Central College (Iowa)
Central College is a four-year private liberal arts college located in Pella and affiliated with the Reformed Church in America and NCAA Division III athletics. The college was founded in 1853 and has been accredited by the Higher Learning Commission since 1942. Central has a student body of 1,100 undergraduates and 73 academic programs; the college is noted for its emphasis on sustainability education, STEM, global experiential learning, including varied study abroad programs. The Baptist Convention of Iowa founded Central University of Iowa in 1853 and it opened on October 8, 1854; the first class totaled 37 people. Central was a Baptist institution until 1916, when it was transferred to the control of the Reformed Church in America. Since 1886, Iowa Baptists had shifted their post-secondary education interests to Des Moines College, hoped to reduce Central to a feeder school; the college was called Central University of Iowa, at least until 1991. It renamed itself "Central College" in 1994, it was home to local radio station 89.1 KCUI-FM and the award-winning newspaper “The Ray.”
Central has a history of interesting architectural features. The first buildings of the new college in 1853 are Dutch Colonial and part of what was known as Strawtown Inn; the first dormitory, Cotton Hall, is noted for stained glass windows. Building innovation continues with the addition of "green" buildings. Central College’s 130-acre campus is a few blocks from Pella’s downtown square, two minutes from Iowa’s largest lake and 40 minutes from Des Moines. Pella's annual Tulip Festival attracts more than 100,000 visitors each spring. Central is a residential campus where students can live in dormitories and apartment style "green pods." The college’s emphasis on sustainability has led to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ratings from the U. S. Green Building Council; the Vermeer Science Center was Iowa’s first LEED-rated building, Howard McKee Hall received the first gold rating in the state. The newest building, Roe Center, received a platinum rating. Maytag Student Center—During the summer of 2014, the student center underwent a $3.1 million renovation to Maytag Student Center made possible by the Fred Maytag Family foundation.
The renovations include a new workout facility, a new Student Activity Center and additional Fred’s dining area. The Roe Center—Named after Central’s 20th president, Dr. David H. Roe, was completed in the fall of 2009; the $17 million facility houses the education and communication departments, as well as Community-Based Learning. Central was awarded a platinum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating from the United States Green Building Council for the design of the Roe Center; the facility features environmentally friendly building practices and an energy efficient building design, such as a green roof, natural ventilating system, radiant floor heating/cooling system and daylight harvesting systems. Vermeer Science Center—Underwent a $20 million renovation in 2003, was the first building in the state of Iowa and the first science building in the nation to be recognized as a green building by the U. S. Green Building Council, it was subsequently given a silver LEED rating. The mathematics, computer science, physics and chemistry departments are located in this building.
Vermeer features many study spaces and quiet tables located outside the professors’ offices are to encourage student/faculty interaction. Weller Center for Business and International Studies—Built in 1999, it was Central’s first step in green building featuring natural light, solar panels and carpet out of recycled materials in every room, it contains foreign language and international studies departments. Central Market—Central's main dining facility, it is designed to resemble a European marketplace. Geisler Library—Holds nearly a quarter of a million resources including books, newspapers, reference periodicals, historical information and art. Kuyper Athletic Complex—The Ron and Joyce Schipper Stadium received new Fieldturf in the summer of 2013; the field is surrounded by a 400-meter BSS 1000 polyurethane track which house dual runways for jumping events and a two-way pole vault pit. The H. S. Kuyper Fieldshouse houses five tennis courts; the surface is Mondotrack, the same surface used in the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.
Central offers 73 academic programs and pre-professional advising, including the college’s newest major, engineering. The 14 pre-professional programs include medicine, law and pharmacy. Academic programs include: accounting, athletic training, communication studies, computer science, music, natural science and languages. 85 percent of faculty have a terminal degree. The average class size is 16 students and the student to faculty ratio is 12-1. About 50 percent of Central students study abroad at some point. Central offers year-round programs around the world. Summer programs are available in many locations. Central has 19 sports programs and competes in the ARC of the NCAA. Sports include: football, volleyball, baseball. Cheerleading, dance team and intramural sports are offered. Highlights of Central athletics programs include: The football team has not had a losing season since 1960; the softball team has 25 Division III tournament berths and 13 finals appearances. They have four national champion titles.
