Paluma-class motor launch
The Paluma-class motor launch is a class of four hydrographic survey motor launches operated by the Royal Australian Navy. Built in Port Adelaide between 1988 and 1990, the four catamarans are based at HMAS Cairns in Cairns and operate in pairs to survey the waters of northern Australia; the Paluma-class vessels are based on the design of the Prince-class roll-on/roll-off ferry. They have a full load displacement of 320 tonnes, are 36.6 metres long overall and 36 metres long between perpendiculars, have a beam of 13.7 metres, a draught of 1.9 metres. Propulsion machinery consists of two General Motors Detroit Diesel 12V-92T engines, which supply 1,290 brake horsepower to the two propeller shafts; each vessel has a top speed of 12 knots, a maximum sustainable speed of 10 knots for a range of 1,800 nautical miles, an endurance of 14 days. The sensor suite of a Paluma-class launch consists of a JRC JMA-3710-6 navigational radar, an ELAC LAZ 72 side-scan mapping sonar, a Skipper 113 hull-mounted scanning sonar.
The vessels are unarmed. The standard ship's company consists of three officers and eleven sailors, although another four personnel can be accommodated; the catamarans were painted white, but were repainted naval grey in 2002. The four ships were built at their shipyard in Port Adelaide, South Australia; the first, HMAS Paluma, was laid down in March 1988, commissioned into the RAN in February 1989. All four ships were under construction by November 1988, the last, HMAS Benalla, commissioned in March 1990. All four vessels are homeported at HMAS Cairns in Queensland, they are used for hydrographic surveys of the shallow waters around northern Australia in the Great Barrier Reef. The vessels operate in pairs. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030, the 2009 Department of Defence white paper, proposed replacing the Palumas, along with the RAN's patrol and mine warfare vessels, with a single class of multi-role offshore combatant vessels; the new vessels, which could displace up to 2,000 tonnes and be equipped for helicopter or unmanned aerial vehicle operations, will use a modular mission payload system to change between roles as required.
Although the 2013 White Paper committed to the OCV as a long-term plan, it announced that life-extending upgrades to the Palumas would be sought as a short-term solution. Saunders, Stephen, ed.. Jane's Fighting Ships 2008–2009. Jane's Fighting Ships. Surrey: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 9780710628459. OCLC 225431774. Wertheim, Eric, ed.. The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships and Systems. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781591149552. OCLC 140283156. Official RAN webpage
Armidale-class patrol boat
The Armidale class is a class of patrol boats built for the Royal Australian Navy. Planning for a class of vessels to replace the fifteen Fremantle-class patrol boats began in 1993 as a joint project with the Royal Malaysian Navy, but was cancelled when Malaysia pulled out of the process; the project was reopened in 1999 under the designation SEA 1444, with the RAN as the sole participant. Of the seven proposals tendered, the Austal Ships/Defence Maritime Services proposal for twelve vessels based on an enlarged Bay-class patrol boat was selected. Two additional patrol boats were ordered in 2005 to provide a dedicated patrol force for the North West Shelf Venture. All fourteen vessels were constructed by Austal Ships at Western Australia; the first vessel, HMAS Armidale, was commissioned into the RAN in June 2005, the last, HMAS Glenelg, entered service in February 2008. The Armidale-class ships are operated by the Australian Patrol Boat Group, based in Cairns and Darwin, they are tasked with border protection, fisheries patrols, the interception of unauthorised arrivals by sea.
The Armidales are longer and heavier than their Fremantle-class predecessors, with improved seakeeping ability and increased range, allowing them to reach Australia's offshore territories. The ships are multi-crewed, with three ship's companies available for every two vessels, allowing the patrol boats to spend more time at sea without cutting into sailors' rest or training time. During their early service life, there were problems with the fuel systems across the class, a 20-bunk auxiliary accommodation compartment has been banned from use after toxic fumes were found in the compartment on multiple occasions; the high operational tempo from the Operation Resolute and Operation Sovereign Borders border protection and asylum seeker interception operations, combined with design flaws and poor maintenance, resulted in the ships suffering from hull fracturing around the engineering spaces, mechanical defects, corrosion issues. DMS's contract to provide in-service support will be terminated in 2017, the patrol boats are undergoing a major refit in Singapore to reinforce the hull.
Two Cape-class patrol boats have been chartered to supplement naval patrol boat availability during the refit cycle, plans to replace the Armidales with an enlarged class of offshore combatant vessel have been accelerated to bring them into service by the early 2020s. After extensive damage from an onboard fire, HMAS Bundaberg was decommissioned at the end of 2014. A fictional Armidale-class boat, HMAS Hammersley, appears in the Australian military drama series Sea Patrol from the second season onwards, with filming occurring aboard multiple ships of the class. Planning for the Armidale class began in 1993, as a plan to replace the Fremantle class, due for retirement in 1998; this evolved into a joint program with Malaysia to construct an offshore patrol craft. When Malaysia pulled out, the plan was scrapped, the Fremantles underwent a life-extending refit; the cost of maintaining the aging vessels prompted the Department of Defence to create the Replacement Patrol Boat program, which received the procurement project designation SEA 1444.
SEA 1444 marked several departures from the Department's standard acquisition requirements. Instead of specifying a number of vessels, the coverage of 3,000 ship-days per year was given, with the producer to determine how many ships were needed to meet this; the ships had to meet specific performance parameters, such as the ability to conduct boarding operations in conditions up to Sea State 4, to maintain surveillance capability up to Sea State 5. The producer was required in the contract to provide support and maintenance for the ships, for fifteen years after construction completed. Nine companies expressed interest in the project; these seven were narrowed down to three based on each tender's merit, competitiveness with the other tenders, successful meeting of Australian industry involvement targets for both construction and long-term support. Austal Ships and Defence Maritime Services partnered to offer twelve ships based on an expanded version of the latter's Bay-class patrol boat, in use with the Australian Customs Service.
The companies submitted two proposals for a 56-metre vessel, one with a steel hull, one with an aluminium hull. Australian Defence Industries tendered a design based on the Royal Danish Navy's Flyvefisken-class patrol vessel; the vessel was to be built with a glass-reinforced plastic hull, similar to ADI's Huon-class minehunters. The Tenix proposal was a variant of a 56-metre search and rescue vessel constructed for the Philippine Coast Guard; the tender was awarded to the Austal/DMS partnership in December 2003. The contract was valued at A$553 million, with each ship costing between A$24 million and A$28 million to construct. During the 2004 federal election, the Coalition promised to acquire two more patrol boats to provide a dedicated patrol force for the oil and gas producing facilities located off the north-west coast of Australia; these were ordered in 2005. All fourteen ships were constructed by Austal at their shipyard in Western Australia. Lead ship HMAS Armidale was commissioned into the RAN in June 2005.
Two other patrol boats were delivered to the RAN in 2005, six in 2006, five in 2007, with the final ship in the class, HMAS Glenelg, delivered in October 2007 and commissioned in February 2008. At one stage, six vessels were being constructed simultaneously; each patrol boat has a length of 56.8 metres, a beam of 9.7
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force, formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force. It operates the majority of the ADF's fixed wing aircraft, although both the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy operate aircraft in various roles, it directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps, formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence and reconnaissance, air mobility, space surveillance, humanitarian support; the RAAF took part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts. During the early years of the Second World War a number of RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain, with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. From 1942, a large number of RAAF units were formed in Australia, fought in South West Pacific Area. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe, including during the bomber offensive against Germany.
By the time the war ended, a total of 216,900 men and women served in the RAAF, of whom 10,562 were killed in action. The RAAF served in the Berlin Airlift, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation and Vietnam War. More the RAAF has participated in operations in East Timor, the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan, the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; the RAAF has 259 aircraft. The RAAF traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the armed forces of the British Empire. Australia implemented this decision, the first dominion to do so, by approving the establishment of the "Australian Aviation Corps"; this consisted of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, opening on 22 October 1912. By 1914 the corps was known as the "Australian Flying Corps". Soon after the outbreak of war in 1914, the Australian Flying Corps sent aircraft to assist in capturing German colonies in what is now north-east New Guinea.
However, these colonies surrendered before the planes were unpacked. The first operational flights did not occur until 27 May 1915, when the Mesopotamian Half Flight was called upon to assist the Indian Army in protecting British oil interests in what is now Iraq; the corps saw action in Egypt, Palestine and on the Western Front throughout the remainder of the First World War. By the end of the war, four squadrons—Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 -- had seen operational service. 5, 6, 7 and 8—had been established. A total of 460 officers and 2,234 other ranks served in the AFC, whilst another 200 men served as aircrew in the British flying services. Casualties included 111 wounded, 6 gassed and 40 captured; the Australian Flying Corps remained part of the Australian Army until 1919, when it was disbanded along with the First Australian Imperial Force. Although the Central Flying School continued to operate at Point Cook, military flying ceased until 1920, when the Australian Air Corps was formed; the Australian Air Force was formed on 31 March 1921.
