Warner Center station
Warner Center Station is a transit hub in the eponymous commercial development in the Woodland Hills neighborhood of the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles, California, USA. When BRT service began on the Orange Line in 2005, Warner Center was the western terminus, the only stop not on a dedicated busway. In 2012 an extension of the Orange Line opened to Chatsworth station, leaving Warner Center on a one-stop stub served by alternate buses. Several other bus lines continue to serve the station. Westfield Promenade Westfield Topanga Fallbrook Mall West Hills Corner Bakery P. F. Chang's China Bistro Ruby's Diner Ruth's Chris Steakhouse Mission Burrito California Pizza Kitchen Gule's Mediterranean La Vaca Brazilian Grill AMC Promenade 16 Theaters Metro Local: 150, 161, 164, 169, 245, 601 Metro Rapid: 750 City of Santa Clarita Transit: 791, 796 VCTC Intercity: Conejo Connection "Orange Line station information". Retrieved 2010-10-02. Orange Line history LA Metro - countywide: official website
Los Angeles Unified School District
The Los Angeles Unified School District is the largest public school system in the U. S. state of California and the 2nd largest public school district in the United States. Only the New York City Department of Education has a larger student population. During the 2016–2017 school year, LAUSD served around 734,641 students, including 107,142 students at independent charter schools and 69,867 adult students. During the same school year, it had 33,635 other employees, it is the second largest employer in Los Angeles County, after the county government. The total school district operating budget for 2016–2017 is $7.59 billion. The school district consists of Los Angeles and all or portions of several adjoining Southern California cities. LAUSD has its own police force, the Los Angeles School Police Department, established in 1948 to provide police services for LAUSD schools; the LAUSD enrolls a third of the preschoolers in Los Angeles County, operates as many buses as the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
The LAUSD school construction program rivals the Big Dig in terms of expenditures, LAUSD cafeterias serve about 500,000 meals a day, rivaling the output of local McDonald's restaurants. The LAUSD has been criticized in the past for crowded schools with large class sizes, high drop-out and expulsion rates, low academic performance in many schools, poor maintenance and incompetent administration. In 2007, LAUSD's dropout rate was 26 percent for grades 9 through 12, but more there are signs that the district is showing improvement, both in terms of dropout and graduation rates. An ambitious renovation program intended to help ease the overcrowded conditions has been completed; as part of its school-construction project, LAUSD opened two high schools in 2005 and four high schools in 2006. Los Angeles Unified School District is governed by a seven-member Board of Education, which appoints a superintendent, who runs the daily operations of the district. Members of the board are elected directly by voters from separate districts that encompass communities that the LAUSD serves.
The district's current superintendent is Austin Beutner. The district's former superintendents are Ramon Cortines; the Board of Education selected King for superintendent in January 2016. Vivian Ekchian became acting superintendent until the Board election of Beutner in May 2018. Cortines was appointed acting superintendent after the school board decided to buy out the contract of David L. Brewer III, a former Navy Vice-Admiral who served as head of the Navy's Education and Training Division and was in charge of the SeaLift Command. From 2001 until his retirement in October 2006, the district was led by former Governor of Colorado and Democratic Party chairman Roy Romer; the six current members of Board of Education include George McKenna, Board President Monica Garcia, Scott Schmerelson, Board Vice President Nick Melvoin, Kelly Fitzpatrick-Gonez, Richard Vladovic. District 5 is vacant following the resignation of Dr. Ref Rodriguez in July 2018. In the March 2015 Los Angeles City Council and School Board elections, voters approved Charter Amendment 2, which allows the Los Angeles Unified School District Board of Education to change their election dates to even-numbered years.
It will take effect with the March 2020 Primary election and the runoff in November 2020. Every LAUSD household or residential area is zoned to an elementary school, a middle school and a high school, in one of the eight local school districts; each local school district is run by an area superintendent and is headquartered within the district. The Los Angeles Unified School District was once composed of two separate districts: the Los Angeles City School District, formed on September 19, 1853, the Los Angeles City High School District, formed in 1890; the latter provided 9–12 educational services, while the former did so for K-8. On July 1, 1961 the Los Angeles City School District and the Los Angeles City High School District merged, forming the Los Angeles Unified School District. On January 31, 1957, a DC7B crashed into the schoolyard of Pacoima Junior High School in Pacoima in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles, California following a midair collision with a US military plane, resulting in the deaths of the four crew members aboard the DC-7B, the pilot of the Scorpion jet, two students on the ground, a third died three days later.
