University of Richmond
The University of Richmond is a private liberal arts university in Richmond, Virginia. The university is a undergraduate, residential university with 4,350 undergraduate and graduate students in five schools: the School of Arts and Sciences, the E. Claiborne Robins School of Business, the Jepson School of Leadership Studies, the University of Richmond School of Law and the School of Professional & Continuing Studies. Founded by Virginia Baptists in 1830 as a manual labor institute for men wishing to become ministers, with instruction begun by the Rev. Edward Baptist, an 1813 graduate of Hampden–Sydney College, the school was incorporated ten years as Richmond College. After 1834, the Columbia House was the main academic building of Richmond College. During the American Civil War, the entire student body formed a regiment and joined the Confederate army. Richmond College's buildings were used as a hospital for Confederate troops and as a barracks for Union soldiers; the college invested all of its funds in Confederate war bonds, the outcome of the war left it bankrupt.
In 1866, James Thomas donated $5,000 to reopen the college. The T. C. Williams School of Law opened in 1870. In 1894, the college elected Dr. Frederic W. Boatwright president. President Boatwright would serve for 51 years, he is most remembered for raising the funds needed to move the college in 1914 from its original downtown location to a new 350-acre campus in what is now Westhampton area of Richmond, in doing so created Westhampton College for women. The university's main library, Boatwright Memorial Library, is named in Boatwright's honor. Symbolically, the library and its soaring academic gothic tower occupy the highest spot on the grounds, its grounds were landscaped in 1913, by Warren H. Manning under the supervision of Charles Gillette; the institution was renamed University of Richmond in 1920 with the men's college renamed Richmond College. The distinction of colleges was phased out in the late 20th century, but the respective parts of the campus continue to be referred to as the Westhampton and the Richmond "sides".
In 1949, the E. Claiborne Robins School of Business opened, followed by the School of Continuing Studies in 1962. In 1969, when financial issues threatened closing the university or turning it over to the Commonwealth of Virginia, E. Claiborne Robins Sr. a trustee and alumnus, donated $50 million to the university, the largest gift made to an institution of higher education at the time. In constant dollars, it remains among the largest. Robins' goal was to make Richmond one of the best private universities in the country. In partnership with the university's president E. Bruce Heilman and development director H. Gerald Quigg the $10 million matching grant component of the gift raised over an additional $60 million, making the university's total endowment at the time one of the highest in the country. During World War II, Richmond was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1987, a donation of $20 million by Robert S. Jepson, Jr. facilitated the opening of the Jepson School of Leadership Studies.
The school, which opened in 1992, was the first of its kind in the U. S. In 1990, the academic missions of Richmond and Westhampton Colleges were combined to form the School of Arts and Sciences. On October 15, 1992, candidates George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Ross Perot came to campus for the first-ever "town hall" televised presidential debate, viewed by 200 million people worldwide. Addressing a crowd of nearly 9,000, President Obama visited the University of Richmond to present the American Jobs Act on September 11, 2011. Dr. Ronald A. Crutcher is the current president of the University of Richmond, becoming the 10th president on July 1, 2015, he is a former member of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. He is recognized to be the first cellist to receive the doctor of musical arts degree from Yale, where he earned his master's degree. On, February 23, 2015, the University of Richmond announced to the student body via email that the board of trustees elected Ronald Crutcher as the 10th president of the university.
He took office 1 July 2015, his inauguration ceremony was held at the Robins Center on 30 October 2015. The Henry Mansfield Cannon Memorial Chapel, North Court, Ryland Hall were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. All Richmond undergraduate students begin their course work in the School of Arts & Sciences, which offers 38 majors and 10 concentrations in the arts, social sciences, humanities. After one full year of study, students may decide to pursue majors in the other undergraduate schools, though 70 percent of students choose to remain in A&S. Opportunities abound in the School of Art & Sciences, as students have the chance to study abroad and pursue internships or research while gaining an education that will prepare them for a variety of careers or graduate programs; the Robins School of Business was established in 1949 and offers undergraduate and executive education programs. It is named after alumnus E. Claiborne Robins. Ranked 12th nationally overall and tied for first in academic quality by BusinessWeek, the Robins School is the only accredited, top-ranked undergraduate business school, part of a top-ranked liberal arts university.
In the 2009 BusinessWeek review of part-time MBA programs, the Robins school ranked 3rd in the mid-Atlantic region and 17th nationwide. Admission into the Robins School of Business is granted to students who have completed basic Accounting and Math courses at the end of three semester while maintaining a Grade Point Average of 2.7 or higher. The Jepson School of Leadership Studies w
Stempel Type Foundry
D. Stempel AG was a German typographic foundry founded by David Stempel, in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Many important font designers worked for the Stempel foundry, including Hans Bohn, Warren Chappell, F. H. Ehmcke, Friedrich Heinrichsen, Hanns Th. Hoyer, F. W. Kleukens, Erich Meyer, Hans Möhring, Hiero Rhode, Wilhelm Schwerdtner, Herbert Thannhaeuser, Martin Wilke, Rudolf Wolf, Victor Hammer, Hermann Zapf, Gudrun Zapf von Hesse. With the introduction of Memphis in 1929, the foundry was the first to cast modern slab serif typefaces. From 1900 to 1983, Stempel had an exclusive relationship with Mergenthaler Linotype Company, as one of just a few producers of matrices for the Linotype machine worldwide and the only one in Europe. Starting in 1925, Stempel types were distributed in the United States by Continental Type Founders Association. Linotype AG became the majority stockholder in 1941. In 1977, Stempel began manufacturing Phototypesetting equipment. In 1985, Linotype AG purchased Stempel's type department.
Stempel closed down in 1986, donating all of its type and equipment to the Darmstadt University of Technology. Schriften-Service D. Stempel GmbH has possession of the matrices of Stempel, Klingspor Bros. Deberny & Peignot, Berthold, C. E. Webber, Fonderie Olive, the Nebiolo foundry and continues to cast their types today. 1915: D. Stempel takes over the type foundry Roos & Junge, Offenbach. 1917: D. Stempel acquires a majority share of the type foundry Klingspor Bros. Offenbach. 1918: D. Stempel takes over the type foundry Heinrich Hoffmeister, Leipzig. 1919: D. Stempel acquires the type division of W. Drugulin, Leipzig and a share of the type foundry Brötz & Glock, Frankfurt. 1927: D. Stempel acquires a shareholding in the Haas Type Foundry in Basel/Münchenstein and the two foundries begin to share matrices. 1933: D. Stempel acquires a shareholding in the type foundry Benjamin Krebs, Frankfurt. 1956: D. Stempel AG acquires full ownership of the type foundry Klingspor Bros. Offenbach. 1963: Linotype takes over the type foundry Genzsch + Heyse, Hamburg.
1970: Stempel takes over part of the type collection of C. E. Weber. 1972: The Haas'sche type foundry in Basel/Münchenstein takes over the type foundry Deberny & Peignot, Paris. 1978: The Haas'sche type foundry takes over Fonderie Olive, Marseille. Nicolas Kis's original matrices for the typeface Janson have been held by Stempel since 1919. In 1936, a revival of the face was designed by Chauncey H. Griffith of the Mergenthaler Linotype for production of both Linotype matrices and foundry type by Stempel. Today, the most common digital version, Janson Text, comes from a metal version produced by Hermann Zapf in the 1950s for Stempel based on Kis' original matrices. Friedl and Stein, Typography: an Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Throughout History. Black Dog & Levinthal Publishers: 1998. ISBN 1-57912-023-7. Jaspert, W. Pincus, W. Turner Berry and A. F. Johnson; the Encyclopedia of Type Faces. Blandford Press Lts.: 1953, 1983. ISBN 0-7137-1347-X. Documents and clippings about Stempel Type Foundry in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website
Edward M. Catich was an American Roman Catholic priest and calligrapher, he is noted for the fullest development of the thesis that the inscribed Roman square capitals of the Augustan age and afterward owed their form wholly to the use of the flat brush, rather than to the exigencies of the chisel or other stone cutting tools. His parents died when he was 11, he and three brothers were taken by train to the orphanage of the Loyal Order of Moose, the Mooseheart campus near Aurora, Illinois. At the orphanage he apprenticed under sign-writer Walter Heberling. After graduating high school in 1924, Catich toured with a Mooseheart band, went to Chicago, where he played music in bands. Catich studied art at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago from 1926-29, supported himself as a union sign-writer. Catich attended, he received a master's degree in art at University of Iowa in Iowa City. In 1935, Catich traveled to Rome to study at Pontifical Gregorian University for the Catholic priesthood, where he made a study of archaeology and paleography.
He was ordained in 1938 and returned to Iowa to teach art, math and music at St. Ambrose; as a priest, he served in parishes of the Diocese of Peoria, including ones in Atkinson and Hooppole. Throughout much of the late 40's and early 50's, Catich found himself making trips to Massachusetts to work on his calligraphy with W. A. Dwiggins, it was during these trips that he began to explore deep into the Trajan column that would become his life's work. During the 50's, 60's, into the 70's, Catich would make many trips to Rome to explore the Roman capitals. Catich taught at St. Ambrose for forty years, until his death in 1979; the Davenport, university now holds some 4,000 of his works, many from his legacy to Professor John Schmits, housed at the Edward M. Catich Memorial Gallery; the gallery was his studio and press at the Galvin Fine Arts Center and was built with a donation from Hallmark Cards, where several of his students worked. In the years following his death, many of Catich's theories about the Roman Capitals would be adopted.
He had ties to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Encyclopædia Britannica, the Houghton Library at Harvard, was a founder of the Catholic Art Association. Art is not freedom but disciplined freedom, his calligraphy and stone cutting work won Catich an international reputation, he created many slate inscriptions using his brush and chisel technique. He created two typefaces and Catfish. Many of his books were published under his own press, The Catfish Press, which operated out of his studio at the university. Besides calligraphy, Catich was accomplished at liturgical art, working in slate, stained glass and print, he played the trumpet and harmonica. Other institutions which hold his work include: Chapel + Cultural Center at Rensselaer Harvard College Los Angeles County Museum of Art Encyclopædia Britannica's corporate headquarters Reed College Morton Arboretum University of Pittsburgh's Cathedral of Learning and Benedum Hall Studying in Rome as a seminarian in the late 1930s, he made a thorough study of the letter forms of the epigraphy on Trajan's Column.
While the brushed-origin thesis had been proposed in the nineteenth century, having worked as a union sign painter, made a complete study and proposed a convincing ductus by which the forms were created, using a flat brush and chisel. He promulgated his views in two works, Letters Redrawn from the Trajan Inscription in Rome and The Origin of the Serif: Brush Writing and Roman Letters. While the thesis is not universally accepted, electioneering posters excavated in Pompeii show unincised Imperial Roman capital titles brush-painted on certain walls. Eighth Annual Frederick W. Goudy Award, 1976 Inaugural John McMullen Award Edward M. Catich. "A Priest Speaks on Chalice-Design." The Catholic Art Quarterly, volume 14, number 2. 1951. Edward M. Catich. "Sentimentality in Christian Art" The Furrow 10 Edward M. Catich. Letters Redrawn from the Trajan Inscription in Rome; the Catfish Press, 1961. Edward M. Catich. Eric Gill: His social and artistic roots; the Prairie Press, 1964. Edward M. Catich; the Origin of the Serif: Brush writing and Roman letters.
The Catfish Press, 1968. Edward M. Catich. Reed and Brush: Alphabets for writing and lettering; the Catfish Press, 1972. Edward M. Catich; the Trajan Inscription: An essay. Society of Printers, 1973. Edward M. Catich Memorial Gallery
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 204,214. The Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state. Richmond is located at the fall line of the James River, 44 miles west of Williamsburg, 66 miles east of Charlottesville, 100 miles east of Lynchburg and 90 miles south of Washington, D. C. Surrounded by Henrico and Chesterfield counties, the city is located at the intersections of Interstate 95 and Interstate 64, encircled by Interstate 295, Virginia State Route 150 and Virginia State Route 288. Major suburbs include Midlothian to the southwest, Chesterfield to the south, Varina to the southeast, Sandston to the east, Glen Allen to the north and west, Short Pump to the west and Mechanicsville to the northeast; the site of Richmond had been an important village of the Powhatan Confederacy, was settled by English colonists from Jamestown in 1609, in 1610–1611.