The volleyball team has three national titles—1998, 1999 and 2000. The track and field team combined has 35 individua
Willis Linn Jepson
Willis Linn Jepson is known as California's most distinguished early botanist. He graduated from the University of California in 1889, became a UC professor in botany, a botanical writer, a conservationist. Jepson became interested in botany as a boy and explored the adjacent San Francisco Bay Area regions, he had come in contact with various botanists. In 1892, Jepson was 25 years old when he, John Muir, Warren Olney formed the Sierra Club, in Olney's law office in San Francisco. From 1895 to 1898 Jepson served as instructor, carried on research at UC Berkeley and Harvard, he received his Ph. D. degree at University of California, Berkeley in 1899. He was made assistant professor in 1899, associate professor in 1911, professor in 1918, professor emeritus in 1937, he was a Professor of Botany at UC Berkeley for four decades, thus his entire career was identified with the University of California. Jepson wrote at least 11 books during his lifetime, with two focused on California's trees, his works include A Flora of The Trees of California.
His specimens, extensive archives and fieldbooks are housed in the University and Jepson Herbaria libraries and archives. Most of his specimens from California have been databased in the Jepson Online Interchange for California Floristics − Jepson eFlora and form a multi-institutional Consortium of California Herbaria database. Many honors came to Willis Linn Jepson during his long and productive lifetime, commemorations afterwards, they include: Founded the California Botanical Society, was president of it from 1913–15 Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal Society of Arts, American Geographical Society Delegate to the International Agricultural Congress at Liége, to the International Botanical Congresses at Cambridge and Amsterdam Councilor of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden UC Berkeley colleagues honored him with the Faculty Research Lectureship in 1934 Foreign member of the Société Linnéenne de Lyon and the National Botanical Society of Czechoslovakia Life member of the American Genetic Association.
The Saxifragaceae genus Jepsonia, host of plant species botanical and common names, are named after him in commemoration. The Jepson Herbarium at the University of California, Berkeley is named for him; the Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California is named in his honor. Willis Jepson Middle School is named after him in California. Beidleman, Richard G.. "Willis Linn Jepson—"The Botany Man"". Madroño. 47: 273–286. Constance, Lincoln. "Willis Linn Jepson, 1867-1946". Science. 105: 614. Doi:10.1126/science.105.2737.614. PMID 17788560. Jepson Herbarium website – Obituary of Willis Jepson California Botanical Society website – the society was founded by Jepson
The conservation movement known as nature conservation, is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future. The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, soil conservation, sustainable forestry; the contemporary conservation movement has broadened from the early movement's emphasis on use of sustainable yield of natural resources and preservation of wilderness areas to include preservation of biodiversity. Some say the conservation movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement, while others argue that they differ both in ideology and practice. Chiefly in the United States, conservation is seen as differing from environmentalism in that it aims to preserve natural resources expressly for their continued sustainable use by humans. Outside the U. S. the term conservation more broadly includes environmentalism. The conservation movement can be traced back to John Evelyn's work Sylva, presented as a paper to the Royal Society in 1662.
Published as a book two years it was one of the most influential texts on forestry published. Timber resources in England were becoming dangerously depleted at the time, Evelyn advocated the importance of conserving the forests by managing the rate of depletion and ensuring that the cut down trees get replenished; the field developed during the 18th century in Prussia and France where scientific forestry methods were developed. These methods were first applied rigorously in British India from the early-19th century; the government was interested in the use of forest produce and began managing the forests with measures to reduce the risk of wildfire in order to protect the "household" of nature, as it was termed. This early ecological idea was in order to preserve the growth of delicate teak trees, an important resource for the Royal Navy. Concerns over teak depletion were raised as early as 1799 and 1805 when the Navy was undergoing a massive expansion during the Napoleonic Wars; the first forestry officer was appointed in 1806 to regulate and preserve the trees necessary for shipbuilding.
This promising start received a setback in the 1820s and 30s, when laissez-faire economics and complaints from private landowners brought these early conservation attempts to an end. Conservation was revived in the mid-19th century, with the first practical application of scientific conservation principles to the forests of India; the conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: that human activity damaged the environment, that there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, that scientific, empirically based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out. Sir James Ranald Martin was prominent in promoting this ideology, publishing many medico-topographical reports that demonstrated the scale of damage wrought through large-scale deforestation and desiccation, lobbying extensively for the institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British India through the establishment of Forest Departments. Edward Percy Stebbing warned of desertification of India.
The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a forest conservation program based on scientific principles. This was the first case of state management of forests in the world; these local attempts received more attention by the British government as the unregulated felling of trees continued unabated. In 1850, the British Association in Edinburgh formed a committee to study forest destruction at the behest of Dr. Hugh Cleghorn a pioneer in the nascent conservation movement, he had become interested in forest conservation in Mysore in 1847 and gave several lectures at the Association on the failure of agriculture in India. These lectures influenced the government under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie to introduce the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation program in the world in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well the United States. In the same year, Cleghorn organised the Madras Forest Department and in 1860 the Department banned the use shifting cultivation.
