Mount Remarkable National Park
Mount Remarkable National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located about 238 kilometres north of the state capital of Adelaide and 25 kilometres east of Port Augusta. It is the name of the highest peak in the Park, with a height of 960 metres; the Park consists of three separate areas. The first is the parcel of land located west of the town of Melrose and consists of three areas: the Warren Bonython Link, Mambray Creek and Mount Remarkable; this block occupies 165.83 km2. The second parcel of land is known as the Telowie block and has an area of 0.35 km2. It is located on the west side of the Telowie Gorge Conservation Park about 7.5 km east of the town of Port Germein and about 24 km south of the block located at Melrose. The third parcel of land is known as the Napperby block, it consists of 16.72 km2 and is located east of the town of Napperby, about 4 km south of the Telowie Gorge Conservation Park and about 12 km north-east of the city of Port Pirie. The Park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.
Land associated with the Park at Mambray Creek and Alligator Gorge first obtained protected area status in 1952 as'national pleasure resorts' declared under the National Pleasure Resorts Act 1914. They were managed by the South Australian Government Tourist Bureau from 1952 to 1967. In 1964, the National Parks Commission submitted a proposal to the Government of South Australia for "comprehensive national parks" covering an area larger than that of the existing national pleasure resorts; this resulted in the creation of three separate reserves - the Alligator Gorge Wildlife Reserve, the Mambray Creek Wildlife Reserve and the Mount Remarkable Wildlife Reserve, that were constituted in July 1965, September 1967 and March 1966. In 1972, the three wildlife reserves were re-proclaimed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 as the Mount Remarkable National Park. Since 1972, the Park is reported as doubling in size from an area of 8,236 ha by the addition of land including the Black Range Lookout and the Bluff in 1976 and by the addition of an "area west of Alligator Gorge containing The Battery", two parts of the Willowie Forest Reserve, the Napperby Block in 1993.
In 2000, further land was added to the Park, subsequently named "The Warren Bonython Link" in honour of Warren Bonython’s "long personal interest in the area" and "his association with the National Parks Foundation". The Park now has a total area of 18,271 ha. Protected areas of South Australia Alligator Gorge "Mount Remarkable National Park Management Plan". Department for Environment and Heritage. 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2015. "Mount Remarkable National Park Management Plan Amendment 2013". Department for Environment Water and Natural Resources. 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2015. "Protected Areas Information System - reserve list". Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources. 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015. Mount Remarkable National Park official webpage Friends of Mount Remarkable National Park official website Mount Remarkable National Park webpage on protected planet
The Larapinta Trail is an extended walking track in the Northern Territory, Australia. Its total length covers 223 kilometres from east to west, with the eastern end at Alice Springs and the western end at Mount Sonder, one of the territory's highest mountains, it follows the West MacDonnell Ranges, sometimes along the ridge line, other times on the plain below, in the West MacDonnell National Park. Finke River Simpsons Gap Standley Chasm Ellery Creek Bighole Serpentine Gorge Ochre Pits Ormiston Pound Redbank Gorge Glen Helen Gorge The walk harbours many Aboriginal sacred sites of the Arrernte people, who have permitted tourists to visit the sites. In the 1990s the walk was only half as long, with the section between Mount Sonder and Ellery Big Hole completed at the turn of the millennium. Presently, the Northern Territory government is advertising the walk as Australia's best extended walk, competing with Western Australia's Bibbulmun Track and Tasmania's Overland Track and Western Arthurs track.
The original Larapinta trail plan was to end at Mount Zeil on the Western end of the West MacDonnell National Park. The terrain from Mount Sonder to Mount Zeil being hard to access by vehicle for rescue operations, the trail stopped at Mount Sonder. In September 2006, Belgian adventurer Louis-Philippe Loncke walked without resupply from West of Mount Zeil to Alice Springs walking off track and joining the Larapinta trail at Redbank gorge. On the 16th August 2014 Jessica Baker and Meredith Quinlan set a new record arriving at the Alice Springs Telegraph Station in 60 hours and 59 minutes, without crew and only the aid of drop boxes left at 3 locations en route; the trail is well marked with kilometre posts marking both the distance to the next campsite or section as well as the total length of the walk to go. There is a published leaflet that details the requirements and attractions of completing each of the twelve sections and notice boards at the transition of each section; these notice boards show elevation graphs of the walk and alert walkers to potential dangers.