Additionally seventy-eight students suffered injuries which ranged from minor to life-threatening. The annexation left the Topanga School District and the Las Virgenes Union School District as separate remnants of the high school district; the high school district changed its name to the West County Union High School District. LAUSD annexed the Topanga district on July 1, 1962. Since the Las Virgenes Union School District had the same boundary as the remaining West County Union High School District, on July 1, 1962 West County ceased to exist. In 1963, a lawsuit, Crawford v. Board of Ed. of Los Angeles was filed to end segregation in the district. The California Supreme Court required the district to come up with a plan in 1977; the board returned to court with what the court of appeal years would describe as "one of if not the most drastic plan of mandatory student reassignment in the nation." A desegregation busing plan was developed to be implemented in the 1978 school year. Two lawsuits to stop the enforced busing plan, both title
Metro Rapid is a local express bus service in Los Angeles County, California with bus rapid transit characteristics. It has fewer stops than the Metro Local service; the system is operated by Metro. Two routes are operated by one by Culver CityBus and one by Torrance Transit; the Rapid program speeds up travel time for passengers, complementing the Metro Local bus network operated by the Metro as well as other bus routes operated by smaller agencies. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their prominent red color. Based on availability of equipment, units in non-Metro Rapid livery may be placed into service on lines that use Metro Rapid buses. To speed up travel times, buses are equipped with special transmitter devices that send a signal to traffic lights, which cause them to favor the bus by holding green lights longer and shortening red lights. Metro Rapid buses stop less than Metro Local buses, with Rapid stops located only at major intersections and transfer points; the frequency of Metro Rapid buses is increased as well, as more buses on a line translates to less wait time at each station.
All Metro Rapid buses are low-floor CNG buses for alighting. As a result of a recent federal court consent decree ruling, beginning in June 2006 all Rapid routes began operating from at least 5 am to 9 pm, five days a week, with a maximum of 10-minute peak headways and 20-minute midday and evening headways; some Rapid routes operate on weekends as well. The Metro Rapid Program was implemented in June 2000-December 2002 with the goal of improving bus speeds within urbanized Los Angeles County. Lines 720, 745, 754 and 750 were the pilot routes of the program. Metro claims travel times were reduced by as much as 29%. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their silver livery; some Rapid stops are equipped with "NextBus" technology which indicates the wait time before the next bus arrives. NextBus displays were installed at stops on Lines 720 and 750. Metro Rapid Lines 720, 770 and 780 are the only lines, they take 2 hours from start to end during rush hours. Line 720 is the most frequent of all Rapids.
In the morning rush hour, the Rapid 720 ranges from every 2–10 minutes. A year after Metro introduced SmartBus technology on most of their buses, marquees were modified on most Metro Rapid buses in which the "STOP REQUESTED" portion scrolls across the marquee instead of staying in place and "PLEASE USE REAR EXIT" scrolls slowly. Months marquees were switched back to their original format; the fare is the same as other Metro rail service. Routes are numbered in the 700 series. Critics see the Metro Rapid system as not sufficient to meet Los Angeles' growing transit needs. Limited funds, would be better spent on extending the region's rail network. Rapid buses do not have efficiency of light - or heavy-rail technology. Other critics claim. For many years and its predecessor, the SCRTD, operated limited-stop routes, which were similar to Metro Rapid service in the middle of their routes, but made local stops at each end. Rapid buses do not change traffic signals outside of the City of Los Angeles because only the City has tied the transponders to the signal network.
The Los Angeles County Department of Public Works is working on rectifying the problem for all the other cities where Rapid buses pass through, but individual signals have to be reprogrammed to give signal priority to Rapid buses. In addition, only Rapid-branded buses have transponders, which causes problems when not enough Rapid buses are available. Another complaint concerns the placement of Local and Rapid stops at separate locations at the same intersection; this was done to eliminate the backing up of buses at stops, but has resulted in a dangerous move called the "Rapid Bus Shuffle", in which a rider waiting at a Local stop runs to a Rapid stop, or vice versa, if the other bus arrives first. In response, some Rapid stops are placed adjacent to Local bus stops. In addition, civil rights organizations like the Bus Riders Union complain about cutbacks in Local service required to implement Rapid service. Between 25 and 50% of Local service is cut and replaced by Rapid service. Thus, riders not living or working near a Rapid stop must walk a longer distance to an intersection with both Local and Rapid stops, or wait longer for a Local bus.
