Paul Revere was an American silversmith, early industrialist, Patriot in the American Revolution. He is best known for his midnight ride to alert the colonial militia in April 1775 to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride". At age 41, Revere was a prosperous and prominent Boston silversmith, he had helped organize an alarm system to keep watch on the British military. Revere served as a Massachusetts militia officer, though his service ended after the Penobscot Expedition, one of the most disastrous campaigns of the American Revolutionary War, for which he was absolved of blame. Following the war, Revere returned to his silversmith trade, he used the profits from his expanding business to finance his work in iron casting, bronze bell and cannon casting, the forging of copper bolts and spikes. In 1800 he became the first American to roll copper into sheets for use as sheathing on naval vessels.
Revere was born in the North End of Boston on December 21, 1734, according to the Old Style calendar in use, or January 1, 1735, in the modern calendar. His father, a French Huguenot born Apollos Rivoire came to Boston at the age of 13 and was apprenticed to the silversmith John Coney. By the time he married Deborah Hitchborn, a member of a long-standing Boston family that owned a small shipping wharf, in 1729, Rivoire had anglicized his name to Paul Revere, their son, Paul Revere, was the third of 12 children and the eldest surviving son. Revere grew up in the environment of the extended Hitchborn family, never learned his father's native language. At 13 he became an apprentice to his father; the silversmith trade afforded him connections with a cross-section of Boston society, which would serve him well when he became active in the American Revolution. As for religion, although his father attended Puritan services, Revere was drawn to the Church of England. Revere began attending the services of the political and provocative Jonathan Mayhew at the West Church.
His father did not approve, as a result father and son came to blows on one occasion. Revere relented and returned to his father's church, although he did become friends with Mayhew, returned to the West Church in the late 1760s. Revere's father died in 1754, when Paul was too young to be the master of the family silver shop. In February 1756, during the French and Indian War, he enlisted in the provincial army, he made this decision because of the weak economy, since army service promised consistent pay. Commissioned a second lieutenant in a provincial artillery regiment, he spent the summer at Fort William Henry at the southern end of Lake George in New York as part of an abortive plan for the capture of Fort St. Frédéric, he did not stay long in the army, but returned to Boston and assumed control of the silver shop in his own name. On August 4, 1757, he married Sarah Orne, he and Sarah had eight children, but two died young, only one, survived her father. Revere's business began to suffer when the British economy entered a recession in the years following the Seven Years' War, declined further when the Stamp Act of 1765 resulted in a further downturn in the Massachusetts economy.
Business was so poor that an attempt was made to attach his property in late 1765. To help make ends meet he took up dentistry, a skill set he was taught by a practicing surgeon who lodged at a friend's house. One client was Doctor Joseph Warren, a local physician and political opposition leader with whom Revere formed a close friendship. Revere and Warren, in addition to having common political views, were both active in the same local Masonic lodges. Although Revere was not one of the "Loyal Nine"—organizers of the earliest protests against the Stamp Act—he was well connected with its members, who were laborers and artisans. Revere did not participate in some of the more raucous protests, such as the attack on the home of Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson. In 1765, a group of militants who would become known as the "Sons of Liberty" formed, of which Revere was a member. From 1765 on, in support of the dissident cause, he produced engravings and other artifacts with political themes. Among these engravings are a depiction of the arrival of British troops in 1768 and a famous depiction of the March 1770 Boston Massacre.
