Susan Howlet Butcher was an American dog musher, noteworthy as the second woman to win the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in 1986, the second four-time winner in 1990, the first to win four out of five sequential years. She is commemorated in Alaska by the Susan Butcher Day. Susan Butcher was born in a lover of dogs and the outdoors, she completed secondary school at the Warehouse Cooperative School studied at Colorado State University, became a veterinary technician. To pursue her love of dogsled racing and breeding huskies, she moved to the Wrangell Mountains area of Alaska. There Butcher began training to compete in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, a grueling 1,112 to 1,131-mile race through arctic blizzard conditions across the Alaska wilderness, which tests the endurance of both mushers and dogs over the course of one to two weeks, she spent two years working for Iditarod founder Joe Redington in exchange for dogs to build up her team. In 1979, she and Redington, along with Ray Genet and two others, made the first dog-sled ascent of Denali.
After placing in several Iditarods, Butcher was forced to withdraw early in the 1985 when two of her dogs were killed by a crazed moose, despite Butcher's attempts to ward the animal off, thirteen others were injured. Libby Riddles, a relative newcomer, braved a blizzard and became the first woman to win the Iditarod that year; the more experienced Butcher won the next race in 1986, proceeded to win again in 1987, 1988, 1990. She joins fellow four-time winners Martin Buser, Jeff King, Lance Mackey and Doug Swingley, Dallas Seavey and Rick Swenson who won five. Butcher married fellow dog racer David Monson on September 2, 1985, they had two daughters and Chisana. She held the Iditarod speed record from 1986 until 1992, breaking her own records in 1987 and 1990, her other speed records included the Norton Sound 250, Kobuk 220, Kuskokwim 300, the John Beargrease Sled Dog Marathon. She retired from competition in 1995Her accomplishments gained her substantial media attention in the late 1980s and earned her many awards, including the "National Women's Sports Foundation Amateur Athlete of The Year Award" and the "Tanqueray Athlete of the Year."
She won the "U. S. Victor Award" for "Female Athlete of the Year" two years in a row. In 2007 Susan was inducted into the Alaska Sports Hall of Fame as one of the five charter members in the inaugural class. On December 2, 2005, Butcher was diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia, which had manifested as a blood disorder three years earlier, she underwent chemotherapy at the University of Washington, received a bone marrow transplant on May 17, 2006, after the cancer went into remission. According to her husband David Monson, "someone said this might be a tough disease, but this leukemia hasn't met Susan Butcher yet."Butcher died on August 5, 2006, after fighting graft-versus-host disease and learning that the cancer had returned. On March 1, 2008, Susan Butcher was honored by the State of Alaska when, just prior to the start of the 2008 Iditarod, Gov. Sarah Palin signed a bill establishing the first Saturday of every March as Susan Butcher Day; the day coincides with the traditional start of the Iditarod each year.
Observing the special day, the bill noted, provides opportunity for people to "remember the life of Susan Butcher, an inspiration to Alaskans and to millions around the world." List of female adventurers Official website Joe Redington Sr. and Susan Butcher with sled and dogs on the summit of Mt. McKinley. Photo from Joe Redington Jr. in UAF Archives "The Dogged Pursuit Of Excellence. Susan Butcher is mushing towards record fifth win in the Iditarod race" by Sonja Steptoe Sports Illustrated February 11, 1991 1987 Chicago Tribune interview with Susan Butcher Susan Butcher Biography and Interview with the American Academy of Achievement Susan Butcher Day Granite by Susan Butcher and David Monson, Illustrated by Sarah Douglan, University of Alaska Press, 2007.
Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race
The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race is an annual long-distance sled dog race run in early March from Anchorage to Nome within the US state of Alaska. Mushers and a team of 14 dogs, of which at least 5 must be on the towline at the finish line, cover the distance in 8–15 days or more; the Iditarod began in 1973 as an event to test the best sled dog mushers and teams but evolved into today's competitive race. A record, the second fastest winning time was recorded in 2016 by Dallas Seavey with a time of 8 days, 11 hours, 20 minutes, 16 seconds; as of 2012, Dallas Seavey was the youngest musher to win the race at the age of 25. In 2017, at the age of 57, Dallas's father, Mitch Seavey, is the oldest and fastest person to win the race, crossing the line in Nome in 8 days, 3 hours, 40 minutes and 13 seconds. Dallas finished two hours and 44 minutes behind. Teams race through blizzards causing whiteout conditions, sub-zero temperatures and gale-force winds which can cause the wind chill to reach −100 °F.