The Special Master of the consent decree between Metro and the BRU has ordered that no more than 33% of the resources for Rapids come from Local service. It should be noted that Metro staff has never considered Metro Rapid a substitute for rail service, but is instead a pragmatic interim measure given current budgetary constraints. Another major complaint is the lack of Saturday and holiday service on several of its high-volume routes like the 705, 710 and 740 where many patrons commute from inner-city suburbs, Downtown LA, or the South Bay to major cities for their jobs and local shopping; the Metro Rapid fleet consists of low-floor buses manufactured by both North American Bus Industries, New Flyer. Foothill Transit's Silver Streak made its debut on March 18, 2007, using the El Monte Busway and the San Bernardino Freeway; this route is not part of the official Metro Rapid program. Metro Rapid Homepage Metro Rapid timetable page Rapid Bus increa
Woodland Hills, Los Angeles
Woodland Hills is a neighborhood bordering the Santa Monica Mountains in the San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles, California. Woodland Hills is in the southwestern region of the San Fernando Valley, located east of Calabasas and west of Tarzana. On the north it is bordered by West Hills, Canoga Park, Winnetka, on the south by the Santa Monica mountains; some neighborhoods are in the foothills of the Santa Monica Mountains. Running east–west through the community are U. S. Route 101 and Ventura Boulevard, whose western terminus is at Valley Circle Boulevard in Woodland Hills; the area was inhabited for 8,000 years by Native Americans of the Fernandeño-Tataviam and Chumash-Venturaño tribes that lived in the Santa Monica Mountains and Simi Hills and close to the Arroyo Calabasas tributary of the Los Angeles River in present-day Woodland Hills. The first Europeans to enter the San Fernando Valley were the Portola Expedition in 1769, exploring'Alta California' for Spanish missions and settlements locations.
Seeing it from present-day Sepulveda Pass, the oak savanna inspired them to call the area El Valle de Santa Catalina de Bononia de Los Encinos. The Mission San Fernando Rey de España was established in 1797 and controlled the Valley's land, including future Woodland Hills. Ownership of the southern half of the valley, south of present-day Roscoe Boulevard from Toluca Lake to Woodland Hills, by Americans began in the 1860s. First Isaac Lankershim in 1869 Isaac Lankershim's son, James Boon Lankershim, Isaac Newton Van Nuys in 1873, in the "biggest land transaction recorded in Los Angeles County" a syndicate led by Harry Chandler of the Los Angeles Times with Hobart Johnstone Whitley, Gen. Moses Sherman and others in 1910. Victor Girard Kleinberger bought 2,886 acres in the area from Chandler's group and founded the town of Girard in 1922, he sought to attract residents and businesses by developing an infrastructure, advertising in newspapers, planting 120,000 trees. His 300 pepper trees formed a canopy over Canoga Ave. between Ventura Boulevard and Saltillo St. became Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument #93 in 1972.
The community of Girard was incorporated into Los Angeles, in 1945 it became known as Woodland Hills. Woodland Hills has a subtropical mediterranean climate. Within the San Fernando Valley, Woodland Hills experiences some of the more extreme temperature changes season to season than other regions. During the summer, temperatures are very hot, while during the winter, overnight temperatures are among the coldest of the region. On July 22, 2006, Woodland Hills recorded the highest temperature in Los Angeles County, hitting 119 °F at Pierce College; the climate is classified as a Csa in the Köppen climate classification, characterized by mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. This climate is referred to as mediterranean. Precipitation in Woodland Hills averages much the same as most other regions of the west San Fernando Valley, although somewhat higher amounts of rainfall occur in the surrounding hills. In 2008 the population of Woodland Hills was 63,000; the median age in 2000 was 40, considered old when compared to other county jurisdictions.
