La Trobe University
La Trobe University is an Australian, multi-campus, public research university with its flagship campus located in the Melbourne suburb of Bundoora. The university was established in 1964, becoming the third university in the state of Victoria, La Trobe is a verdant university and a member of the Innovative Research Universities. La Trobes original and principal campus is located in the Melbourne metropolitan area and it is the largest metropolitan campus in the country. It has two major campuses located in the regional Victorian city of Bendigo and the twin border cities of Albury-Wodonga. The university has two regional campuses in Mildura and Shepparton and three CBD campuses, two in Melbourne on Franklin Street and Collins Street and one on Elizabeth Street in Sydney. La Trobe offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses across its two colleges of Arts, Social Science and Commerce and Science and Engineering, in 2015 it was ranked in the top 100 universities under 50 in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
The university was established in 1964 following the assent of the La Trobe University Act by Victorian Parliament on 9 December 1964, the passing of the Act of Victorian Parliament to establish La Trobe University followed earlier University Acts to establish the University of Melbourne and Monash University. At this time, Flinders University and Macquarie University were establishing a schools-based system, many prominent Victorians were involved in La Trobes establishment process, and there was a strong belief that it was important to increase research and learning in Victoria. One of the individuals involved was Davis McCaughey, who became Governor of Victoria. The university was named after Charles Joseph La Trobe, the first Governor of Victoria, the origins of La Trobe can be traced back to the post-World War II era where there emerged a global recognition of the need to increase facilities for higher education. The Murray Committee, in a report submitted in September 1957, recommend a major expansion of university facilities in Australia and changes in administration.
As a direct consequence of the key recommendations of the Murray report, Menzies appointed Martin to chair a special committee in 1961 to report to the AUC on the rapidly increasing demands for higher education in Australia. The Commission therefore is willing to support in the 1964–1966 triennium the extension of university facilities in the Melbourne metropolitan area, the first capital grant was for 1966 and amounted to $1,000,000. These grants were to be matched by equivalent state grants, in April 1964, Sir Archibald Glenn was invited by the Victorian Premier, Sir Henry Bolte, to chair a Third University Committee. In addition to Glen,13 other members were announced on 21 May 1964, the committee, consisted of, Sir Archibald Glenn, OBE, AMIE Aust. MIChemE, Chairman and Managing Director, ICI Australia Ltd, Chairman F. H. A. A and it was planned that La Trobe would enrol students, if possible, in March 1967. The first meeting of the committee occurred on 2 June 1964 in the rooms of the Historical Society of Victoria on Victoria Street, from there, they acted promptly in seeking out a suitable metropolitan location, inspecting 27 sites from a list of 57 possibilities.
An early list of possibilities read, Outer - Bundoora, the ultimate choice was unanimously agreed upon by the end of July, resulting in the farm attached to the Mont Park Asylum
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, in short, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city, in the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and socially, the country has a rich history, the Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I.
In the interwar period, Bosnia was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. The country is home to three ethnic groups or, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third, a native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a rather than ethnic distinction. Moreover, the country was simply called Bosnia until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 cantons, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.
The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could be derived from Illyrian Bass-an-as which would be a diversion of the Proto-Indo-European root bos or bogh, meaning the running water. According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna, the name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosačas title, Herceg of Hum and the Coast. Hum, formerly Zahumlje, was a medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east and it has a coastline about 20 kilometres long surrounding the city of Neum. It lies between latitudes 42° and 46° N, and longitudes 15° and 20° E, the countrys name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them
The Flinders Ranges are the largest mountain range in South Australia, which starts about 200 km north of Adelaide. The discontinuous ranges stretch for over 430 km from Port Pirie to Lake Callabonna, the northern ranges are protected by the Arkaroola Protection Area and the Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park. The southern ranges are notable for the Pichi Richi scenic railway, several small areas in the Ranges have protected area status. The Heysen Trail and Mawson Trail run for several hundred kilometres along the ranges, providing long distance routes for walkers, cyclists. The Flinders Ranges are composed largely of folded and faulted sediments of the Adelaide Geosyncline and this very thick sequence were deposited in a large basin during the Neoproterozoic on the passive margin of the ancient continent of Rodinia. During the Cambrian the area underwent the Delamerian orogeny, when the sequence was folded and faulted into a large mountain range. The area has undergone subsequent erosion resulting in the low ranges today.
Most of the ground and ridgetops are sequences of quartzites that outcrop along strike. The high walls of Wilpena Pound are formed by the beds of the eponymous Pound Quartzite in a synclinal structure. Synclines form other parts of the Flinders, including the plateau of the Gammon Ranges. Cuesta forms are very common. The Ranges are renowned for the Ediacara Hills, South-west of Leigh Creek, simiar fossils have subsequently been found in the ranges, although their locations are kept secret to protect the sites. In 2004 a new period, the Ediacaran Period, was created to mark the appearance of Ediacara biota. The region has a climate with hot dry summers and cool winters. Summer temperatures usually exceed 38 °C, while winters have highs around 13–16 °C, although rainfall is erratic, most of the precipitation falls in winter. There are some monsoonal showers and storms move in from the north during the summer. The area gets around 250 mm of rain annually, with the highest at Wilpena Pound, frost is common on winter mornings and temperatures have dropped as low as −8 °C.
