Autechre are an English electronic music duo consisting of Rob Brown and Sean Booth, both from Rochdale, Greater Manchester. Formed in 1987, they are one of the best known acts signed to UK electronic label Warp Records, through which all of Autechre's full-length albums have been released beginning with their 1993 debut Incunabula, they gained initial recognition when they were featured on Warp's 1992 compilation Artificial Intelligence. Influenced by styles such as electro, acid house, musique concrète, the music of Autechre has evolved throughout their career from early, melodic techno recordings to works considered abstract and experimental, featuring complex algorithm-generated production and few stylistic conventions, their work has been associated with the 1990s electronic genre known as intelligent dance music. Booth and Brown pronounce the name Autechre with a Rochdale accent. However, they have explained. Booth explains: "The first two letters were intentional, because there was an'au' sound in the track, the rest of the letters were bashed randomly on the keyboard.
We had this track title for ages, we had written it on a cassette, with some graphics. It looked good, we began using it as our name." Brown and Booth met through Manchester's graffiti scene in 1987. Influenced by electro and house, they began trading mixtapes and creating their own compositions while collecting a handful of cheap equipment, most notably a Casio SK-1 sampler and a Roland TR-606 drum machine, their first release was Lego Feet, a 12" recorded under an alias of the same name brought out by Manchester's Skam Records. Their first release as Autechre was the single "Cavity Job" in 1991, released on Hardcore Records. Two more tracks appeared during the following year, under the now finalised Autechre name, on the Warp Records compilation Artificial Intelligence, part of the series of the same name; the compilation contained "The Egg" reworked for their first full-length release under the title "Eggshell". In 1993 Warp released their debut album, which became a surprise success, reaching the top of the UK Indie Chart.
The album had a cool, calculated feel, with clear techno and electro roots, but showed hints of the rhythmic flourishes and tuned percussion that would become an important feature of their work. An EP of remixes of Incunabula's "Basscadet" was released in 1994, with animated computer graphics for the Bcdtmx version created by Jess Scott-Hunter; this music video featured on MTV Europe's Party Zone when Autechre were interviewed during the show in September that year. 1994 saw the release of Amber, an album featuring a more ambient, less percussive approach than their debut. The Anti EP was released shortly before Amber and is, as of yet, the only Autechre release to have an explicit purpose: it was a protest against the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, which would prohibit raves, defined as any gathering of nine or more people where rave music is played. Rave music was defined as music which "includes sounds wholly or predominantly characterized by the emission of a succession of repetitive beats".
The record came wrapped in a seal, on, printed a legal warning: "Flutter has been programmed in such a way that no bars contain identical beats and can therefore be played at both forty five and thirty three revolutions under the proposed new law. However we advise DJs to have a lawyer and musicologist present at all times to confirm the non repetitive nature of the music in the event of police harassment." In a 2008 interview with Pitchfork Media, Rob Brown mentioned that Incunabula and Amber retrospectively sounded "cheesy". Brown clarified that "they were more simple, but not in a shit way." 1995 saw the release of Tri Repetae, their third album, as well as the EPs Anvil Vapre and Garbage, featuring a monochrome cover designed by The Designers Republic, with whom Autechre have long held a close association. Tri Repetae and its associated EPs were combined into a two disc set entitled Tri Repetae++, released in the United States. An official promotional video was created for "Second Bad Vilbel" from Anvil Vapre by English visual artist Chris Cunningham.
The "Second Bad Vilbel" video featured cut shots of industrial machinery and robotic movement, synchronized with the music. Cunningham re-edited the video in 2002, following his disappointment with the original: "It was intended to be abstract but it didn't quite work out that way". A two track vinyl-only EP entitled We R Are Why, was available to buy during certain concerts and via mail order during 1996. In 1995, Autechre's track "Nonima" was featured on Mind The Gap Volume 5, a Belgian compilation of electronic music. Autechre released three records in 1997: the full length Chiastic Slide, the EPs Envane, Cichlisuite; the latter EP consists of five remixed versions of "Cichli" from Chiastic Slide. Radio Mix was released in 1997. An untitled record followed in 1998, it has been seen as a transitional work, with Brown commenting in 2005 that "a lot of people have cited it as a classic Autechre album because it bridges the gap between the guys who liked our old stuff and the guys who got propelled on to our new stuff."1999 saw the release of their first Peel session EP, consisting of three tracks broadcast on John Peel's show for BBC Radio 1 in October 1995, as well as a vinyl-only limit
Warp (record label)
Warp is an English independent record label, founded in Sheffield in 1989 by record store workers Steve Beckett, Rob Mitchell and record producer Robert Gordon. It is based in London. In the 1990s, the label became associated with experimental electronic styles such as intelligent dance music, served as the home of a variety of acclaimed and influential electronic musicians, including Aphex Twin, Boards of Canada, Squarepusher, LFO, The Black Dog, Autechre. Current artists on the label roster include Flying Lotus, Oneohtrix Point Never, Danny Brown, Grizzly Bear, Brian Eno, TNGHT, Kelela. Warp was founded by Steve Beckett and the late Rob Mitchell, who had both gained experience working at Sheffield's FON record shop, alongside record producer Robert Gordon; the name was chosen because the original name,'Warped Records', was difficult to distinguish over the telephone. The first release was by Forgemasters, whose 500 copy pressing of "Track with no Name" was financed by an Enterprise Allowance grant and distributed in a borrowed car.
It set a trend for the early releases both in terms of sound, the use of purple sleeves. The follow-up was Nightmares on Wax's "Dextrous"; this led to greater commercial success. Warp's third record, "Testone" by Sweet Exorcist, defined Sheffield's bleep techno sound, by making playful use of sampled sounds from Yellow Magic Orchestra's "Computer Game" and the film Close Encounters of the Third Kind; the first album released was Sweet Exorcist's C. C. E. P. in 1991. In the same year Robert Gordon left Warp acrimoniously. Warp went on to release a series of singles and albums from 1992 under the Artificial Intelligence heading, a series of experimental electronic music releases by artists such as Aphex Twin, Autechre, B12, The Black Dog, Richie Hawtin and Alex Paterson. All the album releases used gatefold sleeves and coloured vinyl designed by The Designers Republic or Phil Wolstenholme. A VHS compilation of digitally animated music videos called Motion was released in conjunction with the second Artificial Intelligence compilation, featured an early work by director David Slade.
In 1996 Warp started the Blech club night in Sheffield in London between 1997 and 1999, released an accompanying compilation CD under the same name. The artwork, created by the Designers Republic, had a distinctive Japanese manga influence. Blech club nights include: Blech01: Seefeel with Boards of Canada Blech 02: Autechre with Cylob Blech 03: PloneIn 1998 Warp signed Boards Of Canada, a duo that would go on to release some of the most revered electronic music albums of their time: Music Has the Right to Children, The Campfire Headphase and Tomorrow's Harvest. In 1999, the label released Warp 10: Influences, Remixes, a compilation spanning six discs, featuring early acid house and techno music that influenced the label and its artists, as well as tracks from Warp's back catalogue, new remixes of Warp material; the collection celebrated the label's tenth anniversary. In 2000, the label moved its operations to London along with its physical music and merchandise store Warpmart. Co-founder Rob Mitchell was diagnosed with cancer in early 2001.
He died that year, aged 38. In January 2004, Warp launched an online digital music and entertainment store, Bleep.com, notable for being the first store in the world to avoid all digital rights management features in the downloadable tracks, unlike other music stores such as iTunes and Rhapsody. Warpmart has now been absorbed into Bleep.com. Today Bleep sells a curated selection of music from a diverse range of labels; the site has released its own limited edition LPs The Green Series, an annual digital release comprising the Top 100 tracks of each year. On 27 September 2004, Warp released its second music video compilation, named WarpVision, featuring most of the videos produced from 1989 to 2004.2005 saw the release of Warp, the first book in the Labels Unlimited series. Written by Rob Young, the book gave an illustrated history of the label, as well as offering a complete discography; the Warp website said the book was “A beautiful thing and like our own This Is Your Life", referring to the This Is Your Life UK TV series.