As of the 2000 census, according to the Los Angeles Almanac, there were 67,006 people and 29,119 households residing in Woodland Hills. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 79.90% White, 6.97% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 3.34% African American, 0.33% Native American, 4.80% from other races, 4.52% from two or more races. 11.94% of the population were Hispanic of any race. In population, it is one of the least dense neighborhoods in Los Angeles, the percentage of white people is high for the county; the percentage of residents 25 and older with four-year college degrees is 47.0%, high for both the city and the county. The percentage of veterans, 10.7% of the population, was high for the city of Los Angeles and high for the county overall. The percentage of veterans who served during World War II or Korea was among the county's highest; the 2008 Los Angeles Times's "Mapping L. A." project supplied these Woodland Hills neighborhood statistics: population: 59,661. The Times said the latter figure was "high for the city of Los Angeles and high for the county."
Woodland Hills Warner Center Neighborhood Council is the local elected advisory body to the city of Los Angeles representing stakeholders in the Woodland Hills and Warner Center areas. Los Angeles Fire Department Station 84 and Station 105 serve the community; the Los Angeles Police Department operates the newly built Topanga Division station in Canoga Park which provides service to the Woodland Hills area. The United States Postal Service Woodland Hills Post Office is located at 6101 Owensmouth Ave; the community's postal codes are 91364, 91365, 91367. Woodland Hills is represented in the United States Senate by California's Senators Dianne Feinstein and Kamala Harris. Woodland Hills is located within California's 30th congressional district represented by Democrat Brad Sherman. Woodland Hills is within California's 45th State Assembly district represented by Democrat Jesse Gabriel and California's 27th State Senate district represented by Democrat Henry Stern. Woodland Hills is located within Los Angeles City Council District 3 represented by Bob Blumenfield.
Public schools serving Woodland Hills are under the jurisdiction the Los
Orange Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line in the Metro Busway network in Los Angeles County, California. It operates between Chatsworth and the North Hollywood Metro Station in the San Fernando Valley where it connects with the Metro Red Line on the Metro Rail system for Downtown Los Angeles; the other line in the Metro Busway network is the Metro Silver Line. The 18-mile Orange Line uses a dedicated, exclusive right-of-way for the entirety of its route with stations located at one-mile intervals; the Metro Orange Line bicycle path runs alongside part of the route. The line, operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, opened on October 29, 2005, with a construction cost of $324 million; the route follows part of the Southern Pacific Railroad's former Burbank Branch Line which provided passenger rail service from 1904 to 1920. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the F Line while retaining its orange coloring; because of its many differences from a standard bus service, the authority has branded the transitway as part of the region's network of light and heavy rail lines.
It appears on Metro's "Metro Busway" map. Orange Line vehicles are painted in the silver-and-gray color scheme of Metro Rail vehicles, it is one of the authority's two bus lines that have been marketed with a color designation rather than its line number. The Orange Line is referred to by its line number, but it sometimes appears on documents and destination signage; the transitway's color name, the Orange Line, refers to the many citrus trees that once blanketed the San Fernando Valley. In the planning stages the transitway was known as the San Fernando Valley East-West Transitway, the Metro Rapidway. Metro Orange Line buses to Chatsworth operate 24 hours a day. At peak hours, alternate buses run only between Canoga Station. Passengers can transfer at Canoga to a shuttle bus that serves the Warner Center area, including the former Orange Line station. Maximum recorded average weekday boardings were 31,904 during September 2013. While usage fell during the Great Recession with average weekday boarding running at 22,669 in 2010, it has since rebounded, averaging 28,263 weekday boardings so far in 2015.
Collisions Collisions with automobiles occurred weekly during the first several months of operations. Metro has noted that the Orange Line had about the same accident rate as other bus lines in the city on a per-mile basis, has stated that the line's accident rate is "less than half" of Metro's entire fleet of buses; the Blue Line had a significant number of collisions in its early years and has the highest fatality rate in North America. Metro issued slow orders after two collisions in November 2005 involving a critically injured driver. Buses were required to slow to 10 mi/h vs. 25–30 mi/h. In December 2005, Metro called for the installation of red-light cameras at most intersections. CapacityThere is concern that the Orange Line will soon reach its engineered capacity, has exceeded its designed capacity during peak periods. During peak hours, the signaling system is designed to balance the Orange Line buses with vehicle cross traffic. Adding more buses requires platooning, or bunching, the running of convoys of two or more buses together, similar to what rail achieves in having multiple cars per train.
