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Warp drive

A warp drive is a theoretical superluminal spacecraft propulsion system in many science fiction works, most notably Star Trek and much of Isaac Asimov's work. A spacecraft equipped with a warp drive may travel at speeds greater than that of light by many orders of magnitude. In contrast to some other fictitious Faster-than-light technologies such as a jump drive, the warp drive does not permit instantaneous travel between two points, but rather involves a measurable passage of time, pertinent to the concept. In contrast to hyperdrive, spacecraft at warp velocity would continue to interact with objects in "normal space." The general concept of "warp drive" was introduced by John W. Campbell in his 1931 novel Islands of Space. Einstein's theory of special relativity states that energy and mass are interchangeable, speed of light travel is impossible for material objects that weigh more than photons; the problem of a material object exceeding light speed is that an infinite amount of kinetic energy would be required to travel at the speed of light.

This can theoretically be solved by warping space to move an object instead of increasing the kinetic energy of the object to do so. Such a solution to the faster than light travel problem leads to two directly opposite approaches to light-speed travel in science fiction: in the first, spaceships themselves are brought to light speed and beyond. Warp drive is one of the fundamental features of the Star Trek franchise; when beginning to explain travel times to the illusion survivors, crewmember Jose stated that "the time barrier's been broken", allowing a group of interstellar travelers to return to Earth far sooner than would have otherwise been possible. In the pilot, when Spock is faced with the only action of escaping, he announces to the crew they have no choice but to leave, stating "Our time warp factor..." before the ship's systems start failing. In the second pilot for The Original Series, "Where No Man Has Gone Before", time was dropped from the speed setting with Kirk ordering speeds in the simple "ahead warp factor one" that became so familiar from on.

The warp drive velocity in Star Trek is expressed in "warp factor" units, which—according to Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual—corresponds to the magnitude of the warp field. Achieving warp factor 1 is equal to breaking the light barrier, while the actual velocity corresponding to higher factors is determined using an ambiguous formula. According to the Star Trek episode writer's guide for The Original Series, warp factors are converted to multiples of the speed of light by multiplication with the cubic function of the warp factor itself. Accordingly, "warp 1" is equivalent to the speed of light, "warp 2" is eight times the speed of light, "warp 3" is 27 times the speed of light, etc. Several episodes of The Original Series placed the Enterprise in peril by having it travel at high warp factors. However, the velocity of any given warp factor is the subject of explicit expression, travel times for specific interstellar distances are not consistent through the various series. In the Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual it was written that the real warp speed depends on external factors such as particle density or electromagnetic fields and only corresponds with the calculated speed of current warp factor.

The reference work. In certain regions, a spaceship can fly at a multiple of the speed that corresponds to the current warp factor. In The Original Series, warp factor 6 was established as the common speed of the USS Enterprise NCC-1701. In some cases, the starship traveled at warp 7 or above, but with risk of damaging the ship or the engines. Warp 9 in The Original Series was the "never exceed" speed for the hulls and engines of Constitution-class starships, equivalent to the aircraft VNE V-speed. Warp 6 was the VNO "Normal Operation" maximum safe cruising speed for that vessel class. Only five stories in the original Star Trek series involved the Enterprise traveling beyond warp 9. In any instance, it was a result of the influence of foreign technology; the warp 14.1 incident in That Which Survives was the result of runaway engines which brought the hull within seconds of structural failure before power was disengaged. On, a prequel series titled Star Trek: Enterprise describes the warp engine technology as a "Gravimetric Field Displacement Manifold", describes the device as being powered by a matter/anti-matter reaction which powers the two separate nacelles to create a displacement field.