A ceremonial start occurs in the city of Anchorage and is followed by the official restart in Willow, a city 80 mi north of Anchorage. The restart was in Wasilla through 2007, but due to little snow, the restart has been at Willow since 2008; the trail runs from Willow up the Rainy Pass of the Alaska Range into the sparsely populated interior, along the shore of the Bering Sea reaching Nome in western Alaska. The trail is through a harsh landscape of tundra and spruce forests, over hills and mountain passes, across rivers. While the start in Anchorage is in the middle of a large urban center, most of the route passes through separated towns and villages, small Athabaskan and Iñupiat settlements; the Iditarod is regarded as a symbolic link to the early history of the state and is connected to many traditions commemorating the legacy of dog mushing. The race is a important and popular sporting event in Alaska, the top mushers and their teams of dogs are local celebrities. While the yearly field of more than fifty mushers and about a thousand dogs is still Alaskan, competitors from fourteen countries have completed the event including the Swiss Martin Buser, who became the first foreign winner in 1992.
The Iditarod received more attention outside of the state after the 1985 victory of Libby Riddles, a long-shot who became the first woman to win the race. The next year, Susan Butcher became the second woman to win the race and went on to win three more years. Print and television journalists and crowds of spectators attend the ceremonial start at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and D Street in Anchorage and in smaller numbers at the checkpoints along the trail; the race's namesake is the Iditarod Trail, designated as one of the first four US National Historic Trails in 1978. The trail in turn is named for the town of Iditarod, an Athabaskan village before becoming the center of the Inland Empire's Iditarod Mining District in 1910, becoming a ghost town at the end of the local gold rush; the name Iditarod may be derived from the Athabaskan iditarod, meaning "far distant place". Portions of the Iditarod Trail were used by the Native Alaskan Eskimo Inupiaq and Athabaskan peoples hundreds of years before the arrival of Russian fur traders in the 1800s, but the trail reached its peak between the late 1880s and the mid-1920s as miners arrived to dig coal and gold after the Alaska gold rushes at Nome in 1898, at the "Inland Empire" along the Kuskokwim Mountains between Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, in 1908.
The primary communication and transportation link to the rest of the world during the summer was the steamship. Roadhouses where travelers could spend the night sprang up every 14 to 30 miles until the end of the 1920s, when the mail carriers were replaced by bush pilots flying small aircraft and the roadhouses vanished. Dog sledding persisted in the rural parts of Alaska, but was driven into extinction by the spread of snowmobiles in the 1960s. During its heyday, mushing was a popular sport during the winter, when mining towns shut down; the first major competition was the tremendously popular 1908 All-Alaska Sweepstakes, started by Allan "Scotty" Alexander Allan, ran 408 miles from Nome to Candle and back. The event introduced the first Siberian huskies to Alaska in 1910, where they became the favored racing dog, replacing the Alaskan malamute and mongrels bred from imported huskies and other large breeds, like setters and pointers. In 1914, the Norwegian immigrant Leonhard Seppala first appeared, went on to win the race in 1915, 1916, 1917, before the race was discontinued in 1918 during World War I The most famous event in the history of Alaskan mushing is the 1925 serum run to Nome known as the "Great Race of Mercy."
It occurred. Because Nome's supply of antitoxin had expired, Dr. Curtis Welch refused to use it and instead sent out telegrams seeking a fresh supply of antitoxin; the nearest antitoxin was found to be in Anchorage, nearly one thousand miles away. The only way to get the antitoxin to Nome was by sled dog as planes could not be used and ships would be too slow. Governor Scott Bone approved a safe route and the 20-pound cylinder of serum was sent by train 298 miles from the southern port of Sewa
Autonomous social center
Autonomous social centers are self-managed community centers in which non-authoritarians as volunteers, enact principles of mutual aid. These community spaces in multi-purpose venues affiliated with anarchism, can include propaganda library infoshops and non-hierarchical free skools. Western anarchists have long created enclaves in which they could live their societal principles of non-authoritarianism, mutual aid and conviviality in microcosm; some of these community sites include Wobbly union halls, Barcelonan community centers during the Spanish Revolution, squatted community centers since the 1960s. They share a lineage with the radical intentional communities that have periodically surfaced throughout history and are sometimes termed Temporary Autonomous Zones or "free spaces", in which a counter-hegemonic resistance can form arguments and tactics. Anarchists outside the class-struggle and workplace activism tradition instead organize through autonomous spaces including social centers, squats and mobilizations.