Cleghorn's 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, became the definitive work on the subject and was used by forest assistants in the subcontinent. In 1861, the Forest Department extended its remit into the Punjab. Sir Dietrich Brandis, a German forester, joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the teak forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma. During that time Burma's teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals, he introduced the "taungya" system, in which Karen villagers provided labor for clearing and weeding teak plantations. After seven years in Burma, Brandis was appointed Inspector General of Forests in India, a position he served in for 20 years, he helped establish research and training institutions. The Imperial Forest School at Dehradun was founded by him. Germans were prominent in the forestry administration of British India; as well as Brandis, Berthold Ribbentrop and Sir William P. D. Schlich brought new methods to Indian conservation, the latter becoming the Inspector-General in 1883 after Brandis stepped down.
Schlich helped to establish the journal Indian Forester in 1874, became the founding director of the first forestry school in England at Cooper's Hill in 1885. He authored the five-volume Manual of Forestry on silviculture, forest management, forest protection, fores
Earl Warren was an American jurist and politician who served as the 14th Chief Justice of the United States and earlier as the 30th Governor of California. The Warren Court presided over a major shift in constitutional jurisprudence, with Warren writing the majority opinions in landmark cases such as Brown v. Board of Education, Reynolds v. Sims, Miranda v. Arizona. Warren led the Warren Commission, a presidential commission that investigated the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy, he is as of 2019 the last Chief Justice to have served in an elected office. Warren was raised in Bakersfield, California. After graduating from the law program at the University of California, Berkeley, he began a legal career in Oakland, he was hired as a deputy district attorney for Alameda County in 1920 and was appointed district attorney in 1925. He emerged as a leader of the state Republican Party and won election as the Attorney General of California in 1938. In that position, he played a role in the forced removal and internment of over 100,000 Japanese Americans during World War II.
In the 1942 California gubernatorial election, Warren defeated incumbent Democratic governor Culbert Olson. He would serve as Governor of California until 1953, presiding over a period of major growth for the state. Warren served as Thomas E. Dewey's running mate in the 1948 presidential election, but Dewey lost the election to incumbent President Harry S. Truman. Warren sought the Republican nomination in the 1952 presidential election, but the party nominated General Dwight D. Eisenhower. After Eisenhower won election as president, he appointed Warren as Chief Justice. Warren helped arrange a unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. After Brown, the Warren Court would continue to issue rulings that helped bring an end to the segregationist Jim Crow laws that were prevalent throughout the South. In Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, the Court upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a federal law that prohibits racial segregation in public institutions and public accommodations.
In the 1960s, the Warren Court handed down several landmark rulings that transformed criminal procedure and other areas of the law. Many of the Court's decisions incorporated the Bill of Rights, making the protections of the Bill of Rights apply to state and local governments. Gideon v. Wainwright established a criminal defendant's right to an attorney in felony cases, while Miranda v. Arizona required police officers to give a warning to criminal suspects in police custody. Reynolds v. Sims established that all state legislative districts must be of equal population, while the Court's holding in Wesberry v. Sanders required equal populations for congressional districts. Griswold v. Connecticut struck down a state law that restricted access to contraceptives and established a constitutional right to privacy. Warren announced his retirement in 1968, was succeeded by conservative appellate judge Warren Burger. Though the Warren Court's rulings have received criticism from many conservatives, as well as from some other quarters, few of the Court's decisions have been overturned.
Earl Warren was born in Los Angeles, California, on March 19, 1891, to Matt Warren and his wife, Crystal. Matt, whose original family name was Varren, was born in Stavanger, Norway in 1864, he and his family migrated to the United States in 1866. Crystal, whose maiden name was Hernlund, was born in Sweden. After marrying in Minneapolis, Minnesota and Crystal settled in Southern California in 1889, where Matthias found work with the Southern Pacific Railroad. Earl Warren was the second of two children, after his older sister, Ethel. Earl did not receive a middle name. In 1896, the family resettled in Bakersfield, where Warren would grow up. Though not an exceptional student, Warren graduated from Kern County High School in 1908. Hoping to become a trial lawyer, Warren enrolled in the University of California, Berkeley after graduating from high school, he majored in political science and became a member of the La Junta Club, which became part of the national Sigma Phi fraternity while Warren was attending college.
