, US 129 in Macon, US 278 from Atlanta to Druid Hills, US 29/78 from Atlanta to Decatur, US 129 in Gainesville, US 441 from northwest of Cornelia to the North Carolina state line, US 76 in Clayton. Between Buford and Gainesville, it has a concurrency with Interstate 985. US 23 enters Georgia from Florida concurrent with US 1/US 301 designated as SR 4/SR 15, on a bridge over the St. Marys River. In Folkston, the routes have their first encounter with another state route the western terminus of Georgia State Route 40 at Main Street. On the opposite side of SR 40, Main Street leads to a former Atlantic Coast Line Railroad station, an popular train-watching site. North of there SR 23/SR 121 join this crowded concurrency, shortly serves as the western terminus for SR 40 Conn.
In Homeland, US 301/SR 23 heads northeast at an interchahnge into the woods of northeastern Charlton County towards Nahunta, Claxton and Sylvania, while US 23 continues to the northwest in the concurrency with US 1/SR 4/SR 15/SR 121, but not before both lanes run over bridges over the CSX Nahunta Subdivision, which runs along US 301 through Jesup. After Homeland, US 1/23 and SRs 4/15/121 run through sparse communities such as Uptonville, Mattox, where another railroad line from Folkston runs along the west side and both pass through another community named Cypress Siding. In Racepond, SR 15/SR 121, branch off to the northeast, while the US 1/23/SR 4 concurrency remains running to the northwest, crossing into Ware County along the edge of the Ware-Brantley County Line. From this point on the road is named Jacksonville Highway; the Brantley County line turns straight north somewhere in Dixon Memorial State Forest. After leaving the forest, the road starts to move away from the tracks before the intersection of Georgia State Route 177 and the gateway to Okefenokee Swamp Park.
Right after a Georgia State Trooper barracks and DMV office, the routes enter Waycross, as the run between two local motels. Passing by some automotive dealerships, fast foot restaurants and other commercial development, the road approaches US 82/SR 520 and turns west onto a concurrency with these routes while US BUS 1/23/SR BUS 4 continues northwest along Memorial Drive. After running along a bridge over the CSX Jesup Subdivision, US 84/SR 38 joins this concurrency at McDonald Street, but not before crossing another railroad bridge over the CSX Fitzgerald Subdivision, more than a block away to the west; the concurrency ends at Victory Drive and the southwest corner is the site of Waycross College. West of the city limits, US 82 becomes a divided highway as it takes US 1/23 from west to northwest as they cross Georgia State Route 122, crosses another bridge over the second railroad line from Waycross Junction; the road starts to curve west, before reaching Waresboro, US 1/23 breaks away from US 82 onto a bypass across from a local street named Fulford Road.
Using a former segment of Fulford Road and Scapa Road, the bypass winds through forestland and some farmland west of northern Deenwood and northwest of Waycross. The bypass ends at the northern terminus of US BUS 1/23/SR BUS 4 rejoins its former segment along Alma Highway to approach a series of bridges over Cox Creek and over the Satilla River. After this, it passes through a small community called Dixie Union, where it intersects a local road named Telmore-Dixie Union Road to the west and Dixie Union Road to the east. North of Bickley Highway, the road curves to the north-northeast and winds around a former segment so that it can go over a pair of bridges over another railroad line. Right after the Ware-Bacon County line and the intersection of Old Alma-Waycross Highway/Jamestown Road, the road runs over a pair of bridges over Little Hurricane Creek before the intersection with Plant Road where it curves from the northeast to the north-northwest; the divided highway, which at some point gained the name South Pierce Street, ends at Dogwood Avenue, replaced by a four-lane undivided highway with a center-left turn lane.
After the intersection with Radio St
Clinch County, Georgia
Clinch County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,798; the county seat is Homerville. The county was created on February 1850, named in honor of Duncan Lamont Clinch. With just 8.5 people per square mile, Clinch has one of the lowest population densities of any county in Georgia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 824 square miles, of which 800 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water, it third-largest by total area. Eastern and southeastern portions of the county lie within the Okefenokee Swamp and its federally protected areas; the vast majority of Clinch County is located in the Upper Suwannee River sub-basin of the Suwannee River basin, with just a portion of the western and northwestern edge of the county and well northwest of Du Pont, located in the Alapaha River sub-basin of the same Suwannee River basin. Atkinson County Ware County Columbia County, Florida Baker County, Florida Echols County Lanier County Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 6,878 people, 2,512 households, 1,823 families residing in the county.
The population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 2,837 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.93% White or European American, 29.50% Black or African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2010 there were 6,798 people in Clinch County. 69.7% were White or European American, 27.7% were Black or African American, 0.8% were American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.2% were Asian and 0.1% were Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander. There were 2,512 households out of which 36.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.70% were married couples living together, 16.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.09.
In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,755, the median income for a family was $31,755. Males had a median income of $26,905 versus $19,347 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,023. About 22.20% of families and 23.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.90% of those under age 18 and 30.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,798 people, 2,572 households, 1,821 families residing in the county; the population density was 8.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,007 housing units at an average density of 3.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 67.4% white, 27.7% black or African American, 0.6% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.0% were English, 8.0% were Irish, 8.0% were American. Of the 2,572 households, 38.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 19.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families, 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age was 36.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $31,963 and the median income for a family was $45,350. Males had a median income of $31,739 versus $25,972 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,709. About 19.1% of families and 25.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.7% of those under age 18 and 24.3% of those age 65 or over. Argyle Du Pont Fargo Homerville Clinch County is the birthplace of actors Ossie Davis and Matthew Lintz, politician Iris Faircloth Blitch, Jonathan Smith, Jolene Ammons, politician W. Benjamin Gibbs, politician William Chester Lankford.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Clinch County, Georgia The Clinch County News - Local newspaper Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Clinch County historical marker Bethany Baptist Church historical marker
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior.
They are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management operate areas called National Monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies.
There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties. Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks.
State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park. About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U.
S. state and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are little more than picnic playgrounds. South Mountain Park in Phoenix, for example, is called the largest city park in the United States. Protected areas of American Samoa Protected areas of California Protected areas of Colorado Protected areas of Georgia Protected areas of Illinois Protected areas of Kentucky Protected areas of Michigan Protected areas of Ohio National Landscape Conservation System National Park Service National Wild and S
Waycross is the county seat of, only incorporated city in, Ware County. In the U. S. state of Georgia. The population was 14,725 at the 2010 Census. Waycross includes two historic districts and several other properties that are on the National Register of Historic Places, including the U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, Lott Cemetery, the First African Baptist Church and Parsonage, the Obediah Barber Homestead; the area now known as Waycross was first settled circa 1820, locally known as "Old Nine" or "Number Nine" and Pendleton. It was renamed Tebeauville in 1857, incorporated under that name in 1866, designated county seat of Ware County in 1873, it was incorporated as "Way Cross" on March 3, 1874. Waycross gets its name from the city's location at key railroad junctions. Waycross was home to Laura S. Walker conservationist. Walker promoted a comprehensive program of forestry activity, including the establishment of forest parks, she erected markers and monuments along old trails and at historic sites, in Waycross and Ware County so that local history would not be forgotten.
An effort to recognize her work culminated in President Franklin D Roosevelt issuing a proclamation to establish the Laura S Walker National Park in her honor. She was the only living person for. In 1937, the federal government purchased distressed farmland for the park. Work on the park was undertaken by the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps. In 1941, the national park was deeded over to Georgia. Waycross was the site of the 1948 Waycross B-29 crash, which led to the legal case United States v. Reynolds, expanding the government's state secrets privilege. During the 1950s the city had a tourist gimmick: local police would stop motorists with out-of-state license plates and escort them to downtown Waycross. There they would be met by the Welcome World Committee and given overnight lodging, dinner and a trip to the Okefenokee Swamp; the tradition faded away. In the mid-1990s, the Bubba Burger, a frozen hamburger that needed no defrosting, was created in Waycross; this was the creation of Eaves Foods, Inc. a company that changed to Bubba Foods, LLC. in 2000.
Bubba Burgers are now sold nationwide as well as worldwide through the United States Military Commissary system. Waycross is the closest city to the Okefenokee Swamp. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.7 square miles, of which 11.7 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The closest major city is Jacksonville, 81 miles away. In May 2010, the city purchased the Bandalong Litter Trap and installed it in Tebeau Creek, a tributary of the Satilla River; the trap is manufactured in the United States. Although the city has maintained a good standing with the state's Environmental Protection Division, the city wanted to take action to reduce the amount of human generated trash entering the Satilla River and the Atlantic Ocean. Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue said, "Water is one of Georgia's most important and precious resources... the litter trap installed by Waycross is a model of stewardship for the state and the nation." The Satilla River litter trap is only the second in the nation.
Part of Waycross was situated in Pierce County, but effective July 1, 2015, Waycross was no longer located nor allowed to be located in Pierce County. State Rep. Chad Nimmer introduced HB 523 during the 2015 Legislative Session without providing the required statutory notice to the City of Waycross. HB 523 de-annexed the portion of Waycross located in Pierce County and prevents the City of Waycross from coming back into Pierce County. Waycross Journal-Herald The Florida Times-Union Waycross Area Television Service Channel 10AM WAYX AM 1230 WSFN AM 1350 FM W201DK 88.1 WXVS 90.1 WASW 91.9 WAYX 96.3 Simulcast with WSIZ WWUF 97.7 WYNR 102.5 WWSN 103.3 WKUB 105.1 WSGT 107.1 WXGA-TV, a Georgia Public Broadcasting outlet, is licensed to Waycross and serves nearby Valdosta. Waycross is part of Florida television market. With over 1,000 employees and 100 physicians, Satilla Regional Medical Center is a leading center in health care in the area; the three-story facility has a trauma unit, cancer care unit, outpatient surgery and imaging services.