Snow has even recorded in the Wilpena Pound and at Blinman
Spy Cave is located near Spy in the municipality of Jemeppe-sur-Sambre, province of Namur, Belgium above the left bank of the Orneau River. Classified as a premier Wallonian Heritage site of the Walloon Region, the cave consists of numerous small chambers and corridors. Since the first amateur investigations during the late 19th century numerous amateur and professional archaeologists have carried out excavations, the excavation was conducted by Liège, archaeologist Marcel de Puydt and geologist Max Lohest. Paleontologist and zoologist Julien Fraipont published the description in the American Anthropologist journal. The assemblages of the oldest excavations have been mixed, that makes the interpretation of the palaeoenvironment difficult, in addition publications of de Puydt and Fraipoint disagree on the number of layers of knapped flints. The hominid skeletons discovered during the first excavations have been named Spy I, a female, and Spy 2 and these were dated to around 36,000 years BP, although a Bayesian analysis in 2014 concluded that they were probably more than 40,000 years old.
The identification of the remains of a Neanderthal child, Spy VI, was published in 2010, almost 12,000 faunal remains of the Pleistocene were discovered, including mammoth, cave hyena, woolly rhinoceros and cave bear bones. All levels contained mammoth remains, including a number of molars. It has been suggested that the Neanderthal occupants brought mammoth heads to the site and ate the brains, because many of the molars were unworn, these would have been very young or newborn calves, killed in early spring, when plant food would not yet have been available. Evidence of occupation by Upper Paleolithic anatomically modern humans has found at Spy. Pendants and perforated beads made from ivory, presumably by modern humans, were found in the cave. Goyet Caves Media related to Spy Cave at Wikimedia Commons
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II.
After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period
Lake Eyre basin
The Lake Eyre basin is a drainage basin that covers just under one-sixth of all Australia. The deserts that have formed in the basin, including Sturt Stony Desert, Tirari Desert, the basin is one of the largest, least-developed arid zone basins with high degrees of variability anywhere. Grazing is the land use, occupying 82% of the total land within the basin. The grazing is low density due to harsh and variable climatic conditions. The basin began as a sinking landmass mostly covered by forest, the climate has changed from wet to arid over the last 60 million years. Most of the rivers in the Lake Eyre basin are now slow flowing and they all flow towards the lowest point in the basin,16 metres below sea level, at Lake Eyre. Significant mineral deposits can be found in the basin, in 2004 the Lake Eyre Basin Intergovernmental Agreement was formed after concerns with the management of four separate state governments was raised as problems in the Murray-Darling basin arose. The basin began to form in the early Paleogene when south-eastern South Australia started to sink and rivers began to deposit sediment into the large, the basin is still gradually sinking, and still gradually accumulating sediment.
For many millions of years, the Lake Eyre Basin was well supplied with water, about 20 million years ago, large shallow lakes formed, covering much of the area for about 10 million years. From that time on, as Australia drifted further north and the climate became more arid. Only in the last 2.6 million years did the onset of the ice ages bring about the present climatic regime, significant minerals deposits such as oil and natural gas, including Australias most significant onshore petroleum reserves, are found within the basin. The mining and petroleum industries account for the greatest economic activity in the Lake Eyre Basin, coal, phosphate and uranium are mined from the basin. In 2009, the Queensland Environmental Protection Agency confirmed that heavy metals from mining operations near Mount Isa had entered the upper reaches of the Georgina River, the spill has the potential to contaminate parts of the basin as far south as Lake Eyre. During years of high rainfall, all the riverbeds in this vast, mostly flat.
Lake Eyre itself lies approximately 16 metres below sea level, the annual mean runoff in the Lake Eyre Basin is lowest of any of the worlds major drainage basins. None of the creeks and rivers in the Lake Eyre Basin are permanent, average annual rainfall in the area surrounding Lake Eyre is 125 millimetres, and the pan evaporation rate 3.5 metres. Most of the water reaching Lake Eyre comes from the systems of semi-arid inland Queensland. To provide a sense of scale, the Lake Eyre Basin is about the size of France, Germany and it is slightly larger than the Murray-Darling basin but has vastly less water
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers and layering. It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks, stratigraphy has two related subfields, lithologic stratigraphy or lithostratigraphy, and biologic stratigraphy or biostratigraphy. The first practical application of stratigraphy was by William Smith in the 1790s. Another influential application of stratigraphy in the early 19th century was a study by Georges Cuvier, variation in rock units, most obviously displayed as visible layering, is due to physical contrasts in rock type. This variation can occur vertically as layering, or laterally, and these variations provide a lithostratigraphy or lithologic stratigraphy of the rock unit. Key concepts in stratigraphy involve understanding how certain geometric relationships between rock layers arise and what these geometries imply about their original depositional environment. The basic concept in stratigraphy, called the law of superposition, states, in a stratigraphic sequence.