Enterprise, set in 2151 and onwards, follows the voyages of the first human ship capable of traveling at warp factor 5.2, which under the old warp table formula, is about 140 times the speed of light. In the series pilot episode "Broken Bow", Capt. Archer equates warp 4.5 to "Neptune and back in six minutes". For Star Trek: The Next Generation and the subsequent series, Star Trek artist Michael Okuda drew up a new warp scale and devised a formula based on the original one but with an important difference: In the half-open interval from 9 to 10, the exponent w i

Glitter in Their Eyes

"Glitter in Their Eyes" is a rock song written by Patti Smith and Oliver Ray, released as a promo single from Patti Smith 2000 album Gung Ho. In 2001 the song was nominated for Grammy Award for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance. Published Liner notes with the Gung Ho CD state the album was recorded at Sear Sound recording studio in New York City, mixed by Gil Norton and Danton Supple at The Church Studios in London, Mastered by Ted Jensen at Sterling Sound in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan. However, the Glitter in Their Eyes single was mixed at Eden Studios in London, Mastered by Ted Jensen and Paul Angeli at Sterling Sound in NYC. Additional musicians for the single include: backing vocals of Michael Stipe and Wade Raley. Lyrics at official website

Amal Karunasekara

Major General K. A. D. Amal Karunasekara, RWP, RSP, VSV, USP, psc was a senior Sri Lankan army officer and 51st Chief of Staff of the Sri Lanka Army. Educated at Nalanda College Colombo, Karunasekara was a Senior Cadet in the school's cadet platoon. Having received his basic training at the Sri Lanka Military Academy, he is a graduate of the Defence Services Command and Staff College, the Defence Services Staff College and the PLA National Defence University having studied Defence and Stretegic Studies, he holds a MSc in Defence and Strategic Studies from the University of Madras. Karunasekara enlisted in the Sri Lanka Army as an Officer Cadet in 1981, going on to earn his commission as a Second Lieutenant in the Sri Lanka Light Infantry after completing training at the Sri Lanka Military Academy, Diyatalawa in 1984. Over the next 35 years, he would rise through the ranks of the army, holding such key positions as Director Military Intelligence, Director Infantry, Master General of Ordnance Branch, Military Secretary.

Karunasekara has held both battalion- and brigade-level commands during the Eelam War, has commanded the 53 Division during its course. In addition, he was appointed the commander of the Sri Lankan contingent of the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti when first deployed in 2004, he was the 15th Colonel of the Regiment of the Sri Lanka Light Infantry regiment, having occupied this position once temporarily between 2007 and 2009. He was an instructor at Diyatalawa and Directing Staff at the Defence Services Command and Staff College. Karunasekara was appointed Commander of Security Forces Headquarters- Kilinochchi on 18 October 2015, he retired from service on 14 March 2018 with the rank of Major General. As commandant of the Sri Lankan contingent of MINUSTAH since 2004, Karunasekara has been at the center of the child sexual abuse scandal that troops and officers under his command have been implicated inOn 5 April 2018, he was arrested by the Sri Lanka Police Criminal Investigation Department on charges of aiding and abetting the abduction and assault on The Nation journalist Keith Noyahr in 2008.

Karunasekara was accused of being part of a group of military intelligence operatives that functioned under the direction of the Mahinda Rajapakse government between 2006 and 2010. He is under investigation for several related acts of state-sanctioned violence, including the assassination of Lasantha Wickrematunge. Karunasekara is married, has one daughter with his wife Dananjanie. Having been an avid hockey player at school level, he has represented Sri Lanka at national level in the sport and has gone on to be chairman of the Sri Lanka Army Hockey Committee


Sardanapalo or Sardanapale, S.687, is an unfinished opera by Franz Liszt based loosely on the 1821 verse play Sardanapalus by Lord Byron. Liszt worked on the project intermittently between 1845–52, declaring it'well on the way toward completion,' but he ceased work on it thereafter; the first act had been completed in a continuous particell, allowing musicologist David Trippett both to produce a critical edition and realize an orchestral performing edition. This received its world premiere in Weimar on August 19, 2018; as an Italian opera, it would certainly have been called Sardanapalo, though Liszt referred to it as Sardanapale in his French correspondence. Liszt first expressed an ambition to compose a large-scale opera in October 1841. Alongside his interest in the genre's capacity for literary-musical narratives, he was motivated, in part, by the prospect of being recognised as more than a travelling keyboard virtuoso. Among the range of opera subjects he considered, he settled on an opera based on Byron's The Corsair, obtained in 1844 a libretto by Alexandre Dumas, but nothing came of this.