While these alternative, autonomous institutions tend to exist in transience, their proponents argue that their ideas are consistent between incarnations and that temporary institutions prevents government forces from clamping down on their activities. A free, or autonomous, space is defined as a place independent from dominant institutions and ideologies, formed outside standard economic relations, fostering self-directing freedom through self-reliance; these nonhierarchical rules encourage experimental approaches to organization, power-sharing, social interaction, personal development, finance. Social centers can be rented, or owned cooperatively, they are self-maintained by volunteers and close for reasons of burnout and reduced participation if participant free time wanes as their economic circumstances change. Since the 1980s, young Italians maintained independent, self-managed social centers where they gathered to work on cultural projects, listen to music, discuss politics, share basic living information.
By 2001, there were about 150 social centers, set up in abandoned, squatted buildings, such as former schools and factories. These centers operate outside state and free market control, have an oppositional relationship with the police portrayed by conservative media as magnets for crime and illicit behavior; the Italian cultural centers were sometimes funded by city cultural programming. In the United States, autonomous social spaces take the form of infoshops and radical bookstores, such as Bluestockings in New York City and Red Emma's in Baltimore. Since the 1990s, North American anarchists have created community centers and free spaces to foster alternative cultures, economies and schools as a counterculture with a do-it-yourself ethic; these social spaces, as distinguished from regional intentional communities of the midcentury seek to integrate their community with the existing urban neighborhood instead of wholly "dropping out" of society to rural communes. In Great Britain, the rise of social centers as cultural activity and political organizing hubs has been a major feature of the region's radical and anarchist politics.
Infoshops are multi-functional spaces that disseminate alternative media and provide a forum for alternative cultural, economic and social activities. Individual infoshops vary in features but can include a small library or reading room and serve as a distribution center for both free and priced/retail alternative media media with revolutionary anarchist politics. While infoshops can serve as a kind of community library, they are designed to meet the information needs of its users rather than to compete with the public library or per-existing information centers. For alternative publishers and activist groups, infoshops can offer low-cost reprographic services for do-it-yourself publications, provide a postal mail delivery address for those who cannot afford a post office box or receive mail at a squatted address. In the 1990s, available tools ranged from no-frills photocopiers to desktop publishing software. Besides these print publication functions, infoshops can host meetings, concerts, or exhibitions.
For instance, as activist video grew in the 1990s, infoshops screened films and hosted discussion groups that, in turn, encouraged debate and collective action. The infoshop attempts to offer a space where individuals can publish without the restrictions of the mainstream press and discuss alternative ideas unimpeded by homophobia and sexism. Organized by political activists, infoshops are independent, precariously self-funded, unaffiliated with any organization or council, they too are staffed by their own self-selected users as volunteers and like the anarchist media they distribute, operate on inexpensive, borrowed, or donated resources, such as secondhand computers and furniture. As a result and other marginal institutions are short-lived, with minimal income to pay their short-term leases on rented storefronts. Infoshops sometimes combine the function of other alternative venues: vegetarian cafés, independent record stores, head shops, alternative bookstores, but foremost, infoshops disseminate information, serving as library, distributor and hub of an informal and ephemeral network of alternative organizations and activists.