There is a reasonable amount of water along the track, both found and trucked in. There are only one or two places in which water cannot be obtained throughout the day, with frequent storage tanks. Signage suggests that all water should be treated by boiling it for 5 minutes or adding water treatment tablets. No fires are allowed along the walk. There are now APP mapped walk information for the Larapinta; these can provide a useful backup to your maps. During the summer months, temperatures along the trail can exceed 45 °C, leading to danger of heatstroke and dehydration. Most people walk the trail during winter. MacDonnell Ranges Guided Larapinta Trail Walks Australia's Premier Larapinta Trail Website Northern Territory Parks and Wilderness Commission information TravelNT and TourismNT Website Friends of the Larapinta Trail Official West MacDonnell National Park Website Guthook Guides App Larapinta Trail
The Heysen Trail is a long distance walking trail in South Australia. It runs from Parachilna Gorge, in the Flinders Ranges via the Adelaide Hills to Cape Jervis on the Fleurieu Peninsula and is 1,200 kilometres in length. From north to south, the route of the trail may be summarised by the following landmarks in order: Parachilna Gorge - Flinders Ranges National Park - Hawker - Quorn - Mount Remarkable National Park - Melrose - Crystal Brook - Spalding - Burra - Kapunda - Adelaide Hills - Deep Creek Conservation Park - Cape Jervis Due to bushfire risk, large sections of the trail are closed annually from December through to April. Most people choose to walk sections of a few days at a time. There are many places to stay along the trail and hardy walkers who walk the track from beginning to end do so in about 60 days; the Friends of the Heysen Trail is a non-profit volunteer organisation dedicated to the maintenance and promotion of the Heysen Trail and other walking trails. A regular walking program is conducted by a walking sub-committee.
Different grades of walks cater for more experienced walkers. The trail passes cliffs, natural bushland, forests and grazing land, it extends from the ocean through the fertile Mount Lofty Ranges across Goyder's Line to the arid Flinders Ranges, with many different bioregions. The trail was first suggested by Warren Bonython in 1969 but design was stalled by several years due to government politics and issues with private land owners; the first 50 kilometres of the track was laid through the Mount Lofty Ranges in 1978 after responsibility for the track was handed to the Department of Recreation and Sport. Terry Lavender was the main designer for the track and oversaw the majority of its construction until it was completed in 1992; the trail is named after Sir Hans Heysen. The Dutchmans Stern Conservation Park Mount Brown Telowie Gorge Conservation Park Mokota Conservation Park Flinders Ranges National Park Mount Remarkable National Park Kyeema Conservation Park Mount Magnificent Conservation Park Caroona Creek Conservation Park Hopkins Creek Conservation Park Kaiserstuhl Conservation Park Finniss Conservation Park The Heysen Trail - Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources website
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
The Advertiser (Adelaide)
The Advertiser is a daily tabloid format newspaper published in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. First published as a broadsheet named The South Australian Advertiser on 12 July 1858, it is a tabloid printed from Monday to Saturday; the Advertiser came under the ownership of Keith Murdoch in the 1950s, the full ownership of Rupert Murdoch in 1987. It is now a publication of News Corp Australia. Through much of the 20th century, The Advertiser was Adelaide's morning broadsheet, The News the afternoon tabloid, with The Sunday Mail covering weekend sport, Messenger Newspapers community news; the head office was relocated from a former premises in King William Street, to a new News Corp office complex, known as Keith Murdoch House at 31 Waymouth Street. An early major daily colonial newspaper, The Adelaide Times, ceased publication on 9 May 1858. Shortly afterwards, Reverend John Henry Barrow, a former editor of the South Australian Register founded the morning newspaper The South Australian Advertiser and a companion weekly The South Australian Weekly Chronicle.