King George V approved the prefix "Royal" in June 1921 and became effective on 31 August 1921. The RAAF became the second Royal air arm to be formed in the British Commonwealth, following the British Royal Air Force; when formed the RAAF had more aircraft than personnel, with 21 officers and 128 other ranks and 153 aircraft. In September 1939, the Australian Air Board directly controlled the Air Force via RAAF Station Laverton, RAAF Station Richmond, RAAF Station Pearce, No. 1 Flying Training School RAAF at Point Cook, RAAF Station Rathmines and five smaller units. In 1939, just after the outbreak of the Second World War, Australia joined the Empire Air Training Scheme, under which flight crews received basic training in Australia before travelling to Canada for advanced training. A total of 17 RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain and with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe during the Second World War.
About nine percent of the personnel who served under British RAF commands in Europe and the Mediterranean were RAAF personnel. With British manufacturing targeted by the German Luftwaffe, in 1941 the Australian government created the Department of Aircraft Production to supply Commonwealth air forces, the RAAF was provided with large numbers of locally built versions of British designs such as the DAP Beaufort torpedo bomber and Mosquitos, as well as other types such as Wirraways and Mustangs. In the European theatre of the war, RAAF personnel were notable in RAF Bomber Command: although they represented just two percent of all Australian enlistments during the war, they accounted for twenty percent of those killed in action; this statistic is further illustrated by the fact that No. 460 Squadron RAAF flying Avro Lancasters, had an official establishment of about 200 aircrew and yet had 1,018 combat deaths. The squadron was therefore wiped out five times over. Total RAAF casualties in Europe were 5,488 killed or missing.
The beginning of the Pacific War—and the rapid advance of Japanese forces—threatened the Australian mainland for the first time in its history. The RAAF was quite unprepared for the emergency, had negligible forces available for service in the Pacific. In 1941 and early 1942, many RAAF airmen, including Nos. 1, 8, 21 and 453
Warrant Officer Martin Grant Holzberger is a retired senior sailor of the Royal Australian Navy who served as the 7th Warrant Officer of the Navy from 2012 to 2016. Holzberger joined the RAN in 1987 as a submariner and served on various submarines, including Chief of the Boat on HMAS Sheean. In 2004 Holzberger was selected for an exchanged with the United States Navy Pacific Fleet. In 2007 he was selected by the Ships Warrant Officer selection board and joined HMAS Warramunga as the Ships Warrant Officer, he was awarded the Conspicuous Service Cross in 2012 for his service in this role. Holzberger was appointed Command Warrant Officer – Fleet Command in March 2010 and in 2012 he became the seventh Warrant Officer of the Navy, he was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia in 2015, retired in April the following year
The Durance class is a series of multi-product replenishment oilers designed and built for service in the French Navy. Besides the five ships built for the French Navy, a sixth was built for the Royal Australian Navy, while the lead ship of the class serves with the Argentine Navy, they will be replaced under the FLOTLOG project by four derivatives of Italy's Vulcano Logistic Support Ship, scheduled to be delivered in 2022, 2025, 2027 and 2029. Five ships of the class were built for the French Navy: Durance Meuse Var Marne Somme In French service, the ships are dubbed Bâtiment de commandement et ravitailleur: in addition to their role as a fleet tanker, they can accommodate an entire general staff and thus supervise naval operations. Admiral Indian, the French Navy's command for the Indian Ocean region ALINDIEN, was permanently stationed aboard such a ship until 2010. Durance has been sold to the Argentine Navy. Three ships of the class can embark an admiral and his staff; the 2013 French White Paper on Defence and National Security planned to replace them with four new double-hulled tankers between 2018 and 2021.
However Meuse will be decommissioned under budget cuts announced in October 2014. In October 2009, Somme repelled an attack by Somali pirates A single ship of the class was built, in Australia, for the Royal Australian Navy: HMAS Success – in service as of 2017; the leading ship of the class was sold to the Argentine Navy in 1999.
The Huon-class minehunter coastal ships are a group of minehunters built for the Royal Australian Navy. Following problems with the Bay-class minehunters, a request for tender was issued in 1993 for a class of six coastal minehunters under the project designation SEA 1555; the tender was awarded in 1994 to the partnership of Australian Defence Industries and Intermarine SpA, offering a variant of the Italian Gaeta-class minehunter. Five of the six ships were constructed in Newcastle, New South Wales, while the hull of the first ship was built in Italy transported to Australia for fitting out. Construction ran from 1994 to 2003, with lead ship HMAS Huon entering service in 1999. All six vessels are based in Sydney. In 2006, following a capability review three years prior, one minehunter was placed in reserve, while another was marked for transfer to reserve status; as of January 2014, only four vessels were active, with the other two placed in reserve. In 1993, the Department of Defence issued a request for tender for six coastal minehunters to replace the problematic Bay-class minehunters, of which four had been cancelled after the first two demonstrated problems with their sonar array and seakeeping capability.
According to an article in Jane's International Defence Review published just before the tender was opened, three joint ventures between an Australian and a European company were expected to submit designs: Australian Defence Industries and Intermarine SpA with the Gaeta class, Australian Submarine Corporation and Karlskronavarvet with a lengthened version of the Landsort class, AMECON and Vosper Thornycroft with the Sandown class. According to the request for tender, the designs had to be modified to operate in Australian conditions, at least 60% of each ship and her equipment had to be of Australian manufacture. On 12 August 1994, Project SEA 1555 was awarded to ADI; the design of the Huon class is based on the Italian Lerici class. Each ship has a full load displacement of 732 tons, is 52.5 metres long, has a beam of 9.9 metres, a draught of 3 metres. The minehunters' main propulsion system is a single Fincantieri GMT BL230-BN diesel motor, which provides 1,985 brake horsepower to a single controllable-pitch propeller, allowing the ship to reach 14 knots.
Maximum range is 1,600 nautical miles at 12 knots, the vessels have an endurance of 19 days. The standard ship's company consists of 6 officers and 34 sailors, with accommodation for 9 additional; the main armament on a Huon-class vessel is a MSI DS30B 30 mm cannon. The sensor suite includes a Kelvin-Hughes Type 1007 navigational radar, a GEC-Marconi Type 2093M variable-depth minehunting sonar, an AWADI PRISM radar warning and direction-finding system, a Radamec 1400N surveillance system. Two Wallop Super Barricade decoy launchers are fitted. For minehunting operations, the Huons use three 120 horsepower Riva Calzoni azimuth thrusters to provide a maximum speed of 6 knots: two are located at the stern, while the third is sited behind the variable-depth sonar. Mines are located with the minehunting sonar, can be disposed of by the vessel's two Double Eagle mine disposal vehicles, the Oropesa mechanical sweep, the Mini-Dyad magnetic influence sweep, or the towed AMASS influence sweep. To prevent damage in the event a Huon-class ship triggers a mine, the ships were built with a glass-reinforced plastic, moulded in a single monocoque skin with no ribs or framework.
As the ships work with clearance divers, they are fitted with a small recompression chamber. Six Huon-class ships were built; the hull of the lead ship, HMAS Huon, was laid down during September 1994 at the Intermarine SpA Sarzana shipyard in Italy, was transferred out to ADI's Newcastle facility as deck cargo, arriving on 31 August 1995. Huon was completed in Newcastle in 1999, the other five ships were constructed at the Australian shipyard, with 69% Australian content in the project. All six were completed on schedule, with the last, HMAS Yarra, commissioning on 1 March 2003. All six vessels are based at HMAS Waterhen, which serves as the home base of the Mine Warfare and Clearance Diving Group; as part of the force structure changes arising from the 2003 Defence Capability Review two Huon-class ships were deactivated and placed in reserve. HMAS Huon was deactivated in early 2006, but was reactivated in the year, while HMAS Hawkesbury's planned deactivation was cancelled so the ships could be used as patrol boats.
Apart from routine service in Australian and regional waters, a number of vessels were deployed to the Solomon Islands as part of the Australian-led RAMSI peacekeeping mission there. Operating as part of Operation Anode from 2003, vessels deployed have included Hawkesbury, Diamantina and Gascoyne; as of 2008, Huon and Hawkesbury were taking turns supporting border security operations. However, by October 2011 Hawkesbury and Norman were placed into reserve. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030, the 2009 Department of Defence white paper, proposed replacing the
Australian Navy Cadets
The Australian Navy Cadets is a voluntary youth organisation owned and sponsored by the Royal Australian Navy. Together with the Australian Air Force Cadets and Australian Army Cadets, it forms the Australian Defence Force Cadets, it hosts over 91 units. The organisation was founded in the early 1900s and recognised under the Naval Defence Act in 1910. Prior to 1973, the organisation was known as the Australian Sea Cadet Corps, was jointly administered by the Royal Australian Navy and the Navy League of Australia. After 1973, the Navy assumed full responsibility for the Corps, renamed the Naval Reserve Cadets; the Australian Government review,'Cadets The Future' recommended a final name change to Australian Navy Cadets in 2000. Admiral of the CorpsBelow is a list of names held by both the Naval League and Defence run/sponsored programs including the original'Church of England – Boys Naval Brigade' from 1901 to 1911: Boys Naval Brigades 1901–1911 Australian Naval Cadet Corps ANCC 1907–1950 Navy League Sea Cadet Corps NLSCC RANR Cadets 1950–1973 Australian Sea Cadet Corps ASCC Naval Reserve Cadets NRC Australian Navy Cadets ANC ANC training is nautical in nature and includes waterborne activities, which can include navigation, first aid, maritime history, firearms proficiency, adventurous training.
The ANC aims to achieve the following with its training program: develop an interest in the Navy and its tradition. The 91 Training Ships across Australia have a total membership around 400 staff and 2,200 cadets, including several that have been formed in high schools. However, 2012 reporting suggested membership has fallen drastically to about 1,600; the ANC adheres to a rank structure similar to the Royal Australian Navy, with cadets having the opportunity to progress from the rank of cadet recruit to cadet midshipman. Each unit has a complement which lays out how many cadets the unit is allowed to carry and how many are allowed at each rank. Training camps and examinations are held for promotion in rank; the structure and organisation of the ANC is based on that of the Royal Australian Navy, but additionally features a large community-involvement component. Ranks of the Australian Navy Cadets are divided into staff cadets ranks. Volunteers do not become staff until appointed by the ANC. Example of Use.
Each state had a Senior Officer Naval Reserve Cadets who answered to the LNA or Local Naval Authority the Commanding Officer of the establishment on which the NRCHQ of that state resided. A Cadet Liaison Officer a RANR Officer, was situated in HMAS Cairns, HMAS Moreton, HMAS Watson, HMAS Lonsdale, HMAS Encounter, HMAS Huon and HMAS Leeuwin; the CLO had responsibility for the liaising between the RAN in their state. There was no national HQ or national staff until the ANC was established in 2001. Prior to 2001 the ANC did not have the title or position'Director General ANC', instead the overall Commander's position was called'Director of Reserves Navy', a RAN – RANR position; the uniforms of the Australian Navy Cadets are based on that of the Royal Australian Navy, with only a few differences such as the shoulder flashes of the ANC reading "AUSTRALIAN NAVY CADETS" as opposed to the RAN's "AUSTRALIA" flashes. Cadets learn teamwork and leadership skills, put these into practice at regular weekly parades.
Cadets have the opportunity to attend training camps for the purpose of promotion in rank, standard training, or to gain additional qualifications. TS Hobart, a dedicated band unit offers musical activities as well as the normal cadet curriculum. All ANC units can participate in sea rides on Royal Australian Navy ships, an initiative to provide a link between ANC units and RAN ships; as the ANC is part of the International Sea Cadet Association, the opportunity is present for members to go on exchange programs with overseas cadet groups. The ANC/Young Endeavour Voyage Scheme is a sailing program for Australian Navy Cadets aged 16 and over, focused on building leadership and communication skills through sail training; this scheme is being sponsored by the RAN and extends to 24 Australian Navy Cadets and three ANC staff members the chance to participate in two dedicated voyages on STS Young Endeavour. Sponsorship covers all voyage fees and accommodation. Nominations are sought from cadets over the age of 16 years and placement is offered to the top 24 cadets who can demonstrate outstanding personal and leadership qualities and who have made a valuable contribution to their local community during the past 12 months.
Over the course of the voyage, 24 Navy Cadets and three ANC staff members learn aspects of sailing a 44-metre, square rigged tall ship on the open sea including clim