Chemostratigraphy studies the changes in the proportions of trace elements and isotopes within. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios vary with time, and researchers can use those to map subtle changes that occurred in the paleoenvironment and this has led to the specialized field of isotopic stratigraphy. Biostratigraphy or paleontologic stratigraphy is based on evidence in the rock layers. Strata from widespread locations containing the fossil fauna and flora are said to be correlatable in time. Biologic stratigraphy was based on William Smiths principle of succession, which predated. It provides strong evidence for the formation and extinction of species, the geologic time scale was developed during the 19th century, based on the evidence of biologic stratigraphy and faunal succession. One important development is the Vail curve, which attempts to define a global historical sea-level curve according to inferences from worldwide stratigraphic patterns, stratigraphy is commonly used to delineate the nature and extent of hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir rocks and traps of petroleum geology.
Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that places an absolute age, a gap or missing strata in the geological record of an area is called a stratigraphic hiatus. This may be the result of a halt in the deposition of sediment, the gap may be due to removal by erosion, in which case it may be called a stratigraphic vacuity. It is called a hiatus because deposition was on hold for a period of time, a physical gap may represent both a period of non-deposition and a period of erosion. A geologic fault may cause the appearance of a hiatus, magnetostratigraphy is a chronostratigraphic technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Kozarnika or Peshtera Kozarnika is a cave in northwestern Bulgaria that was used as a hunters’ shelter as early as the Lower Paleolithic. It marks an older route of human migration from Africa to Europe via the Balkans. The cave probably keeps the earliest evidence of symbolic behaviour. Kozarnika cave is located 6 km from the town of Belogradchik in northwestern Bulgaria, on the slopes of the Balkan Mountains. It is opened to the south, at 85 m above the valley, with its length of 210 m, the cave is among the small-sized in the Belogradchick karst region. The Kozarnika cave project started in 1984, since 1996, it has been headed by Dr. Prof. Nikolay Sirakov and Dr. Jean-Luc Guadelli. In the ground layers, dated to 1. 6–1, the findings from Middle Paleolithic layers, rather bifacial points, dating from 300, 000–50,000 BP prove presence of hunters’ groups possibly of Homo neanderthalensis. Upper Paleolithic layers consist flint assemblages from the earliest European Gravette complex dating from 43,000 up to 39,000 BP belonging to Homo sapiens sapiens, magura Cave Bacho Kiro cave Sićevo Gorge Peștera cu Oase Vértesszőlős Proto-Indo-Europeans Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption Rincon, Paul
Prehistory of Australia
This period is estimated to have lasted between 40,000 and 60,000 years. This era is referred as prehistory rather than history because there are no remaining records of human events before 1788. There is considerable discussion among archeologists as to the route taken by the first migrants to Australia, migration took place during the closing stages of the Pleistocene, when sea levels were much lower than they are today. Repeated episodes of extended glaciation during the Pleistocene epoch resulted in decreases of sea levels by more than 100 metres in Australasia, people appear to have arrived by sea during a period of glaciation, when New Guinea and Tasmania were joined to the continent of Australia. Nevertheless, the sea presented a major obstacle so it is theorised that these ancestral people reached Australia by island hopping. One follows a chain between Sulawesi and New Guinea and the other reaches North Western Australia via Timor. Rupert Gerritsen has suggested a theory, involving accidental colonization as a result of tsunamis.
The journey still required sea travel however, making them amongst the worlds earlier mariners, given that the likely landfall regions have been under around 50 metres of water for the last 15,000 years, it is unlikely that the timing will ever be established with certainty. The minimum widely accepted timeframe for the arrival of humans in Australia is placed at least 40,000 years ago, many sites dating from this time period have been excavated. In Arnhem Land the Malakunanja II rock shelter has been dated to around 55,000 years old, radiocarbon dating suggests that they lived in and around Sydney for at least 30,000 years. In an archaeological dig in Parramatta, Western Sydney, it was found that the Aboriginals used charcoal, stone tools and possible ancient campfires. Near Penrith, a far suburb of Sydney, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Cranebrook Terraces gravel sediments having dates of 45,000 to 50,000 years BP. This would mean there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought.
Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation at the upper Swan River, Western Australia by about 40,000 years ago, which was connected to the continent by a land bridge, was inhabited at least 30,000 years ago. Others have claimed that some sites are up to 60,000 years old, palynological evidence from South Eastern Australia suggests an increase in fire activity dating from around 120,000 years ago. This has been interpreted as representing human activity, but the dating of the evidence has been strongly challenged, charles Dortch has identified chert and calcrete flake stone tools, found at Rottnest Island in Western Australia, as possibly dating to at least 50,000 years ago. The sea level stabilised to near its present levels about 6000 years ago and it is unknown how many populations settled in Australia prior to European colonisation. Both trihybrid and single-origin hypotheses have received extensive discussion, human genomic differences are being studied to find possible answers, but there is still insufficient evidence to distinguish a wave invasion model from a single settlement one
The Areni-1 cave complex is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, it was announced that the earliest known shoe was found at the site, in January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was announced to have been found. Also in 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3900 BC was reported, in 2009, the oldest brain was discovered