Although the latter was engraved by Revere and he included the inscription, "Engraved, Printed, & Sold by Paul Revere Boston", it was modeled on a drawing by Henry Pelham, Revere's engraving of the drawing was colored by a third man and printed by a fourth. Revere produced a bowl commemorating the Massachusetts assembly's refusal to retract the Massachusetts Circular Letter. In 1770 Revere purchased a house on North Square in Boston's North End. Now a museum, the house provided space for his growing family while he continued to maintain his shop at nearby Clark's Wharf. Sarah died in 1773, on October 10 of that year, Revere married Rachel Walker, they had eight children. In November 1773 the merchant ship Dartmouth arrived in Boston harbor carrying the first shipment of tea made under the terms of the Tea Act; this act authorized the British East India Company to ship tea (of which it had huge surplu
Green River (Kentucky)
The Green River is a 384-mile-long tributary of the Ohio River that rises in Lincoln County in south-central Kentucky. Tributaries of the Green River include the Barren River, the Nolin River, the Pond River and the Rough River; the river was named after a general of the American Revolutionary War. Following the Revolutionary War, many veterans staked claims along the Green River as payment for their military service; the river valley attracted a number of vagrants, earning it the dubious nickname Rogue's Harbor. In 1842, the Green River was canalized, with a series of locks and dams being built to create a navigable channel as far inland as Bowling Green, Kentucky. Four locks and dams were constructed on the Green River, one lock and dam was built on the Barren River, a tributary that passed through Bowling Green. During the American Civil War, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan conducted daring raids through the Green River country, from which he reached into southern Indiana and Ohio. In 1901, two additional locks and dams were opened on the Green River, which allowed river traffic to Mammoth Cave.
In 1941, Mammoth Cave National Park was established, the two upper locks and dams closed in 1950. In 1965, Lock and Dam #4 at Woodbury failed. In 1969, the United States Army Corps of Engineers impounded a section of the river, forming 8,200-acre Green River Lake; the lake is now the primary feature of Green River Lake State Park. There is still one Native American tribe living on the Green River: the Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky. In 1893 Governor John Y. Brown recognized the Southern Cherokee Nation as an Indian tribe; the Green River flows through Mammoth Cave National Park, located along river miles 190 to 205. The river drains the cave and controls the master base level of the Mammoth Cave system: the construction of a 9-foot dam at Brownsville in 1906 has raised the water level in some parts of the cave system by as much as 6 feet above its natural value; the 384-mile-long Green River, an important transportation artery for the coal industry, is open to traffic up to the closed Lock and Dam #3 at mile 108.5.
Muhlenberg County, once the largest coal-producing county in the nation, benefits from access to the river, as does the aluminium industry in Henderson County. In 2002, more than 10 million short tons were shipped on the river sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, aluminium ore; the river rises from Kings Mountain and follows a meandering path, collecting several smaller streams along its way to its impoundment by a dam at Green River Lake near Campbellsville. It continues in a westerly direction and is joined by the Little Barren River before entering the Mammoth Cave National Park. After it exits the park, it receives the tributary of the Nolin River. Continuing westward it is joined by the Barren River, it takes a more northwesterly turn as it proceeds through western Kentucky. Near Sebree it provides coolant water for Robert Reed Power Station, a coal fired power plant, before it empties into the Ohio River at Evansville, Indiana; the Green River is home to more than 70 mussel species. This includes some of some of the world's rarest species of mussels.
Endangered species: Ring Pink Obovaria retusa Rough Pigtoe Pleurobema plenum Northern riffleshell Epioblasma torulosa rangianaThreatened species: Long solid Mussel Fusconaia subrotunda Pink Mucket Lampsilis abrupta Pyramid Pigtoe Pleurobema rubrum Green River Lake State Park List of Kentucky rivers List of crossings of the Green River Mammoth Cave National Park Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky The Ohio River - In American History and Voyaging on Today's River, with a section on the Green River. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Green River "Green River"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
Western Coal Field
The West Kentucky Coal Field comprises an area in the west-central and northwestern part of the state, bounded by the Dripping Springs Escarpment and the Pennyroyal Plateau and the Ohio River, but is part of the Illinois Basin that extends into Indiana and Illinois. It is characterized by Pennsylvanian age sandstones and coal. Nearly all of the counties in the area are part of the television market known as the Kentucky–Illinois–Indiana tri-state area; the Western Coal Field region of Kentucky includes all of the following counties: Butler County Daviess County Hancock County Henderson County Hopkins County McLean County Muhlenberg County Ohio County Union County Webster CountyAdditionally, the region includes parts of the following counties in the Clifty Area, which does not contain coal: Breckinridge County Christian County Edmonson County Grayson County Hart County Logan County Todd County Warren CountyThe term Western Coalfield is used to define the region with Pennsylvanian-age strata sandstone and shale, in contrast to the Mississippian-age limestone of the adjoining and older Pennyroyal region.