The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737. It became Dominion of Virginia in 1780, replacing Williamsburg. During the Revolutionary War period, several notable events occurred in the city, including Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech in 1775 at St. John's Church, the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson. During the American Civil War, Richmond served as the second and permanent capital of the Confederate States of America; the city entered the 20th century with one of the world's first successful electric streetcar systems. The Jackson Ward neighborhood is a national hub of African-American culture. Richmond's economy is driven by law and government, with federal and local governmental agencies, as well as notable legal and banking firms, located in the downtown area; the city is home to both the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, one of 13 United States courts of appeals, the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, one of 12 Federal Reserve Banks.
Dominion Energy and WestRock, Fortune 500 companies, are headquartered in the city, with others in the metropolitan area. After the first permanent English-speaking settlement was established in April 1607, at Jamestown, Captain Christopher Newport led explorers northwest up the James River, to an area, inhabited by Powhatan Native Americans; the earliest European settlement in the Central Virginia area was in 1611 at Henricus, where the Falling Creek empties into the James River. In 1619, early Virginia Company settlers struggling to establish viable moneymaking industries established the Falling Creek Ironworks. After decades of territorial conflicts with native tribes, the Falls of the James became more to white settlement in the late 1600s and early 1700s. In 1737, planter William Byrd II commissioned Major William Mayo to lay out the original town grid. Byrd named the city "Richmond" after the English town of Richmond near London, because the view of the James River was strikingly similar to the view of the River Thames from Richmond Hill in England, where he had spent time during his youth.
The settlement was laid out in April 1737, was incorporated as a town in 1742. In 1775, Patrick Henry delivered his famous "Give me Liberty or Give me Death" speech in St. John's Church in Richmond, crucial for deciding Virginia's participation in the First Continental Congress and setting the course for revolution and independence. On April 18, 1780, the state capital was moved from the colonial capital of Williamsburg to Richmond, to provide a more centralized location for Virginia's increasing westerly population, as well as to isolate the capital from British attack; the latter motive proved to be in vain, in 1781, under the command of Benedict Arnold, Richmond was burned by British troops, causing Governor Thomas Jefferson to flee as the Virginia militia, led by Sampson Mathews, defended the city. Richmond recovered from the war, by 1782 was once again a thriving city. In 1786, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was passed at the temporary capitol in Richmond, providing the basis for the separation of church and state, a key element in the development of the freedom of religion in the United States.
A permanent home for the new government, the Greek Revival style of the Virginia State Capitol building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau, was completed in 1788. After the American Revolutionary War, Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. To facilitate the transfer of cargo from the flat-bottomed James River bateaux above the fall line to the ocean-faring ships below, an enterprising George Washington helped design the James River and Kanawha Canal from Westham east to Richmond, in the 18th century to bypass Richmond's rapids on the upper James River with the intent of providing a water route across the Appalachian Mountains to the Kanawha River flowing westward into the Ohio eventually to the Mississippi River; the legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag. As a result of this and ample access to hydropower due to the falls, Richmond became home to some of the largest manufacturing facilities in the country, including iron works and flour mills, the largest facilities of their kind in The South.
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Rudolf Koch was a German type designer. He was a master of lettering, calligraphy and illustration. Known for his typefaces created for the Klingspor Type Foundry, his most used typefaces include Neuland and Kabel. Koch spent his teenage years working in Hanau as an apprentice in a metal goods workshop, whilst attending art school, where he learned to draw, soon after went to the Academy of Fine Arts, Nuremberg. Between 1897 and 1906 he worked for various businesses in the book trade in Leipzig and designing book covers in the Art Nouveau style, popular at the time. In 1906 Koch began working for the Rudhard Type foundry in Offenbach known as the Klingspor Type foundry. Other notable designers who worked for the foundry include Peter Behrens. Koch was spiritual and a devout Lutheran, spending much of his time working on religious publications and manuscripts, of which he completed nearly a hundred in his lifetime. Koch viewed the alphabet as humanity's ultimate achievement, he died prematurely of a heart attack in 1934, aged 59.
Koch admired William Morris. Speaking at a meeting in London, he expressed his disbelief that Morris was not of German descent: "I feel such a closeness to him that I always have the feeling that he cannot be an Englishman, he must be a German."The teachings of Morris and the Arts and Crafts Movement are evident in Koch’s use of hand-lettering and wood-cutting techniques. At the same time, his book illustrations are evocative of Art Nouveau. Koch prized craftsmanship in his type design and printing methods, a principle rooted in the Arts and Crafts Movement, yet Koch was working in a period of rapid development in print technology, which saw the invention of the Linotype machine in 1886, the Monotype System in 1887, the offset press in 1907, all of which were antithetical to his artisanal ethos. Koch lectured at the Arts and Crafts School in Offenbach. In 1918, after World War I, he opened a workshop training students in typography, wood-cutting, other crafts. Best known for his calligraphic talent he built upon the calligraphic tradition by creating an original, simple expression from his materials.
Many of Koch’s blackletter typefaces, such as Kochschrift and Willhelm Klingspor Gotisch, were influenced by hand-written manuscripts and Gothic letterforms, a style that originated in Germany. Known for his nationalistic ideology, he wrote in Der Deutsche, "Even as a boy I wanted to become a proper real German. I hated anything, foreign, as I was growing up I felt this was a sign of true loyalty."Koch defended Germanic blackletter script in the journals and publications he contributed to. He held exhibitions with his group Offenbach Schreiber, which promoted hand lettering and calligraphy, in these he expressed the revival of traditional lettering. Koch's dedication to Gothic script may have limited his recognition in English-speaking countries. Koch wrote a book containing 493 old-world symbols and runes entitled The Book of Signs. Koch's first non-blackletter typeface was the delicate roman Koch-Antiqua, a display face with a low x-height, its oblique features inline capitals in the larger sizes, an idea inspired by the traditions of blackletter capitals.
Koch designed the Neuland typeface in 1923. Taking a more experimental turn, the typeface counterpoints his preferred traditional style with a more contemporary feel. Dr Klingspor called it “unbearably ugly”, despite its great commercial success. Koch introduced his first sans-serif typeface, Kabel, in 1927, similar to Paul Renner’s Futura, designed the same year; the differences between the two typefaces are most noticeable in Kabel's far-reaching terminal on the ‘a’ and the ‘e', as well as the slanted crossbar and the loop of the ‘g’. Typefaces designed by Koch include: Deutsche Schrift Maximilian Antiqua Wilhelm Klingspor-Schrift Deutsche Zierschrift Koch Antiqua / Locarno, sold by Continental Type in the United States as Eve Neuland Deutsche Anzeigenschrift Jessen Wallau Kabel Offenbach Zeppelin / Kabel Inline Marathon Prisma Claudius Holla Grotesk-Initialen Koch Current Neufraktur Some of Koch’s most well known works include: Klassiche Schriften Das Schreiben als Kunstfertigkeit Das Zeichenbuch Das Blumenbuch Das ABC-Büchlein Hermann Zapf was a huge admirer of Koch, took great inspiration from his work after acquiring a copy of Das Schreiben als Kunstfertigkeit.
Font Designer - Rudolf Koch Klingspor-Museum Offenbach - Rudolf Koch Type Design, Typography & Graphic Images -Rudolf Koch
Alfred A. Knopf
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house, founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915. Blanche and Alfred traveled abroad and were known for publishing European and Latin American writers in addition to leading American literary trends, it was acquired by Random House in 1960, acquired by Bertelsmann in 1998, is now part of the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. The Knopf publishing house is associated with its borzoi colophon, designed by co-founder Blanche Knopf in 1925. Knopf was founded in 1915 by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. along with Blanche Knopf, on a $5,000 advance from his father, Samuel Knopf. The first office was located in New York's Candler Building; the publishing house was incorporated in 1918, with Alfred Knopf as president, Blanche Knopf as vice president, Samuel Knopf as treasurer. From the start, Knopf focused on European translations and high-brow works of literature. Among their initial publications were French author Émile Augier's Four Plays, Russian writer Nikolai Gogol's Taras Bulba, Polish novelist Stanisław Przybyszewski's novel Homo Sapiens, French writer Guy de Maupassant's Yvette, a Novelette, Ten Other Stories.
During World War I these books were cheap to obtain and helped establish Knopf as an American firm publishing European works. Their first bestseller was a new edition of Green Mansions, a novel by W. H. Hudson which went through nine printings by 1919 and sold over 20,000 copies, their first original American novel, The Three Black Pennys by Joseph Hergesheimer, was published in 1917. With the start of the 1920s Knopf began using innovative advertising techniques to draw attention to their books and authors. Beginning in 1920, Knopf produced a chapbook, for the purpose of promoting new books; the Borzoi was published periodically over the years, the first being a hardback called the Borzoi and sometimes quarterly as the Borzoi Quarterly. For Floyd Dell's coming-of-age novel, Moon-Calf, they paid men to walk the streets of the financial and theatre districts dressed in artist costumes with sandwich boards; the placards directed interested buyers to local book shops. The unique look of their books along with their expertise in advertising their authors drew Willa Cather to leave her previous publisher Houghton Mifflin to join Alfred A. Knopf.
As she was still under contract for her novels, the Knopfs suggested publishing a collection of her short stories and the Bright Medusa in 1920. Cather was pleased with the results and the advertisement of the book in the New Republic and would go on to publish sixteen books with Knopf including their first Pulitzer prize winner, One Of Ours. Before they had married, Alfred had promised Blanche that they would be equal partners in the publishing company, but it was clear by the company's fifth anniversary that this was not to be the case. Knopf published a celebratory 5th anniversary book in which Alfred was the focus of anecdotes by authors and Blanche's name was only mentioned once to note that "Mrs. Knopf" had found a manuscript; this despite ample evidence from authors and others that Blanche was in fact the soul of the company. This was covered extensively in The Lady with the Borzoi by Laura Claridge. In 1923 Knopf started publishing periodicals, beginning with The American Mercury, founded by H. L. Mencken and George Jean Nathan, which it published through 1934.1923 marked the year that Knopf published Kahlil Gibran's the Prophet.
Knopf had published Gibran's earlier works. In its first year, the Prophet only sold 1,159 copies, it would double sales the next year and keep doubling becoming one of the firm's most successful books. In 1965 the book sold 240,000 copies. Samuel Knopf died in 1932. William A. Koshland joined the company in 1934, worked with the firm for more than fifty years, rising to take the positions of President and Chairman of the Board. Blanche became President in 1957 when Alfred became Chairman of the Board, worked for the firm until her death in 1966. Alfred Knopf retired in 1972, becoming chairman emeritus of the firm until his death in 1984. Alfred Knopf had a summer home in Purchase, New York. Following the Good Neighbor policy, Blanche Knopf visited South America in 1942, so the firm could start producing texts from there, she was one of the first publishers to visit Europe after World War II. Her trips, those of other editors, brought in new writers from Europe, South America, Asia. Alfred traveled to Brazil in 1961, which spurred a corresponding interest on his part in South America.
Penn Publishing Company was acquired in 1943. The Knopfs' son, Alfred "Pat" Jr. was hired on as trade books manager after the war. In 1952, editor Judith Jones joined Knopf as an editor. Jones discovered Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl in a slush pile and acquired Julia Child's Mastering the Art of French Cooking. Jones would remain with Knopf, retiring in 2011 as a senior editor and vice-president after a career that included working with John Updike and Anne Tyler. Pat Knopf left his parents' publishing company in 1959 to launch his own, Atheneum Publishers, with two other partners; the story made the front page of the New York Times. In a 1957 advertisement in the Atlantic Monthly, Alfred A. Knopf published the Borzoi Credo; the credo includes a list of what Knopf's beliefs for publishing including the statement that he never published an unworthy book. Among a list of beliefs listed is the final one--"I believe that magazines, movies and radio will never replace good books." In 1960 Random House acquired Alfred A. Knopf.
It is believed that the decision to sell was prompted by Alfred A. Knopf, Jr. leaving Knopf to found his own book company, Atheneum Bo