Warren Sturgis McCulloch was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician, known for his work on the foundation for certain brain theories and his contribution to the cybernetics movement. Along with Walter Pitts, McCulloch created computational models based on mathematical algorithms called threshold logic which split the inquiry into two distinct approaches, one approach focused on biological processes in the brain and the other focused on the application of neural networks to artificial intelligence. Warren Sturgis McCulloch was born in Orange, New Jersey, in 1898, his brother was a chemical engineer and Warren was planning to join the Christian ministry. As a teenager he was associated with the theologians Henry Sloane Coffin, Harry Emerson Fosdick, Herman Karl Wilhelm Kumm and Julian F. Hecker, he was mentored by the Quaker, Rufus Jones. He attended Haverford College and studied philosophy and psychology at Yale University, where he received an A. B. degree in 1921. He continued to study psychology at Columbia and received a M.
A. degree in 1923. Receiving his MD in 1927 from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, he undertook an internship at Bellevue Hospital, New York, before returning to academia in 1934, he worked at the Laboratory for Neurophysiology at Yale University from 1934 to 1941, before moving to the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Illinois at Chicago. From 1952 he worked at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts with Norbert Wiener, he worked at Yale University and at the University of Chicago. He was a founding member of the American Society for Cybernetics and its second president during 1967–1968, he was a mentor to the British operations research pioneer Stafford Beer. McCulloch had a range of talents. In addition to his scientific contributions he wrote poetry, he designed and engineered buildings and a dam at his farm in Old Lyme, Connecticut. McCulloch married Ruth Metzger, known as'Rook', in 1924 and they had three children.
He died in Cambridge in 1969. He is remembered for his work with Joannes Gregorius Dusser de Barenne from Yale and with Walter Pitts from the University of Chicago. Here he provided the foundation for certain brain theories in a number of classic papers, including "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" and "How We Know Universals: The Perception of Auditory and Visual Forms", both published in the Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics; the former is "widely credited with being a seminal contribution to neural network theory, the theory of automata, the theory of computation, cybernetics". In the 1943 paper they attempted to demonstrate that a Turing machine program could be implemented in a finite network of formal neurons, that the neuron was the base logic unit of the brain. In the 1947 paper they offered approaches to designing "nervous nets" to recognize visual inputs despite changes in orientation or size. From 1952 he worked at the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT, working on neural network modelling.
His team examined the visual system of the frog in consideration of McCulloch's 1947 paper, discovering that the eye provides the brain with information, to a degree and interpreted, instead of transmitting an image. McCulloch posited the concept of "poker chip" reticular formations as to how the brain deals with contradictory information in a democratic, somatotopical neural network, his principle of "Redundancy of Potential Command" was developed by von Foerster and Pask in their study of self-organization and by Pask in his Conversation Theory and Interactions of Actors Theory. McCulloch wrote several articles: 1965, Embodiments of Mind. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 1993, The Complete Works of Warren S. McCulloch. Intersystems Publications: Salinas, CA. Articles, a selection: 1943, "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity". With Walter Pitts. In: Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics Vol 5, pp 115–133. 1945, "A Heterarchy of Values Determined by the Topology of Nervous Nets". In: Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 7, 1945, 89–93.
1959, "What The Frog's Eye Tells The Frog's Brain". With Jerome Lettvin, H. R. Maturana and W. H. Pitts In: Proc. of the I. R. E. Vol 47. 1969, "Recollections of the Many Sources of Cybernetics", published in: ASC FORUM Volume VI, Number 2 -Summer 1974. Papers published by the Chicago Literary Club: 1945, "One Word After Another". 1959, "The Past of a Delusion". 1959, "The Natural Fit". Randolph diagram Rebel Genius: Warren S. McCulloch's Transdisciplinary Life in Science. New York Times, September 25. Crevier, Daniel, AI: The Tumultuous Search for Artificial Intelligence, BasicBooks, New York, NY
Antichamber is a first-person puzzle-platform game created by Australian developer Alexander "Demruth" Bruce. Many of the puzzles are based on phenomena that occur within impossible objects created by the game engine, such as passages that lead the player to different locations depending on which way they face, structures that seem otherwise impossible within normal three-dimensional space; the game includes elements of psychological exploration through brief messages of advice to help the player figure out solutions to the puzzles as well as adages for real life. The game was released on Steam for Microsoft Windows on January 31, 2013, a version sold with the Humble Indie Bundle 11 in February 2014 added support for Linux and OS X. In Antichamber, the player controls the unnamed protagonist from a first-person perspective as they wander through levels. Regarding typical notions of Euclidean space, Bruce has stated that "breaking down all those expectations and remaking them is the core mechanic of the game".
The player starts in an antechamber. One is a diegetic menu to set the various game options as well as a countdown timer starting at ninety minutes. A second wall provides a map of the game's space that will fill in as the player visits specific rooms, highlighting passages the player has yet to explore, allows the player, upon return to this room, to jump to any room they've visited before. A third wall shows a series of cartoonish iconographs and obfuscated hint text that are added as the player finds these on walls of the puzzle space; the fourth wall is a window, showing the ultimate goal, the exit from the space, which the player must figure out how to get to. Puzzle elements in various chambers involve maneuvering themselves around the spaces, where level elements can change after passing certain points, or based on which direction the player is facing when traversing the level. Laser beams are used as mechanisms to control various doors; the player can trigger these themselves. The player gains access to a series of colored "guns", each which helps the player access more of the space.
The gun can pick up any number of small cubes, storing them, place them on surfaces. Other guns can be used to "grow" new blocks by placing blocks out in specific patterns, to direct a connected series of blocks towards an objective point, to mass create and fill an area with blocks. Certain areas in the space are dead zones that remove any blocks stored in the gun or prevent blocks from moving through them. After most puzzles are signs with the forementioned iconographs which can be activated to give a hint about the just-completed puzzle. At any point, the player can jump back to the first room, use the map to navigate to other areas. Upon completing a core set of puzzles, the player can access the exit door, upon which they start to chase down a black cloudlike shape, using all the solving techniques they have learned before, they are able to capture the cloud as a black cube within their gun, enter a final, more expansive area, where they return the shape to a waiting shell. The shell creates a structure around it – similar to the game's logo – and sucks everything around it into its center, sending the screen to black and ending the game.
Antichamber started as early as 2006 as Bruce's idea for an arena combat game based on expanding the mechanics of the game Snake into a multiplayer experience. Full development of the game called Hazard, did not start until 2009 and continued into 2010. Bruce developed the game using UnrealScript with the Unreal Engine 3; as Bruce iterated through its design, he dropped the combat portion and chose to focus more on a single-player puzzle game along with the psychology of the puzzles adding the subtitle "The Journey of Life" in 2009. Part of this change came about how he was able to create Impossible Object spaces within the Unreal Engine, which came about as a result of a "rookie error" in coding. Bruce recognized that there was a single-player game behind creating spaces and puzzles where the player would have to work out how the rules work, expanded the game in that direction. Bruce said in a 2011 interview with Kotaku that "the game started off as being all about geometry... I needed to find a way to represent that to players...so I needed to work out why we would need this non-physical geometry in the world and it took me a couple years but after combining geometry and space and perception, I realized that the real reason that this game is interesting and is working is because it's about psychology."
As he worked out puzzles, he found that injecting philosophical ideas helped to lead to puzzle designs or otherwise augment established puzzles, made that part of Antichamber's approach. The game's simple art style was to distinguish the game from other Unreal Engine games, while to aid in masking the work behind the inverse lighting system used in the game. On April 2, 2012, Antichamber became the seventh game to receive funding from the Indie Fund with Bruce citing the award as "finishing funds" to ensure the game can be released in 2012, was released in January 2013; the soundtrack for Antichamber consists of ambient music composed by Siddhartha Barnhoorn. The music evolves over the course of the game, starting with nothing more than one amb
Paul Bangay is an Australian landscape designer. Bangay's designs have been noted for their "precise angles, perfect symmetry, strong sight lines and rich detail." In 2001, Bangay received the Centenary Medal for outstanding achievement for his role in designing and constructing the AIDS Memorial Garden at the Alfred Hospital. In 2018, he received the Medal of the Order of Australia for service to landscape architecture. Bangay's published works include: The Defined Garden The Boxed Garden The Balanced Garden The Enchanted Garden Paul Bangay's Garden Design Handbook Paul Bangay's Guide to Plants The Garden At Stonefields Paul Bangay's Country Gardens Bangay's books are accompanied with photographs by photographer Simon Griffiths. Bangay's designs are featured including: House and Garden Aus. May 2011 Rural Australian Gardens by Myles Baldwin Kitchen Gardens of Australia by Kate Herd Hamptons Gardens by Jack Delashmet
Martin Edward Elkort was an American photographer and writer known for his street photography. Prints of his work are displayed by several prominent art museums in the United States, his photographs have appeared in galleries and major publications. Early black and white photographs by Elkort feature the fabled Lower East Side in Manhattan, New York City, showing its ethnic diversity, myriad streets and cluttered alleys; the Coney Island amusement park in Brooklyn was another favorite site during that period. His work depicts street scenes from downtown Los Angeles and Tijuana, Mexico. Throughout Martin Elkort's long career as a photographer, he always showed the positive, joyful side of life in his candid images. Born in the Bronx, New York City, Martin Elkort grew up during the Great Depression. At the age of 15, he spent four months in the hospital; when he returned home, his parents gave him his first Ciroflex, a twin-lens reflex camera, that cost them about a week’s salary. Elkort took his first professional photograph at the age of 10 while on a car trip with his parents to Baltimore.
During the trip, he took photographs of flooded streets. The Baltimore Sun purchased his photographs of flood scenes and featured one of them on its front page. After his recovery from polio, he set out around Manhattan taking pictures of whatever interested him. Elkort was a member of New York Photo League from 1948–1951. While studying at New York City's Cooper Union School of Art, Elkort joined the New York Photo League, an organization of photographers that served as the epicenter of the documentary movement in American photography. There he studied under masters like Paul Strand, Aaron Siskind, Sid Grossman, Lou Stoumen, Imogen Cunningham and many other luminaries, learning to become adept at what he refers to as ