Anjou is an historical and cultural region of France, a former French county and province. Its capital was the city of Angers in the lower Loire Valley, the territory has no very clear geographical borders but instead owes its territory and prominence to the fortunes of its various rulers. Henry Curtmantle, count of Anjou, inherited the kingdom of England on October 25,1154, the resulting Angevin Empire would, at its peak, spread from Ulster to the Pyrenees. Count Arthur was taken prisoner by his uncle the king in 1203, in 1205, the county was seized by Philip II Augustus of France. Its status was elevated to that of a duchy for Prince Louis, Anjou corresponds largely to the present-day department of Maine-et-Loire. It occupied the part of what is now the department of Maine-et-Loire. Anjous political origin is traced to the ancient Gallic state of the Andes, after the conquest by Julius Caesar, the area was organized around the Roman civitas of the Andecavi. The Roman civitas was afterward preserved as a district under the Franks with the name first of pagus—then of comitatus or countship—of Anjou.
At the beginning of the reign of Charles the Bald, the integrity of Anjou was seriously menaced by a danger, from Brittany to the west. Lambert, a count of Nantes, devastated Anjou in concert with Nominoé. By the end of the year 851, he had succeeded in occupying all the part as far as the Mayenne. The principality which he carved out for himself was occupied on his death by Erispoé. By him, it was handed down to his successors, in whose hands it remained until the beginning of the 10th century, the Normans raided the country continuously as well. A brave man was needed to defend it, the chroniclers of Anjou named a Tertullus as the first count, elevated from obscurity by Charles the Bald. A figure by that name seems to have been the father of the count Ingelger but his dynasty seems to have preceded by Robert the Strong. Robert met his death in 866 in a battle at Brissarthe against the Normans, hugh the Abbot succeeded him in the countship of Anjou as in most of his other duties, on his death in 886, it passed to Odo, Roberts eldest son.
His descendants continued to bear that rank for three centuries and he was succeeded by his son Fulk II the Good, author of the proverb that an unlettered king is a wise ass, in 938. He was succeeded in turn by his son Geoffrey I Grisegonelle around 958, Geoffrey Greytunic succeeded in making the Count of Nantes his vassal and in obtaining from the Duke of Aquitaine the concession in fief of the district of Loudun
Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany
Geoffrey II was Duke of Brittany and 3rd Earl of Richmond between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. Geoffrey was the fourth of five sons of Henry II, King of England and Eleanor, in the 1160s, Henry II began to alter his policy of indirect rule in Brittany and to exert more direct control. Henry had been at war with Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, local Breton nobles rebelled against Conan, who now sought Henry IIs help. In 1164, Henry intervened to seize lands along the border of Brittany and Normandy and, in 1166, Henry forced Conan to abdicate as duke and to give Brittany to his five-year-old daughter, who was handed over and betrothed to Henrys son Geoffrey. This arrangement was unusual in terms of medieval law, as Conan might have had sons who could have legitimately inherited the duchy. They eventually married in July 1181, Louis allied himself with the Welsh and Bretons and the French king attacked Normandy. Henry responded by attacking Chaumont-sur-Epte, where Louis kept his main military arsenal, burning the town to the ground and forcing Louis to abandon his allies and make a private truce.
Henry was free to move against the barons in Brittany. Geoffrey was fifteen years old when he joined the first revolt against his father, Geoffrey was a good friend of Louis VIIs son Philip, and the two men were frequently in alliance against King Henry. Geoffrey spent much time at Philips court in Paris, and Philip made him his seneschal, there is evidence to suggest that Geoffrey was planning another rebellion with Philips help during his final period in Paris in the summer of 1186. As a participant in so many rebellions against his father, Geoffrey acquired a reputation for treachery, Geoffrey was known to attack monasteries and churches in order to raise funds for his campaigns. This lack of reverence for religion earned him the displeasure of the Church and, as a consequence, there is evidence that supports a death date of 21 August 1186. There are two accounts of his death. The more common first version holds that he was trampled to death in a jousting tournament, at his funeral, a grief-stricken Philip was said to have attempted jumping into the coffin.
Roger of Hovedens chronicle is the source of this version, the detail of Philips hysterical grief is from Gerald of Wales. Possibly, this version was an invention of its chronicler, sudden illness being Gods judgment of an ungrateful son plotting rebellion against his father, and for his irreligiosity. Marie of Champagne, with whom Geoffrey had gotten on well, was present at the requiem for her half-brother, Geoffrey was buried in the choir of Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral, but his tombstone was destroyed in the 18th century before the French revolution. His body was exhumed in 1797 and measured at five feet, six inches, after Geoffreys death, Henry II arranged for Constance, Geoffreys widow, to marry Ranulph, the Earl of Chester
Guy of Thouars
He was an Occitan noble, a member of the House of Thouars. Between 1196 and the time of her death delivering twin daughters, Constance ruled Brittany with her young son Arthur I, when Duke Arthur I died in 1203, he was succeeded by his infant maternal sister, Alix of Thouars. Guy served as Regent of Brittany for his infant daughter Alix, in 1204, Guy de Thouars as regent of Duchess Alix, vassal of the Philip II, King of France, undertook the siege of the Normans island fortress of Mont Saint-Michel. Because the abbey would not surrender, he set fire to the village and he was obliged to beat a retreat under the powerful walls of the abbey. The fire which he himself lit extended to the buildings, Philip II paid Abbot Jordan for the reconstruction cost. In 1206 Philip II took the regency of Brittany himself, much to the consternation of the Breton nobles. Guy of Thouars died in 1213 in Chemillé in the county of Maine, situated at Nantes south gate, Abbey de Villeneuve was founded in 1201 by Constance de Panthièvre, the Duchess of Brittany.
Guy married Constance of Brittany in 1199 and they had a son, Lord of Chemillé, who married Eleanor of Porhoët. Dukes of Brittany family tree Viscounts of Thouars Everard, J. A, & Jones, M. Charters of Duchess Constance of Brittany and her Family, The Boydell Press,1999 Everard, J. A. Brittany and the Angevins, Cambridge University Press,2000
House of Plantagenet
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The family held the English throne from 1154, with the accession of Henry II, until 1485, under the Plantagenets, England was transformed, although this was only partly intentional. The Plantagenet kings were forced to negotiate compromises such as Magna Carta. These constrained royal power in return for financial and military support, the king was no longer just the most powerful man in the nation, holding the prerogative of judgement, feudal tribute and warfare. He now had defined duties to the realm, underpinned by a justice system. A distinct national identity was shaped by conflict with the French, Scots and Irish, in the 15th century, the Plantagenets were defeated in the Hundred Years War and beset with social and economic problems. Popular revolts were commonplace, triggered by the denial of numerous freedoms, the Tudors worked to centralise English royal power, which allowed them to avoid some of the problems that had plagued the last Plantagenet rulers.
The resulting stability allowed for the English Renaissance, and the advent of early modern Britain, Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, adopted Plantagenet as his family name in the 15th century. Plantegenest had been a 12th-century nickname for his ancestor Geoffrey, count of Anjou, one of many popular theories suggests the common broom, planta genista in medieval Latin, as the source of the nickname. It is uncertain why Richard chose this name, although during the Wars of the Roses it emphasised Richards status as Geoffreys patrilineal descendant. It was only in the late 17th century that it passed into common usage among historians, the three Angevin kings were Henry II, Richard I and John, Angevin can refer to the period of history in which they reigned. Many historians identify the Angevins as a distinct English royal house, Angevin is used in reference to any sovereign or government derived from Anjou. The term Angevin Empire was coined by Kate Norgate in 1887, the Empire portion of Angevin Empire has been controversial.
In 1986 a convention of historians concluded that there had not been an Angevin state, and therefore no Angevin Empire, historians have continued to use Angevin Empire. The counts of Anjou, including the Plantagenets, descended from Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais, in 1060 the couple inherited the title via cognatic kinship from an Angevin family that was descended from a noble named Ingelger, whose recorded history dates from 870. During the 10th and 11th centuries, power struggles occurred between rulers in northern and western France including those of Anjou, Brittany, Blois and the kings of France. In the early 12th century Geoffrey of Anjou married Empress Matilda, King Henry Is only surviving legitimate child and heir to the English throne. As a result of marriage, Geoffreys son Henry II inherited the English throne as well as Norman and Angevin titles, thus marking the beginning of the Angevin
Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers. The region of Poitou was called Thifalia in the sixth century, there is a marshland called the Poitevin Marsh on the Gulf of Poitou, on the west coast of France, just north of La Rochelle and west of Niort. By the Treaty of Paris of 1259, King Henry III of England recognized his loss of continental Plantaganet territory to France. During the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries Poitou was a hotbed of Huguenot activity among the nobility, many of the Acadians who settled in what is now Nova Scotia beginning in 1604, and in New Brunswick, came from the region of Poitou. After the Acadians were deported by the British beginning in 1755, a large portion of these refugees were deported to Louisiana in 1785 and eventually became known as Cajuns. The common thread connecting both phenomena is an assertion of a local identity and opposition to the central government in Paris, whatever its composition. Large parts of the Angelique series of novels are set in 17th century Poitou.
Count of Poitiers for a list of the Comtes de Poitou, poitou-Charentes for the present-day région including Poitiers. Poitevin, the French regional language spoken in Poitou
Saint Judicael or Judicaël, spelled Judhael, was the king of Domnonée and high king of the Bretons in the mid-7th century. According to Gregory of Tours, the Bretons were divided into various regna during the century, of which Domnonia, Cornouaille. They initially pledged themselves to Childebert I in exchange for legitimacy, they acknowledged the suzerainty of Clovis I. They attempted to escape Frankish rule during the time of Chilperic I, Chilperics brother, retained his lordship over Waroch and the Brittani formed a Frankish tributary-vassal state through the reign of Dagobert I. In the Chronicle of Fredegar, a Judicael son of Hoel III was named as King of the Bretons at this time and it is highly likely that he was the Domnonian King Judicael of Breton tradition. This would indicate that Domnonia had at the time swallowed up Broweroch and this is probably the reason for his dealings with Dagobert and Eligius. In 635, Dagobert ordered Judicael to come to his palace at Clichy and renew fealty to the king, the Breton king complied and arrived with gifts, but apparently insulted Dagobert by refusing to eat at the royal table.
Around 640, he retired to the monastery of Saint John at Gwazel, after his death, he was buried beside his abbot, Saint Méen, and declared a saint, his feast day is 16 December. He was succeeded by his son Alain II, known as Alan Hir and he is said to have fathered Saints Judoc and Winnoc. Livre dor des saints de Bretagne and Empire, Brittany and the Carolingians. The History Files, Princes of Domnonia The History Files, Map of historical Britanny
Salomon, King of Brittany
Salomon was Count of Rennes and Nantes from 852 and Duke of Brittany from 857 until his death by assassination. He used the title King of Brittany intermittently after 868, in 867, he was granted the counties of Avranches and Coutances. In popular tradition within Brittany he was canonised as Saint Salomon after his death, Salomon was the son of Riwallon III of Poher. He and Erispoe were the dominatores of Rennes in 853, Salomon was the most powerful aristocrat at Erispoes court. In 858, he was behind the revolt of the Frankish nobles of Neustria against Charles the Bald. Bretons were involved in the chasing of Louis from Le Mans in Spring that year, in September, Louis the German marched as far as Orléans, where a Breton delegation from Salomon met him and took oaths on Salomons behalf. In 859, a synod met at Savonnières near Toul and tried to order Salomon to remember his oath of 852, by 862, Salomon was the centre of the revolt against Charles the Bald, though he had not made war on the king himself since 860.
In that year he hired the services of a band of Vikings with which to fight Robert the Strong, Salomon lent a force of Bretons to aid Louis the Stammerer, now in league with the rebels, in his war with Robert. Salomon did not give up his war with Robert or his alliance with the Vikings quite so readily, in 865 and 866, the Vikings and Bretons ravaged the vicinity of Le Mans and Robert was killed in the Battle of Brissarthe against the Vikings allied with the Bretons. This was the start of a new insurrection, even Pope Nicholas I wrote letters to Salomon urging him to resume the halted tribute payments, Charles marched on Brittany in 867, but Salomon sent his son-in-law Pascweten to negotiate a peace at Compiègne in August. Charles sent hostages to Salomon and Pascweten swore oaths of fealty to Charles on Salomons behalf and this peace was to last until the end of Salomons life. Charles rewarded his now faithful vassal with a gift of regalia in 868, including a golden and it is likely that Salomons two-year-old son Wigo was baptised on this occasion and that Charles acted as godfather to him, thus making Salomon and Charles linked by blood as co-fathers.
Salomon may have wanted an archbishop which was pliable to his wishes or who could consecrate him as king, perhaps he simply wished to break the deadlock which had ensued following Nominoes deposition of five Breton bishops a decade and a half earlier. In 874, a conspiracy involving Pascweten and Wigo, son of Riwallon, Count of Cornouaille and this they did, though they quickly fell out with each other and a civil war followed until 876
St. Guntram, called Gontram, Gunthram and Guntramnus, was the King of Burgundy from AD561 to AD592. He was the third eldest and second eldest surviving son of Chlothar I, on his fathers death in 561, he became king of a fourth of the Kingdom of the Franks, and made his capital at Orléans. The name Guntram denotes war raven, he married Marcatrude, daughter of Magnar, and sent his son Gundobad to Orléans. But after she had a son Marcatrude was jealous, and proceeded to bring about Gundobads death and she sent poison, they say, and poisoned his drink. And upon his death, by Gods judgment she lost the son she had and incurred the hate of the king, was dismissed by him, after her he took Austerchild, named Bobilla. He had by her two sons, of whom the older was called Clothar and the younger Chlodomer, Guntram had a period of intemperance. He was eventually overcome with remorse for the sins of his past life, in atonement, he fasted, prayed and offered himself to God. Throughout the balance of his prosperous reign he attempted to govern by Christian principles, according to St.
Gregory of Tours, he was the protector of the oppressed, caregiver to the sick, and the tender parent to his subjects. He was generous with his wealth, especially in times of plague and he strictly and justly enforced the law without respect to person, yet was ever ready to forgive offences against himself, including two attempted assassinations. Guntram munificently built and endowed many churches and monasteries, St. Gregory related that the king performed many miracles both before and after his death, some of which St. Gregory claimed to have witnessed himself. In 567, his elder brother Charibert I died and his lands of the Kingdom of Paris were divided between the brothers, Sigebert I, and Chilperic I. They shared his realm, agreeing at first to hold Paris in common, chariberts widow, proposed a marriage with Guntram, the eldest remaining brother, though a council convened at Paris as late as 557 had forbidden such tradition as incestuous. Guntram decided to house her more safely, though unwillingly, in a monastery in Arles, in 573, Guntram was caught in a civil war with his brother Sigebert I of Austrasia, and in 575 summoned the aid of their brother Chilperic I of Soissons.
He reversed his allegiance later, due to the character of Chilperic, if we may give him the benefit of the doubt in light of St. Gregorys commendation and he thereafter remained an ally of Sigebert, his wife, and his sons until his death. Mummolus defeated Chilperics general Desiderius and the Neustrians forces retreated from Austrasia. In 577, Chlothar and Clodomir, his two surviving children, died of dysentery and he adopted as his son and heir Childebert II, his nephew, Sigeberts son, Childebert did not always prove faithful to his uncle. In 581, Chilperic took many of Guntrams cities and in 583, he allied with Childebert and this time Guntram made peace with Chilperic and Childebert retreated. Supposed to take place on 4 July, the feast of St. Martin of Tours, in Orléans, it did not, Guntram marched against him, calling him nothing more than a millers son named Ballomer
Gregory of Tours
Saint Gregory of Tours was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of Gaul. He was born Georgius Florentius and added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather and he is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. St. Martins tomb was a pilgrimage destination in the 6th century. Gregory was born in Clermont, in the Auvergne region of central Gaul, Gregory had several noted bishops and saints as close relatives, according to Gregory, he was connected to thirteen of the eighteen bishops of Tours preceding him by ties of kinship. Gregorys paternal grandmother, descended from Vettius Epagatus, the martyr of Lyons. His father evidently died while Gregory was young and his mother moved to Burgundy where she had property. Gregory went to live with his paternal uncle St. Gallus, Bishop of Clermont), under whom, Gregory received the clerical tonsure from Gallus. Having contracted an illness, he made a visit of devotion to the tomb of St.
Martin at Tours. Upon his recovery, he began to pursue a career and was ordained deacon by Avitus. Upon the death of St. Euphronius, he was chosen as Bishop by the clergy and people, who had been charmed with his piety, learning and he spent most of his career at Tours, although he assisted at the council of Paris in 577. The rough world he lived in was on the cusp of the world of Antiquity. Gregory lived on the border between the Frankish culture of the Merovingians to the north and the Gallo-Roman culture of the south of Gaul, at Tours, Gregory could not have been better placed to hear everything and meet everyone of influence in Merovingian culture. Tours lay on the highway of the navigable Loire. Five Roman roads radiated from Tours, which lay on the thoroughfare between the Frankish north and Aquitania, with Spain beyond. At Tours the Frankish influences of the north and the Gallo-Roman influences of the south had their chief contact, Gregory struggled through personal relations with four Frankish kings, Sigebert I, Chilperic I, and Childebert II and he personally knew most of the leading Franks.
Gregory wrote in Late Latin which departed from classical usage frequently in syntax, the Historia Francorum is in ten books. At this date Gregory had been bishop of Tours for two years, the second part, books V and VI, closes with Chilperic Is death in 584. During the years that Chilperic held Tours, relations between him and Gregory were tense, after hearing rumours that the Bishop of Tours had slandered his wife, Chilperic had Gregory arrested and tried for treason—a charge which threatened both Gregorys bishopric and his life
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent with queen consort in English, a queen consort usually shares her husbands social rank and status. She holds the equivalent of the kings monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the kings political. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today. In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent, the kings other consorts are accorded royal titles that confer status. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status, a Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives Great Wife, which would be the equivalent to queen consort.
Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chiefs princess consorts are essentially of equal rank, in general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se, even when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized. In some cases, the queen consort has been the power behind her husbands throne, e. g. Maria Luisa of Parma. Past queens consort, Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon
Bayeux is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy in northwestern France. Bayeux is the home of the Bayeux Tapestry, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England, Bayeux is a sub-prefecture of Calvados. It is the seat of the arrondissement of Bayeux and of the canton of Bayeux, Bayeux is located 7 kilometres from the coast of the English Channel and 30 km north-west of Caen. The city, with elevations varying from 32 to 67 metres above sea level – with an average of 46 metres – is bisected by the River Aure, Bayeux is located at the crossroads of RN13 and the train route Paris-Caen-Cherbourg. The city is the capital of the Bessin, which extends north-west of Calvados, the city was known as Augustodurum in the Roman Empire. It means the durum dedicated to Augustus, Roman Emperor, the Celtic word duron, Latinised as durum, was probably used to translate the Latin word forum. In the Late Empire it took the name of the Celtic tribe who lived here, the Bodiocassi, Latinized in Bajocassi, Bodiocassi has been compared with Old Irish Buidechass with blond locks.
Any settlement was more confined to scattered Druid huts along the banks of the Aure. Cemeteries have been found on the nearby Mount Phaunus indicating the area as a Druid centre, titus Sabinus, a lieutenant of Julius Caesar, subjected the Bessin region to Roman domination. The town is mentioned by Ptolemy, writing in the reign of Antoninus Pius under the name Noemagus Biducassium, the main street was already the heart of the city. A pair of spas under the Church of St. Lawrence and the Dairy Street Post Office, in 1990 a closer examination of huge blocks discovered in the cathedral in the 19th century indicated the presence of an old Roman building. Bayeux was built on a crossroads between Lisieux and Valognes, developing first on the west bank of the river, by the end of the 3rd century a walled enclosure surrounded the city until it was removed in the 18th century. Its layout is visible and can be followed today. The citadel of the city was located in the southwest corner, an important city in Normandy, Bayeux was part of the coastal defence of the Roman Empire against the pirates of the region and a Roman Legion was stationed there.
The city was destroyed during the Viking raids of the late 9th century but was rebuilt in the early 10th century under the reign of Bothon. In the middle of the 10th century Bayeux was controlled by Hagrold, the 11th century saw the creation of five villages beyond the walls to the north east evidence of its growth during Ducal Normandy. William the Conquerors half brother Odo, Earl of Kent completed the cathedral in the city, however the city began to lose prominence when William placed his capital at Caen. When King Henry I of England defeated his brother Robert Curthose for the rule of Normandy, under Richard the Lionheart, Bayeux was wealthy enough to purchase a municipal charter