The original owners were Barrow and Charles Henry Goode, the first issues were published on 12 July 1858 and 17 July 1858 respectively. It consisted of four pages, each of seven columns, cost 4 pence. In 1863 the company started an afternoon newspaper The Express as a competitor to The Telegraph, an afternoon/evening daily paper independent of both The Advertiser and the South Australian Register; the company was re-formed, effective 9 September 1864, with additional shareholders Philip Henry Burden, John Baker, Captain Scott, James Counsell, Thomas Graves and others. Burden, secretary of the company, died in 1864, Barrow, whose wife had died in 1856, married his widow in 1865, thus owning together a quarter of the company. In December 1866, the syndicate bought the now defunct The Telegraph at auction, incorporated it with The Express to form The Express and Telegraph. In 1871, when the shareholders were Barrow, Robert Stuckey, Thomas Graves, William Parkin, Thomas King, James Counsell, George Williams Chinner, the partnership was dissolved and the business was carried on by Barrow and King.
J. H. Barrow died on 22 August 1874, Thomas King ran the papers for himself and Mrs. Barrow for about five years. In 1879 a new firm was created, consisting of Thomas King, Fred Burden, John Langdon Bonython. In July 1884, Thomas King dropped out, the firm of Burden & Bonython was formed to run the paper. On 1 April 1889, the main publication was re-branded with The Advertiser. In December 1891, Burden retired, sold his share of the company to Bonython, from 1894 to 1929, became the sole proprietor of The Advertiser; as well as being a talented newspaper editor, he supported the movement towards the Federation of Australia. In 1923, after a run of 60 years, The Express was stopped just as its renamed rival, The News, was starting. On 12 January 1929, The Mail announced that Bonython had sold The Advertiser for £1,250,000 to a group of Melbourne financiers The Herald and Weekly Times, an external media company, now had the controlling stake, but Bonython still retained a 48.7% interest. Bonython retired from his newspapers in 1929, after 65 years' service, his son, John Lavington Bonython, became editor.
In February 1931, in the wake of the Great Depression, The Advertiser took over and shut down its ailing competitors, The Register, The Chronicle, The Observer renaming itself for seven months as The Advertiser and Register. On the death of Keith Murdoch in 1952, ownership of The News and The Mail passed to his son Rupert Murdoch via News Limited. Following the handover, in response to suggestions of external influences from Victoria made by competing newspaper The Mail, the Chairman of The Advertiser's board published its policy in The Advertiser as follows: "It is the same today as when the late Sir Langdon Bonython was in sole control, it is based upon a profound pride and belief in South Australia, the system of private enterprise which has made this State what it is." On 24 October 1953 the company launched the Sunday Advertiser in direct competition to News Limited's The Mail, but failed to outreach its rival, though no doubt affecting its profitability. It ceased publication five years or so after which the by renamed Sunday Mail advertised itself as a joint publication of Advertiser Newspapers and News Ltd. and incorporated many of the Sunday Advertiser regular features.
It had introduced colour graphics on the comics page, but this was dropped shortly after joint publication commenced. In addition, The Messenger, published since 1951 was purchased in 1962, owned by 1983; when Murdoch acquired The Herald and Weekly Times in 1987, he acquired the remaining 48.7% share of The Advertiser. He sold The News in 1987, it was closed in 1992. Murdoch changed the format of The Advertiser from a broadsheet to a tabloid in November 1997, the masthead and content font and layout was modernised in September 2009; the Advertiser is available for purchase throughout South Australia and some towns and regions in New South Wales and the Northern Territory located near or adjacent to the South Australia state border such as Broken Hill, Mildura and Alice Springs. According to The Advertiser's website, the newspaper is read by over 580,000 people each weekday, by more than 740,000 people each Saturday. Circulation figures reported in May 2016 by Roy Morgan Research showe
University of Adelaide
The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third-oldest university in Australia; the university's main campus is located on North Terrace in the Adelaide city centre, adjacent to the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia. The university has five campuses throughout the state, it has the Ngee Ann -- Adelaide Education Centre, in Singapore. The university operates independent research institutes and groups; these include the South Australian Centre for Economic Studies, the Hanson Institute for Medical Research, the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute. The University of Adelaide is composed with each containing constituent schools; these include the Faculty of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, the Faculty of Arts, the Faculty of the Professions, the Faculty of Sciences. It is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities.