Greater signal prioritization is an option, comes at the cost of decreasing cross street travel times and capacity. Another alternative requires the changing of state law or the granting of a Caltrans exemption from state law and the purchasing of 80-foot-long buses; the majority of the Orange Line is built on part of the former Southern Pacific Railroad, taken over for Pacific Electric Red Car service. As the Metro Rail system was being designed in the 1990s, initial plans were to build an extension of the Metro Red Line there, since the purchased right-of-way's eastern terminus was at the site of the planned North Hollywood station. However, political developments stymied these plans: community objections to surface transit along the route resulted in a 1991 law mandating that any line along the route be built as a deep-bore tunnel, but a 1998 ballot measure driven by perceptions of mismanagement banned the use of county sales tax to fund subway tunneling. Prevented from using the route for rail, Metro proceeded to create its first bus rapid transit line along the corridor, despite further lawsuits from area residents, the line opened on October 29, 2005, at a final cost of $324 million.
On June 23, 2009 construction began on a four-mile extension from Canoga northward along the Southern Pacific trackbed to the Metrolink station in Chatsworth. Metro's board approved the plan on September 28, 2006, it was completed in 2012 at a cost of $215 million; this created two branches at the western end of the line beyond Canoga station. In 2018, this branch was eliminated and replaced with a frequent service local shuttle, leaving the entirety of the Orange Line on dedicated right-of-way. In July 2017, Metro voted to begin a transition to an all-electric bus fleet. While the entire fleet will not be replaced until 2030, the transition on the two Metro Busway lines will begin much sooner
Los Angeles Community College District
The Los Angeles Community College District is the community college district serving Los Angeles, United States and some of its neighboring cities and certain unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Its headquarters are in Downtown Los Angeles. Over the past seventy-seven years LACCD has served as educator to more than three million students. In addition to typical college aged students, the LACCD serves adults of all ages. Indeed, over half of all LACCD students are older than 25 years of age, more than a quarter are 35 or older. LACCD educates three times as many Latino students and nearly four times as many African-American students as all of the University of California campuses combined. Eighty percent of LACCD students are from underserved populations; the Los Angeles Community College District is the largest community college district in the United States and is one of the largest in the world. The nine colleges within the district offer educational opportunities to students in Los Angeles.
It serves students located in the Alhambra, Beverly Hills, Culver City, Las Virgenes, Los Angeles, Palos Verdes and San Gabriel school districts. The district covers the Los Angeles city limits, San Fernando, Agoura Hills, Hidden Hills, West Hollywood, Beverly Hills, Culver City, Monterey Park, San Gabriel, Montebello, Vernon, Huntington Park, Cudahy, Bell Gardens, South Gate, Carson, Palos Verdes Estates, Rolling Hills, Rancho Palos Verdes, numerous unincorporated communities, including East Los Angeles, Florence-Firestone and Walnut Park; the LACCD covers an area of more than 882 square miles. East Los Angeles College Los Angeles City College Los Angeles Harbor College Los Angeles Mission College Los Angeles Pierce College Los Angeles Trade-Technical College Los Angeles Valley College Los Angeles Southwest College West Los Angeles College The Los Angeles Community College District is governed by an elected Board of Trustees first established in 1969; the board meets twice a month. The District is modernizing all of its facilities, including all nine of its colleges, through a $6 billion Building Program.
The program is funded through bond measures approved by voters in 2001, 2003, 2008, plus additional funding from the State of California. As of its most recent report $3.1 billion of the $6 billion has been spent or committed. Official website
San Fernando Valley
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the more populous Los Angeles Basin. Nearly two thirds of the valley's land area is part of the city of Los Angeles; the other incorporated cities in the valley are Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas. The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast; the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek and Bell Creek, between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. in Canoga Park.
These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace, it flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, Verdugo Wash; the elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft to 1,200 ft above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeastern corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwestern corner, San Fernando, surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeastern valley.
Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside; the valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs and general garden crops; the San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities are governed by the County of Los Angeles; the Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12.
Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate; the valley falls into four congressional districts: the 28th, 29th, 30th, 33rd, represented by Adam Schiff, Tony Cárdenas, Brad Sherman, Ted Lieu. In the Los Angeles County board of supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Kathryn Barger; the San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is true in the southern areas, which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank; the Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices.
Northridge is home to Northridge. Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils The Tongva known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years, they had numerous settlements, trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley. The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley was called "Rancho Encino", in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so that a mission could be built there