In 2012, Satilla Regional Medical Center joined the Mayo Clinic Health System and became the Mayo Clinic Health System in Waycross. U. S. Highway 1 runs north–south through Waycross, while concurrent with U. S. Highway 23. U. S. Highway 82 is an east–west highway in Waycross. U. S. Highway 84 runs east–west through Waycross. There are no limited-access highways anywhere near Waycross. Waycross-Ware County Airport is a public airport located three miles northwest of the central business district of Waycross, it is owned by the City of Ware County. Six railroad lines meet at Waycross, making it a logical location for shunting freight to different destinations. CSX Transportation operates Rice Yard here, a major "hump"-type classification yard; as of the 2010 United States Censu
Civilian Conservation Corps
The Civilian Conservation Corps was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. For young men ages 18–25, it was expanded to ages 17–28. Robert Fechner was the first director of the agency, succeeded by James McEntee following Fechner's death; the CCC was a major part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal that provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal and local governments; the CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men and to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000. Through the course of its nine years in operation, 3 million young men participated in the CCC, which provided them with shelter and food, together with a wage of $30 per month; the American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs.
Sources written at the time claimed an individual's enrollment in the CCC led to improved physical condition, heightened morale, increased employability. The CCC led to a greater public awareness and appreciation of the outdoors and the nation's natural resources, the continued need for a planned, comprehensive national program for the protection and development of natural resources; the CCC operated separate programs for Native Americans. 15,000 Native Americans participated in the program, helping them weather the Great Depression. By 1942, with World War II and the draft in operation, the need for work relief declined, Congress voted to close the program; as governor of New York, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had run a similar program on a much smaller scale. Long interested in conservation, as president, he proposed to Congress a full-scale national program on March 21, 1933: I propose to create to be used in complex work, not interfering with normal employment and confining itself to forestry, the prevention of soil erosion, flood control, similar projects.
I call your attention to the fact that this type of work is of definite, practical value, not only through the prevention of great present financial loss but as a means of creating future national wealth. He promised this law would provide 250,000 young men with meals, housing and medical care for working in the national forests and other government properties; the Emergency Conservation Work Act was introduced to Congress the same day and enacted by voice vote on March 31. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6101 on April 5, 1933, which established the CCC organization and appointed a director, Robert Fechner, a former labor union official who served until 1939; the organization and administration of the CCC was a new experiment in operations for a federal government agency. The order indicated that the program was to be supervised jointly by four government departments: Labor, which recruited the young men, which operated the camps, Agriculture and Interior, which organized and supervised the work projects.
A CCC Advisory Council was composed of a representative from each of the supervising departments. In addition, the Office of Education and Veterans Administration participated in the program. To end the opposition from labor unions Roosevelt chose Robert Fechner, vice president of the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, as director of the corps. William Green, head of the American Federation of Labor, was taken to the first camp to demonstrate that there would be no job training involved beyond simple manual labor. Reserve officers from the U. S. Army were in charge of the camps. General Douglas MacArthur was placed in charge of the program but said that the number of Army officers and soldiers assigned to the camps was affecting the readiness of the Regular Army, but the Army found numerous benefits in the program. When the draft began in 1940, the policy was to make CCC alumni sergeants. CCC provided command experience to Organized Reserve Corps officers. Through the CCC, the Regular Army could assess the leadership performance of both Regular and Reserve Officers.
The CCC provided lessons which the Army used in developing its wartime and mobilization plans for training camps. The legislation and mobilization of the program occurred quite rapidly. Roosevelt made his request to Congress on March 21, 1933; the first CCC enrollee was selected April 8, subsequent lists of unemployed men were supplied by state and local welfare and relief agencies for immediate enrollment. On April 17, the first camp, NF-1, Camp Roosevelt, was established at George Washington National Forest near Luray, Virginia. On June 18, the first of 161 soil erosion control camps was opened, in Alabama. By July 1, 1933 there were 1,463 working camps with 250,000 junior enrollees; the typical CCC enrollee was a U. S. citizen, unemployed male, 18–25 years of age. His family was on local relief; each enrollee volunteered and, upon passing a physical exam and/or a period of conditioning, was required to serve a minimum six-month period, with the
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art