The label continued to expand its roster, signing acts including!!!, Born Ruffians, Maxïmo Park and Grizzly Bear. For the label's 20th anniversary in 2009, several Warp20 concerts took place in Paris, New York City, Tokyo and London. Warp celebrated by releasing the Warp20 box set, composed of six parts: Warp20 The Complete Catalogue: a 192-page book of artwork from every Warp release since the label began. Warp20: a double CD album, with ten songs chosen by Warp fans and ten chosen by founder Steve Beckett Warp20: a double CD album that included twenty brand new cover versions of Warp songs by Warp artists past and present Warp20: a triple 10” vinyl set of unheard tracks from artists such as Boards Of Canada and Broadcast. Warp20: a CD album featuring an hour-long piece by Osymyso, made from sections and fragments of Warp music from the prev
Squarepusher is the principal pseudonym adopted by Tom Jenkinson, an English electronic musician. His compositions draw on a number of influences including drum and bass, acid house and electroacoustic music, his recordings are typified by a combination of electronic sound sources, live instrumental playing and digital signal processing. He is the brother of Ceephax Acid Crew. Tom Jenkinson grew up in Essex; the first school he attended was affiliated with Chelmsford Cathedral giving him exposure to organ music, which he has subsequently acknowledged as an influence on his work. He took an interest in music early in life, became interested in music reproduction equipment. Much of his early experience of music was from scanning through various radio stations for anything that caught his ear irrespective of style or genre, he was fascinated by radio static and amplitude modulation artefacts on the Short Wave band. At the age of 11, Tom bought a guitar, a 3/4 size nylon-strung classical, he attended several guitar lessons with a local tutor but soon decided that it would be better to teach himself, as he found that his tutor's answers to his questions about musical instruments and music in general were unsatisfactory.
In 1986 Tom went to the King Edward VI Grammar School in Chelmsford. One of his formative musical experiences came from seeing guitarist Guthrie Govan playing in the school's inter-house music competition. Tom went on to develop a friendship with Govan. Tom joined his first band at 12, a Metallica influenced thrash metal group consisting of several other pupils from the school. Over subsequent years Tom played bass guitar in various local bands playing numerous gigs around East Anglia and London, took part in some studio recordings. In 1991 Tom became interested in house music, acid house and techno, through which he became friends with Hardy Finn who went on to co-found record label Spymania. In August 1993, Tom recorded a particular piece named "O'Brien"; the cassette containing this recording is visible on the front cover of the Buzz Caner album and is dated 8/8/93 > 11/8/93. This piece was liked by Tom's friend Hardy Finn and between them they raised sufficient funds to release this piece, along with additional material, on a vinyl 12".
The name of the record label was "Nothing's Clear", taken from the title of a song by Tricky of which Tom and Hardy were fans, released in 1991 on a compilation album called The Hard Sell. This record exhibits a strong influence of Aphex Twin, Tom states that the Xylem Tube EP was of particular importance to him at that time. "Falling" was written after Tom listened to'Galaxy' by Carl Craig, was completed the following day after an all-night recording session, which set the precedent of how he would work in the future. Tom and his friends took the copies of the record to various local record shops but found reactions disappointing. However, it was played by Colin Faver on Kiss FM, elicited a complimentary phone call from Grant Wilson Claridge of Rephlex Records; these tracks featured in the live sets which Tom was playing during this period, which included a performance at Eurobeat 2000 at Turnmills in 1995, where he shared the bill with one of his influences, Carl Craig. In autumn 1994, Tom began to pursue his fascination for integrating breakbeats into electronic music.