Like many other students at Berkeley, Warren was influenced by the Progressive movement, he was affected by Governor Hiram Johnson of California and Senator Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin. After his third year at Berkeley, Warren entered the school's Department of Jurisprudence, renamed the UC Berkeley School of Law. Though the dean of the law school at one point urged Warren to drop out, Warren received a Juris Doctor degree in 1914. Like his classmates, upon graduation Warren was admitted to the California bar without examination. After graduation, he took a position with the Associated Oil Company in San Francisco. Warren disliked working at the Associated Oil Company and was disgusted by the corruption he saw in San Francisco, so he took a position with the Oakland law firm of Robinson and Robinson. After the United States entered World War I in April 1917, Warren volunteered for an officer training camp, but was rejected due to hemorrhoids. Still hoping to become an officer, Warren underwent a procedure to remove the hemorrhoids, but by the time he recovered from the operation the officer training camp had closed.
Warren enlisted in the United States Army as a private in August 1917, was assigned to Company I of the 91st Division's 363rd Infantry Regiment at Camp Lewis, Washington. He
Mountain View Cemetery (Oakland, California)
The Mountain View Cemetery is a 226-acre cemetery in Oakland, Alameda County, California. It was established in 1863 by a group of East Bay pioneers under the California Rural Cemetery Act of 1859; the association they formed still operates the cemetery today. Mountain View was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, the landscape architect who designed New York City's Central Park and much of UC Berkeley and Stanford University. Many of California's important historical figures, drawn by Olmsted's reputation, are buried here, there are many grandiose crypts in tribute to the wealthy that one section is known as "Millionaires' Row." Because of this, its beautiful setting, the cemetery is a tourist draw and docents lead semi-monthly tours. Olmsted's intent was to create a space that would express a harmony between humankind and the natural setting. In the view of 19th century English and American romantics, park-like cemeteries, such as Mountain View, represented the peace of nature, to which humanity's soul returns.
Olmsted, drawing upon the concepts of American Transcendentalism, integrated Parisian grand monuments and broad avenues. Adjoining Mountain View Cemetery is Saint Mary Cemetery and the Chapel of the Chimes mausoleum and columbarium. There are many notable people interred in Mountain View, many are local figures in California history, but others have achieved wider fame. Washington Bartlett, Mayor of San Francisco, Governor of California Coles Bashford, Governor of Wisconsin and Arizona Territory politician Leonard W. Buck, California State Senator. Warren B. English, US Representative California John B. Felton, Mayor of Oakland William M. Gwin, one of California's first U. S. Senators Henry H. Haight, Governor of California William Knowland, U. S. Senator, Publisher - Oakland Tribune Adolphus Frederic St. Sure, Federal Judge Samuel Merritt, early Mayor of Oakland Romualdo Pacheco, Governor of California 1875 George Pardee, Governor of California 1903–1907 George C. Perkins, Governor of California 1880–1883.
S. Senator, 1893–1915. Warren A. Bechtel, founder of the Bechtel company Anthony Chabot, father of hydraulic mining and benefactor of Chabot Space & Science Center Charles Crocker, railroad magnate, banker William E. Dargie, Owner - Oakland Tribune Frederick Delger, German shoemaker and multimillionaire Freda Ehrmann, mother of the California ripe olive industry J. A. Folger, founder of Folgers Coffee Peter Folger, American coffee heir, socialite Domingo Ghirardelli, namesake of the Ghirardelli Chocolate Company A. K. P. Harmon and shipping magnate, secretary Oakland Tribune Publishing Company Austin H. Hills, with his brother, R. W. Hills, of Hills Bros. Coffee in San Francisco in 1878 Herbert Gray Hills, son of the co-founder of Hills Bros. Coffee, active in its expansion into a national brand Herbert G. Hills, Jr. grandson of the founder of Hills Bros. Coffee, sold in 1976 and purchased by Nestlé's, S. A. Henry J. Kaiser, father of modern American shipbuilding Ingemar Henry Lundquist, mechanical engineer, inventor of over the wire balloon angioplasty C.
O. G. Miller, head of Pacific Gas Lighting Corporation Isaac Requa, made fortune in the Comstock Lode and railroads Joe Shoong, Chinese immigrant and founder of the National Dollar Stores chain Francis Marion Smith, the "Borax King" Charles Miner Goodall, Co-Founder of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company Lewis Bradbury, a gold-mining millionaire who owned the Tajo Mine in Mexico, became a real estate developer Brigadier General Henry Brevard Davidson of the Confederate States Army John Coffee Hays, Texas Ranger and first sheriff of San Francisco Eli L. Huggins, Indian Wars soldier and Medal of Honor recipient Henry T. Johns, American Civil War soldier and Medal of Honor recipient Ralph Wilson Kirkham, Union Army general Oscar Fitzalan Long, Indian Wars soldier and Medal of Honor recipient Rossell O'Brien, American Civil War veteran who started the custom of standing and removing one's hat during the national anthem Jeremiah C. Sullivan, Union Army general and staff member of Ulysses S. Grant Adam Weissel, United States Navy sailor and Medal of Honor recipient Leandro Campanari, Italian-American violinist, conductor and music teacher.