A transitional zone defined as being part of the coalfield, is the Clifty Area, where there is no coal but some sandstone is bituminous, has commercial value as paving material and as tar sands for liquid refining. The biggest concentration of surface mines in this region has been in Hopkins and Ohio counties. All three counties still contain a large amount of coal and have active mining and underground, operations taking place; the use of power shovels and draglines were common in these counties where the coal would lay as close as 60–80 feet from the surface. This is a region, considered to be the largest producer of coal in the world from the 1960s through part of the'80s until it dropped in the early'90s after the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; the largest mining company founded during the 30-year span of prosperity became Peabody Coal Company, whose corporate offices were located in the region in Henderson, Ky. at the time. A combination of economic shifts and industry contributed to a decline in coal production starting in the early 1970s.
Western Kentucky coal production has risen since 2004 because coal-fired power plants have been reconfigured to meet Clean Air Act requirements, making it easier for them to burn and the region's higher-sulfur coal. In 2012 Western Kentucky coal production exceeded Eastern Kentucky production for the first time since 1960, because of the decline of the industry in the Central Appalachian Basin. In 2003 Armstrong Coal Company leased a large chunk of property in the region from Peabody to recover the coal. Coal mining in Kentucky
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. In effect, DST causes a lost hour of an extra hour of sleep in the fall. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895; the German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used at various times since particularly since the 1970s energy crisis. DST is not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it; some countries observe it only in some regions. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST, because Asia and Africa do not observe it. DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, sleep patterns.
Computer software adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing. Industrialized societies follow a clock-based schedule for daily activities that do not change throughout the course of the year; the time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, the coordination of mass transit, for example remain constant year-round. In contrast, an agrarian society's daily routines for work and personal conduct are more governed by the length of daylight hours and by solar time, which change seasonally because of the Earth's axial tilt. North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater the further one moves away from the tropics. By synchronously resetting all clocks in a region to one hour ahead of standard time, individuals who follow such a year-round schedule will wake an hour earlier than they would have otherwise. However, they will have one less hour of daylight at the start of each day, making the policy less practical during winter.
While the times of sunrise and sunset change at equal rates as the seasons change, proponents of Daylight Saving Time argue that most people prefer a greater increase in daylight hours after the typical "nine to five" workday. Supporters have argued that DST decreases energy consumption by reducing the need for lighting and heating, but the actual effect on overall energy use is disputed; the manipulation of time at higher latitudes has little impact on daily life, because the length of day and night changes more throughout the seasons, thus sunrise and sunset times are out of phase with standard working hours regardless of manipulations of the clock. DST is of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year; the effect varies according to how far east or west the location is within its time zone, with locations farther east inside the time zone benefiting more from DST than locations farther west in the same time zone.
Ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than DST does dividing daylight into 12 hours regardless of daytime, so that each daylight hour became progressively longer during spring and shorter during autumn. For example, the Romans kept time with water clocks that had different scales for different months of the year. From the 14th century onwards, equal-length civil hours supplanted unequal ones, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of Mount Athos and all Jewish ceremonies. Benjamin Franklin published the proverb "early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy and wise", he published a letter in the Journal de Paris during his time as an American envoy to France suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight; this 1784 satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.
Despite common misconception, Franklin did not propose DST. However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks required a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day. In 1810, the Spanish National Assembly Cortes of Cádiz issued a regulation that moved certain meeting times forward by one hour from May 1 to September 30 in recognition of seasonal changes, but it did not change the clocks, it acknowledged that private businesses were in the practice of changing their opening hours to suit daylight conditions, but they did so of their own volition. New Zealand entomologist George Hudson first proposed modern DST, his shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects and led him to value after-hours daylight. In 1895, he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift, considerable interest was expressed in
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local governmental authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies by state, states may create other local governments. State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in republican principles, each provides for a government, consisting of three branches, each with separate and independent powers: executive and judicial.