This was inspired by early 1990s recordings on record labels such as Shut Up And Dance, Chill, D-Zone and Kickin', but Aphex Twin's usage of breaks in tracks such as "Polynomial C" and "Dodeccaheedron" as well as Renegade Soundwave's "Black Eye Boy" and Mantronix's "King of the Beats", a favourite of Tom's from the days of DJ'ing at parties in Chelmsford. The first recordings using Tom's new set up were released on the Spymania label; this was an offshoot of Zoom Records, based in Camden Town and was set up by Tom's school friends Hardy Finn and Paul Fowler who worked at Zoom. The first e.p. was called "Conumber". "Conumber" exhibits the influence of mid-1990s jungle, which at that point had eclipsed his interest in other forms of dance music. Tom cites "Babylon" by DJ Splash, "Dub Plate Style" by Marvellous Kane and "R. I. P." by Remarc as being influential on him. But a specific influence came from Luke Vibert's recordings as Plug the track "Military Jazz" from the "Plug 2" e.p. of which he says: "I recall hearing that on the radio in the summer of 1995.
I was dumbfounded, I thought I was listening to some funk group and this massive Amen breakbeat kicked in. It sounded like the future." This influence came to fuel many of Tom's ideas over the next two years, in particular the album Hard Normal Daddy and becomes more apparent on the second Spymania EP Alroy Road Tracks. Another influence at this time came from frequenting the club "Speed", put on by DJ's Fabio and LTJ Bukem and was held in central London; the e.p. received an excellent reaction from Rocket at Ambient Soho on Berwick Street, sufficiently enthused to invite Tom to play a live set at his monthly club night held in the back room of The Sir George Robey in Finsbury Park. Tom had attended several nights at this particular club, known for playing experimental electronic music. Sharing the bill with Jenkinson were Wishmountain aka Matthew Herbert and Cylob; the sleeve notes of Feed Me Weird Things written by Aphex Twin recall to humorous effect some of the real or imagined occurrences of that evening which marked the beginning of a friendship between him and Tom.
The second release on Spymania was under the pseudonym of "Alroy Road Tracks" and was entitled "Featuring The Duke
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno in reference to a specific genre of music was in 1988. Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of sub-genres have been built. In Detroit, techno resulted from the melding of black styles including Chicago house, funk and electric jazz with electronic music by artists such as Kraftwerk, Giorgio Moroder, Yellow Magic Orchestra. Added to this is the influence of futuristic and fictional themes relevant to life in American late capitalist society, with Alvin Toffler's book The Third Wave being a notable point of reference. Pioneering producer and DJ Juan Atkins cites Toffler's phrase "techno rebels" as inspiring him to use the word techno to describe the musical style he helped to create; this unique blend of influences aligns techno with the aesthetic referred to as afrofuturism.
To producers such as Derrick May, the transference of spirit from the body to the machine is a central preoccupation. In this manner: "techno dance music defeats what Adorno saw as the alienating effect of mechanisation on the modern consciousness". Stylistically, techno is repetitive instrumental music produced for use in a continuous DJ set; the central rhythmic component is most in common time, where time is marked with a bass drum on each quarter note pulse, a backbeat played by snare or clap on the second and fourth pulses of the bar, an open hi-hat sounding every second eighth note. The tempo tends to vary between 120 to 150 beats per minute, depending on the style of techno; the creative use of music production technology, such as drum machines and digital audio workstations, is viewed as an important aspect of the music's aesthetic. Many producers use retro electronic musical devices to create what they consider to be an authentic techno sound. Drum machines from the 1980s such as Roland's TR-808 and TR-909 are prized, software emulations of such retro technology are popular among techno producers.
Music journalists and fans of techno are selective in their use of the term. The initial blueprint for techno developed during the mid-1980s in Belleville, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit by Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson and Derrick May, all of whom attended school together at Belleville High, with the addition of Eddie Fowlkes, Blake Baxter and James Pennington. By the close of the 1980s, the pioneers had recorded and released material under various guises: Atkins as Model 500, Magic Juan. There were a number of joint ventures, including Kevin Saunderson's group Inner City, which saw collaborations with Atkins, vocalist Paris Grey, fellow DJs James Pennington and; the Electrifying Mojo was the first radio DJ to play music by Atkins and Saunderson. Mojo refused to follow pre-established radio formats or playlists, he promoted social and cultural awareness of the African American community. In exploring techno's origins writer Kodwo Eshun maintains that "Kraftwerk are to Techno what Muddy Waters is to the Rolling Stones: the authentic, the origin, the real."
Juan Atkins has acknowledged that he had an early enthusiasm for Kraftwerk and Giorgio Moroder Moroder's work with Donna Summer and the producer's own album E=MC2. Atkins mentions that "around 1980 I had a tape of nothing but Kraftwerk, Devo, Giorgio Moroder and Gary Numan, I'd ride around in my car playing it." Atkins has claimed he was unaware of Kraftwerk's music prior to his collaboration with Richard "3070" Davis as Cybotron, two years after he had first started experimenting with electronic instruments. Regarding his initial impression of Kraftwerk, Atkins notes that they were "clean and precise" relative to the "weird UFO sounds" featured in his "psychedelic" music. Derrick May identified the influence of Kraftwerk and other European synthesizer music in commenting that "it was just classy and clean, to us it was beautiful, like outer space. Living around Detroit, there was so little beauty... everything is an ugly mess in Detroit, so we were attracted to this music. It, ignited our imagination!".
May has commented that he considered his music a direct continuation of the European synthesizer tradition. He identified Japanese synthpop act Yellow Magic Orchestra member Ryuichi Sakamoto, British band Ultravox, as influences, along with Kraftwerk. YMO's song "Technopolis", a tribute to Tokyo as an electronic mecca, is considered an "interesting contribution" to the development of Detroit techno, foreshadowing concepts that Atkins and Davis would explore with Cybotron. Kevin Saunderson has acknowledged the influence of Europe but he claims to have been more inspired by the idea of making music with electronic equipment: "I was more infatuated with the idea that I can do this all myself." Prior to achieving notoriety, Saunderson and Fowlkes shared common interests as budding musicians, "mix" tape traders, aspiring DJs. They found musical inspiration via the Midnight Funk Association, an eclectic five-hour late-night radio program hosted on various Detroit radio stations, including WCHB, WGPR, WJLB-FM from 1977 through the mid-1980s by DJ Charles "The Electrifying Mojo" Johnson.
Surgeon is the pseudonym of Anthony Child, an English electronic musician and DJ. Child releases music on Dynamic Tension. Established imprints, such as Tresor and Harthouse, have released Surgeon's original material and remixes, he has been recognized as one of the first wave of DJs to use Ableton Live and Final Scratch to supplement his DJ sets. Child grew up in a village in Northamptonshire, England. In 1989, he moved to Birmingham to study audio-visual design, played in a jazz/rock/fusion band called Blim, learned to DJ from friend Paul Damage. At that time, there were no Techno clubs in Birmingham so he and his friends started House of God, by 1992 he was DJing there regularly. In 1994, he released his eponymous debut EP on Downwards Records. Surgeon's musical style is characterised by his incorporation of the more cinematic and left field aspects of his musical background into his club-based material, his production, DJ repertoire are inspired by krautrock and industrial music bands such as Faust and Whitehouse.
In particular, the extent of Coil's influence is such that most of the track titles from Surgeon's Tresor album "Force and Form" are direct references to Coil recordings. Child is influenced by Chicago house, Dub music, Electro, from non-musical works by Mike Leigh, David Lynch, William S. Burroughs, Bret Easton Ellis, Cindy Sherman. Child is known for several significant artist collaborations in his career; these include tonal experiments with Mick Harris, British Murder Boys with Regis, with Ben Sims as Frequency 7. He has opened for Lady Gaga, performing with Lady Starlight, he is known for producing music for the PlayStation racing game, Midnight Club: Street Racing. Surgeon Official website Extensive Surgeon discography @ Discogs.com Interview on Techno Music News website Interview on spannered.org Interview on UMP3.de Media related to Surgeon at Wikimedia Commons
House music is a genre of electronic dance music created by club DJs and music producers in Chicago in the early 1980s. Early house music was characterized by repetitive 4/4 beats, rhythms provided by drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, synthesized basslines. While house displayed several characteristics similar to disco music, which preceded and influenced it, as both were DJ and record producer-created dance music, house was more electronic and minimalistic; the mechanical, repetitive rhythm of house was one of its main components. Many house compositions were instrumental, with no vocals. House music developed in Chicago's underground dance club culture in the early 1980s, as DJs from the subculture began altering the pop-like disco dance tracks to give them a more mechanical beat and deeper basslines; as well, these DJs began to mix synth pop, rap and jazz into their tracks. Latin music salsa clave rhythm, became a dominating riff of house music, it was pioneered by Chicago DJs such as Steve Hurley.
It was influenced by Chicago DJ and record producer Frankie Knuckles, the Chicago acid-house electronic music group Phuture, the Tennessee DJ/producer Mr. Fingers; the genre was associated with the Black American LGBT subculture but has since spread to the mainstream. From its beginnings in the Chicago club and local radio scene, the genre spread internationally to London to American cities such as New York City and Detroit, globally. Chicago house music acts from the early to mid-1980s found success on the US dance charts on various Chicago independent record labels that were more open to sign local house music artists; these same acts experienced some success in the United Kingdom, garnering hits in that country. Due to this success, by the late 1980s, Chicago house music acts found themselves being offered major label deals. House music proved to be a commercially successful genre and a more mainstream pop-based variation grew popular. Since the early to mid-1990s, house music has been infused into mainstream pop and dance music worldwide.
In the 2010s, the genre, while keeping several of its core elements, notably the prominent kick drum on most beats, varies in style and influence, ranging from soulful and atmospheric to the more minimalistic microhouse. House music has fused with several other genres creating fusion subgenres, such as euro house, tech house, electro house and jump house. One subgenre, acid house, was based around the squelchy, deep electronic tones created by Roland's TB-303 bass synthesizer. Major acts such as Madonna, Janet Jackson, Paula Abdul, Martha Wash, CeCe Peniston, Robin S. Steps, Kylie Minogue, Björk, C+C Music Factory were influenced by House music in the 1990s and beyond. After enjoying significant success which started in the late 1980s, house music grew larger during the second wave of progressive house; the genre has remained popular and fused into other popular subgenres, notably ghetto house, deep house, future house and tech house. As of today, house music remains popular on radio and in clubs while retaining a foothold on the underground scenes across the globe.
House music is created by DJs, record producers, music artists with contributions from other performers on synthesizer and other electronic instruments. The structure of house music songs involves an intro, a chorus, various verse sections, a midsection and an outro; some songs do not have a verse, repeating the same cycle. The drum beat is one of the more important elements within the genre and is always provided by an electronic drum machine Roland's TR-808 or TR-909, rather than by a live drummer; the drum beats of house are "four on the floor", with bass drums played on every beat and they feature off-beat drum machine hi-hat sounds. House music is based on bass-heavy loops or basslines produced by a synthesizer and/or from samples of disco or funk songs. One subgenre, acid house, was based around the squelchy, deep electronic tones created by Roland's TB-303 bass synthesizer; the tempo of most house songs is between 115 BPM and 132 BPM. Various disco songs incorporated sounds produced with synthesizers and electronic drum machines, some compositions were electronic.
As well, the audio mixing and editing techniques earlier explored by disco, garage music and post-disco DJs, record producers, audio engineers such as Walter Gibbons, Tom Moulton, Jim Burgess, Larry Levan, Ron Hardy, M & M, others was important. These artists produced longer, more repetitive, percussive arrangements of existing disco recordings. Early house producers such as Frankie Knuckles created similar compositions from scratch, using samplers, synthesizers and drum machines; the electronic instrumentation and minimal arrangement of Charanjit Singh's Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat, an album of Indian ragas performed in a disco style, anticipated the sounds of acid house music, but it is not known to have had any influence on the genre prior to the album's rediscovery in the 21st century. Rachel Cain, co-founder of influential dance label Trax Records, was involved in the burgeoning punk scene. Ca