Towards the end of 1845 he settled on the subject of Byron's tragedy Sardanapalus. At this time Liszt had not yet taken up residence at the court in Weimar, he considered a possible opportunity at the Hoftheater, where the Kapellmeister, Gaetano Donizetti, was ill. A large-scale Italian opera could have placed him in the running for Donizetti's influential post, as he wrote in an 1846 letter to the Comtesse d'Agoult, yet he told her only a few months that, given the conduct of the people involved, "that post will do me no good" and was no longer a consideration. In correspondence with his close associate the Princess Belgiojoso, Liszt first planned to have the opera performed in Milan in 1846–47 switching the venue to the Kärntnertor Theater in Vienna, to "Paris or London". Sardanapalus was, according to the last king of Assyria; some have identified him with Assurbanipal, but the Sardanapalus of Ctesias, "an effeminate debauchee, sunk in luxury and sloth, who at the last was driven to take up arms, after a prolonged but ineffectual resistance, avoided capture by suicide" is not an identifiable historical character.

Ctesias's tale was preserved by Diodorus Siculus, it is on this account that Byron based his play. Liszt had been present at the second performance in 1830 of the oratorio The Death of Sardanapalus by Hector Berlioz, which featured an immolation scene, in preparation for which a "sacrifice of the innocents" is depicted in Eugène Delacroix's sensational 1828 painting of the subject; these influences may have stoked Liszt's interest in the tale's potential for sensational treatment. With reference to the inferno that ends Byron's play, he tells Belgiojoso that his finale will aim to set the entire audience alight. By 1849, when he at last began to write the music, he conceived the idea of further altering the libretto by adding an orgy scene as in Delacroix, but this was turned down by Belgiojoso. Liszt's first librettist, Félicien Mallefille, missed several deadlines, submitted an initial prose scenario too late for Liszt to consider continuing his planned collaboration with the Frenchman. Belgiojoso procured an unnamed Italian poet, as the new librettist.

In December 1846, Liszt sent his assistant, Gaetano Belloni, to Paris with orders'to bring me back, dead or alive, a poem in his pocket'. The remainder followed 18 months though Liszt wrote to Belgiojoso querying aspects of the text for Acts 2-3, she replied with further suggestions, it is unclear if the correspondence continued. Liszt delayed for a time waiting for a conclusion to the revisions to Acts 2-3, but began composing the first act around 11 April 1850. Between April 1850 and December 1851 Liszt notated 110 pages of music and wrote to Richard Wagner that the opera would be ready for production in Paris or London in 1852. Liszt's assistant, Joachim Raff, notes in December 1851 that he would soon be asked to produce a provisional orchestration of the opera for Liszt, but this never took place. Shortly thereafter Liszt seems to have abandoned his work on the opera, it is possible that his diffidence resulted from reading Wagner's essay Opera and Drama, by whose standards Sardanapalo could have appeared somewhat dated.

But Trippett has argued this was unlikely to have been a decisive factor, suggested instead that Liszt's abandonment resulted from his concern over the libretto, the fact that he never received a revised libretto for Acts 2 and 3, so could not set these to music. The royal palace at Nineveh. Evening. A festival is underway; the women of the harem invite revellers to dance, with erotic intent. They surround Mirra, telling her to revive her spirits through love. Mirra is nostalgic for her home in Greece and tearfully broken hearted; the women, encourage her to enjoy her position as the King’s favourite and embrace a life of ‘boundless ecstasy’ enraptured by ‘angelic kisses’. Mirra, begs to be left alone, the chor

1903 East Paris train wreck

The East Paris train wreck was a head-on collision between two trains, which occurred on the Pere Marquette Railway on December 26, 1903. The crash was caused after a westbound stop signal was blown out by strong winds, causing the westbound train to fail to stop, collide with an eastbound train. At around 5:40 pm, westbound train No. 5 was travelling down a hill just outside East Paris, Michigan at around 60 miles per hour, approached a signal. However, the signal had been extinguished by winds. Meanwhile, a Detroit-bound train, train No. 6, was climbing the hill at about 40 miles per hour. Shortly after, the two trains collided into each other on a long, sweeping curve, causing them to overturn; the crash injured around 40 more. After the crash, local farmers who had witnessed the two engines approaching each other assisted in removing casualties from the wreck. Following the crash, the company investigated the events leading up to it, they found that staff at nearby McCords station had been aware there would be an accident 10 minutes in advance, after realising the signal was not showing up.

However, despite alerting a local farmer, they were unable to prevent the crash

Dilys Laye

Dilys Laye, sometimes credited as Dilys Lay was an English actress and screenwriter, best known for comedy roles. She died of cancer aged 74. Dilys Laye was born in Muswell Hill, the daughter of Edward Lay and his wife Margaret Her father left the family when she was aged eight to work as a musician in South Africa and never came back. During World War II Laye and her brother were evacuated to Devon, where they were unhappy and endured physical abuse. Laye returned home to a new stepfather and a mother, keen to transfer her thwarted ambitions to her daughter. After education at St Dominic's Sixth Form College and training at the Aida Foster School, Laye made her stage debut aged 14 as a boy in a play called The Burning Bush at the New Lindsey Theatre and her film debut a year as a younger version of Jean Kent in Trottie True. From 1950, Laye appeared in numerous West End revues, including And So to Bed, Intimacy at 8.30, For Amusement Only, High Spirits. In 1954, she played the first Dulcie in The Boy Friend on Broadway alongside Julie Andrews, with whom she shared a Manhattan flat during the run.

At this time she dated. In 1957, she began appearing in films more including one of the schoolgirls in Blue Murder at St. Trinian's and a married vamp trying to seduce Dirk Bogarde in Doctor at Large. In 1959 she played Girl in the park, in the Norman Wisdom film Follow a Star, she appeared with Ian Carmichael in the West End comedy The Tunnel of Love and was directed by Joan Littlewood in Make Me An Offer. In 1962, Laye made her first appearance in the Carry On films, replacing an unwell Joan Sims in Carry On Cruising at four days' notice, she returned as a Bond-girl parody in Carry On Spying, a hospital patient who falls in love with Bernard Bresslaw in Carry On Doctor, as his permanently car-sick companion, on holiday with Sid James and Sims in Carry On Camping, her fourth and last in the series. In 1965, she starred with her good friend Sheila Hancock in the sitcom The Bed-Sit Girl and appeared in the West End comedy Say Who You Are. In 1975, she co-starred with Reg Varney in a failed sitcom called Down the'Gate and, in 1981, appeared in and co-wrote, the ITV comedy series Chintz.

In 1985, she played Nurse in Romeo and Juliet with the Royal Shakespeare Company and her other credits with the RSC in the mid to late-1980s included Maria in Twelfth Night, First Witch in Macbeth, Glinda/Aunt Em in The Wizard of Oz and Parthy Ann in an Opera North version of Show Boat. In 2001 she returned to the RSC to play Mrs Medlock in its musical of The Secret Garden, directed by Adrian Noble. In the early 1990s she toured the country among others, her West End credits included the musicals Nine in 1997 and Into the Woods in 1998 at the Donmar Warehouse and Mrs Pearce in Trevor Nunn's revival of My Fair Lady at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in 2002. She starred in a revival of Christopher Hampton's Les Liaisons Dangereuses at the Playhouse Theatre in 2003; the production was not admired but Laye's performance was and she received the Clarence Derwent Award for Best Female in a Supporting Role. In 2005, she toured Britain as the Grandmother in Roald Dahl's The Witches, her final stage work came in 2006 in the three roles of Miss La Creevy, Mrs Gudden, Peg Sliderskew in the Chichester Festival Theatre's revival of the RSC's epic Nicholas Nickleby.

During rehearsals, she was diagnosed with cancer and kept her illness secret from the rest of the cast, but was too ill to transfer with the production to London. Her television work included character roles in EastEnders, Coronation Street, Holby City, Midsomer Murders, The Amazing Mrs Pritchard, The Commander, she was married first to stunt man Frank Maher and secondly in 1963, to actor Garfield Morgan. In 1972, she married her third husband, Alan Downer, who wrote scripts for Coronation Street and Emmerdale Farm on television and Waggoner's Walk on radio, he died in 1995 after years of ill-health following a stroke. They had a son, an agent for film crews, she outlived her doctors' predictions by six months, having ensured she would be alive to see her son get married. In the 1980s she appeared in, co-wrote, the ITV comedy series Chintz. In 2008 she appeared in Frankie Howerd: Rather You Than Me Dilys Laye on IMDb Dilys Laye at the Internet Broadway Database Article about Dilys in The Stage Obituary in The Guardian