Malonga Casquelord, Congolese dancer, drummer and founder of Fua Dia Congo. Herbert A. Collins and portrait artist Ina Coolbrith, California's first poet laureate Andre Hicks, Bay Area rapper, record label owner, producer Thomas Hill, artist William Keith, California landscape artist Bernard Maybeck, architect Julia Morgan, architect Frank Norris, author Floyd Salas, author Isabel Seal Stovel, organizers of the City of San Francisco Music Week Bella French Swisher, writer Douglas Tilden, sculptor Edson Adams, laid out the city of Oakland Rev. Benjamin Akerly, pioneer Episcopalian cleric of the Bay Area, performed the dedication of Mountain View Cemetery and officiated hundreds of its burials Moses Chase, believed to be the first American to settle in the East Bay area David D. Colton, vice president of the Southern Pacific Railroad, namesake of the city of Colton, California Alexander Dunsmuir, builder of the Dunsmuir House Rev. Henry Durant, first president of the University of California, Berkeley Joseph Stickney Emery, founder of Emeryville, California Anna Head, founder of the Head-Royce School Nannie S. Brown Kramer, organizer and membership director of the Oakland Women's City Club.
The orchard he established in Alameda County, Fruit Vale, is the namesake of the present Fruit
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, who became its first president; the Sierra Club operates in the United States. Traditionally associated with the progressive movement, the club was one of the first large-scale environmental preservation organizations in the world, engages in lobbying politicians to promote environmentalist policies. Recent focuses of the club include promoting sustainable energy, mitigating global warming, opposing the use of coal; the club is known for its political endorsements, which are sought after by candidates in local elections. The Sierra Club is organized on both a local level; the club is divided into large chapters representing large geographic areas, some of which have tens of thousands of members. These chapters are divided into regional groups, special interest sections and task forces. While much activity is coordinated at a local level, the Club is a unified organization.
In addition to political advocacy, the Sierra Club organizes outdoor recreation activities, has been a notable organization for mountaineering and rock climbing in the United States. Members of the Sierra Club pioneered the Yosemite Decimal System of climbing, were responsible for a substantial amount of the early development of climbing. Much of this activity occurred in the group's namesake Sierra Nevada; the Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses and occasional alpine expeditions for members. In California, the club, through its outdoor recreation groups, is considered the state's analogue to other state mountaineering clubs such as Mazamas or the Colorado Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's stated mission is "To explore and protect the wild places of the earth. Each year, five directors are elected to three-year terms, all club members are eligible to vote. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members; the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group.
Michael Brune of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the organization's executive director since 2010. Brune succeeded Carl Pope. Pope stepped down amid discontent. Sierra Club members belong to local groups. National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues; the national Sierra Club sets overarching rules. The club is known for engaging in two main activities: promoting and guiding outdoor recreational activities, done throughout the United States but in California, political activism to promote environmental causes. Richard M. Skinner of the Brookings Institution describes the Sierra Club as one of the United States' "leading environmental organizations"; the Sierra Club makes endorsements of individual candidates for elected office, which has substantial weight given the club's reputation and large membership. Journalist Robert Underwood Johnson had worked with John Muir on the successful campaign to create a large Yosemite National Park surrounding the much smaller state park, created in 1864.
This campaign succeeded in 1890. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an "association" to help protect the Sierra Nevada, preliminary meetings were held to plan the group. Others involved in the early planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte and David Starr Jordan. In May 1892, a group of professors from the University of California and Stanford University helped Muir and attorney Warren Olney launch the new organization modeled after the eastern Appalachian Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914. The Club's first goals included establishing Glacier and Mount Rainier national parks, convincing the California legislature to give Yosemite Valley to the U. S. federal government, preserving California's coastal redwoods. Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government.
The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the country's second national park, after Yellowstone in 1872. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from "resource management" conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams. In 1890, San Francisco mayor James D. Phelan proposed to build a dam and aqueduct on the Tuolumne River, one of the largest southern Sierra rivers, as a way to increase and stabilize the city's water supply. Gifford Pinchot, a progressive supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service, which had jurisdiction over the national parks, supported the creation of the Hetch