Infoshops sprouted across North America and Europe in the 1990s from the squatted anarchist centers of the prior decade, such as 121 Centre in London. In the early 1990s, a network of infoshops in the United States shared resources and a zine, thus were more developed as a network than the infoshops of the United Kingdom. Separate from
A. S. Neill
Alexander Sutherland Neill was a Scottish educator and author known for his school and its philosophies of freedom from adult coercion and community self-governance. Neill became a schoolteacher, he taught in several schools across the country before attending the University of Edinburgh from 1908 to 1912. He took two jobs in journalism before World War I, taught at Gretna Green Village School during the first year of the war, writing his first book, A Dominie's Log, as a diary of his life as headteacher, he joined the staff of a school in Dresden in 1921, founding Summerhill upon his return to England in 1924. Summerhill received widespread renown in the 1920s to 1930s and in the 1960s to 1970s, due to progressive and counter-culture interest. Neill wrote 20 books in his lifetime, his best seller was the 1960 Summerhill, a compilation of four previous books about his school; the book was a common ancestor to activists in the 1960s free school movement. Alexander Sutherland Neill was born in Forfar, Scotland, on 17 October 1883 to George and Mary Neill.
He was their fourth son. He was raised in an austere, Calvinist house with values of fear and adult and divine authority, which he repudiated; as a child, he was obedient and uninterested in school. His father was the village dominie of Kingsmuir, near Forfar in eastern Scotland, his mother had been a teacher before her marriage; the village dominie held a position of prestige, hierarchically beneath that of upper classes and clergymen. As typical of Scottish methods at the time, the dominie controlled overcrowded classrooms with his tawse, as corporal punishment. Neill feared his father, though he claimed his father's imagination as a role model for good teaching. Scholars have interpreted Neill's harsh childhood as the impetus for his philosophy, though his father was not shown to be harsher to Allie than to anyone else. Neill's mother insisted on high standards for her family, demanded comportment to set the family apart from the townspeople. Children left the local school for Forfar Academy at the age of 14, with his father a teacher, Neill was expected to do so.
Instead of wasting time and money, Neill went to work as a junior clerk in an Edinburgh gas meter factory. His parents took pity on his hatred of the job and its low pay, so Neill became an apprentice draper in Forfar, he came home after a foot inflammation. Neill tried to take an examination that would raise his pay grade, but could not bring himself to study. Now 15, his parents decided to make him his father's assistant "pupil teacher"; the children liked Neill. He taught a wider range of topics as his self-confidence grew, he developed an interest in mathematics from the Forfar Academy maths master. After four years, he came nearly last in his class, he continued as a pupil teacher in Bonnyrigg and Kingskettle, where he found the teachers' instruction militant and loathsome. He stayed in Kingskettle for three years, during which he learned Greek from a local priest, an experience that increased his interest in academicism and sublimated his interest in priesthood into a desire to attend university.
After studying with the priest and the Forfar math master, Neill passed his university entrance exam and preliminary teacher's certification. Neill became an assistant teacher at the Newport Public School in the wealthy Newport-on-Tay, where he learned to dance and appreciate music and theatre, he fell in love, Margaret became an obsession of his. He adopted progressive techniques at this school, abandoned the tawse for other forms of establishing discipline. Neill was friendly and relaxed with his pupils, described his two years there as "the happiest of life thus far", he received his full teaching certification. In 1908, at the age of 25, Neill enrolled in the University of Edinburgh, he began as an agriculture student, at his father's behest for a well-salaried career, but switched to English literature by the end of his first year. Neill was excluded from cultural events due to his lack of funds, but participated in sports, showed interest in the military, wrote for The Student and the Glasgow Herald.
He became the student paper's editor during his last year. He felt more confident to pursue women. In his editorials, Neill criticized the tedium of lectures and the emphasis on tests instead of critical thinking, he began to develop his thoughts about the futility of forced education, the axiom that all learning came from intrinsic interest. Neill began to edit encyclopedias and similar reference books, he took a new job as art editor of the Piccadilly Magazine, but its operations were halted by the 1914 onset of World War I, in which he served as an officer in the army. He returned to Scotland, working as a head teacher at Gretna Green School during the first year of the war; the diary he wrote for this year was published as a book, A Dominie's Log, in November 1915 by Herbert Jenkins, received good reviews for its humour and narrative style. Neill was invited to join a progressive school in Dresden in 1921; the school moved to a monastery near Vienna in 1923. He moved to England in 1924 and started Summerhill in Lyme Regis, where the name came from the estate.
The school picked up some notoriety and
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py