The university is a member of the Sandstone universities, which consist of colonial-era universities within Australia. The university is associated with five Nobel laureates, constituting one-third of Australia's total Nobel laureates, 109 Rhodes scholars; the university has had a considerable impact on the public life of South Australia, having educated many of the state's leading businesspeople, medical professionals and politicians. The university has been associated with many notable achievements and discoveries, such as the discovery and development of penicillin, the development of space exploration, the military tank, Wi-Fi, polymer banknotes and X-ray crystallography, the study of viticulture and oenology; the University of Adelaide was established on 6 November 1874 after a £20,000 donation by grazier and copper miner Walter Watson Hughes, along with support and donations from Thomas Elder. The first Chancellor was Sir Richard Hanson and the first vice-chancellor was Augustus Short.
The first degree offered was the Bachelor of Arts and the university started teaching in March 1876. John Davidson was the first Hughes professor of mental and moral philosophy; the University has a long history of championing the rights of women in higher education. It was the second University in the English-speaking world to admit women on equal terms with men, though women studied alongside men from the commencement of classes in 1876, were eligible for all academic prizes and honours, its first female graduate was Edith Emily Dornwell, the first person in Australia to receive the degree of Bachelor of Science. The university graduated Australia's first female surgeon Laura Fowler. Ruby Davy was the first Australian woman to receive a doctorate in music; the University was the first to elect a woman to a University Council in Australia, Helen Mayo, in 1914. The great hall of the University, Bonython Hall, was built in 1936 following a donation from the owner of The Advertiser newspaper, Sir John Langdon Bonython, who left £40,000 for a Great Hall for the University.
On 2 July 2010, the University implemented its "Smoke-Free Policy". This move was the culmination of an anti-smoking agenda headed by Professor Konrad Jamrozik and subsequently, following Jamrozik's death, the Executive Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences, Professor Justin Beilby. Security have the right to eject people smoking within the University buildings and fine people smoking in the gardens or walkways, it is the first higher education institution in South Australia to institute a smoke-free policy. The North Terrace campus has been smoke-free since July 2010, it was planned that the Waite and Roseworthy campuses would be smoke-free by 2011, the University's residential facilities have been made smoke-free. In June 2018, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia began discussions regarding the possibility of a merger; the proposition was described as the formation of a "super uni" by Steven Marshall and Simon Birmingham, but the merger was called off in October 2018.
The main campus of the University is on North Terrace. It is bordered by the Art Gallery of South Australia, the State Library of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the "City East" campus of the University of South Australia; the Adelaide University Medical and Dental Schools were located across Frome Road, behind the old Royal Adelaide Hospital. The hospital moved and so have the schools; the vast majority of students and staff of the University are based at the North Terrace campus, where the majority of courses are taught and schools are based. The central administration of the University and the main library, the Barr Smith Library, are both located on this campus. While many other universities have law and business schools or satellite campuses within the central business district, the University of Adelaide is unique among Australian sandstone universities for having its main presence adjacent to the main business and shopping precinct. Bonython Hall, the Mitchell Building, the Elder Hall, the Napier building and the Ligertwood building, form the North Terrace street frontage of the campus.
Bonython Hall is one of the many historic and heritage listed buildings located at the North Terrace campus. Others include the Mitchell Building