States possess a number of rights under the United States Constitution. States and their residents are represented in the United States Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives; each state is entitled to select a number of electors to vote in the Electoral College, the body that directly elects the President of the United States. Additionally, each state has the opportunity to ratify constitutional amendments, with the consent of Congress, two or more states may enter into interstate compacts with one another; the tasks of local law enforcement, public education, public health, regulating intrastate commerce, local transportation and infrastructure have been considered state responsibilities, although all of these now have significant federal funding and regulation as well. Over time, the Constitution has been amended, the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed; the general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did.
There is a continuing debate over states' rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states' powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government and the rights of individuals. The Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50. Alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959; the Constitution is silent on the question of whether states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, held; the 50 U. S. states, in alphabetical order, along with each state's flag: As sovereign entities, each of the 50 states reserves the right to organize its individual government in any way deemed appropriate by its people. As a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they vary with regard to form and substance. No two state governments are identical.
The government of each state is structured in accordance with its individual constitution. Many of these documents more elaborate than their federal counterpart; the Constitution of Alabama, for example, contains 310,296 words – more than 40 times as many as the U. S. Constitution. In practice, each state has adopted the three-branch frame of the federal government: executive and judicial. In each state, the chief executive is called the governor, who serves as both head of state and head of government. All governors are chosen by direct election; the governor may approve or veto bills passed by the state legislature, as well as push for the passage of bills supported by their party. In 44 states, governors have line item veto power. Most states have a plural executive, meaning that the governor is not the only government official in the state responsible for its executive branch. In these states, executive power is distributed amongst other officials, elected by the people independently of the governor—such as the lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, others.
The constitutions of 19 states allow for citizens to remove and replace an elected public official before the end of their term of office through a recall election. Each state follows its own procedures for recall elections, sets its own restrictions on how and how soon after a general election, they may be held. In all states, the legislatures can remove state executive branch officials, including governors, who have committed serious abuses of their power from office; the process of doing so includes impeachment, a trial, in which legislators act as a jury. The primary responsibilities of state legislatures are to enact state laws and appropriate money for the administration of public policy. In all states, if the governor vetoes a bill, it can still become law if the legislature overrides the veto by a two-thirds vote in each chamber. In 49 of the 50 states the legislature consists of two chambers: a lower house (termed the House of Representati
Kentucky Route 185
Kentucky Route 185 is a north–south state highway traversing four counties in south-central Kentucky. Route 185 begins at a junction with the cojoined US 68/KY 80 just north of downtown Bowling Green, it continues on past the community of Richardsville before passing into eastern Butler County. KY 185 bridges the Green River before passing into Butler County. Just before entering the northwestern side of Edmonson County, KY 185 junctions with KY 70, in the community of Roundhill. After this junction, KY 185 continues north; the route traverses the Western Kentucky Parkway via an overpass, shortly before reaching its northern terminus in the city of Caneyville at a junction with US 62 and KY 79. KY 185's run within Warren County was Kentucky Route 67 from the 1930s until the discontinuation of the Bear Creek Ferry around 1967/68. KY 185's original south end was at Glenmore; the original KY 67 ran KY 185's present routing in Warren County, goes northeast to meet the ferry and enters Edmonson County near Segal and ended at Windyville, Kentucky at a junction with KY 70.
The ferry provided a more direct route from Bowling Green to western Edmonson County. In the early 1950s, KY 185 was extended to follow a path from the Glenmore area to a junction with U. S. Route 31W at Bristow. After the decommissioning of the ferry and KY 67, KY 185 in Warren County was rerouted to its current routing; the current Kentucky Route 67 is now designated to follow the Industrial Parkway in Boyd and Greenup Counties in northeastern Kentucky just west of Ashland. From 1967/68 until around 2010, KY 185's southern terminus was at US 68's junction with Kentucky Route 234 near the L&N Depot in Bowling Green. KY 185 ends at its current south terminus when US 68/KY 80 was rerouted onto the Vietnam Veterans Blvd, the other US 68 alignment was re-designated as US Route 68 Business. Shanty Hollow Lake near Anna The Corner Market at Roundhill Kentucky Route 185 News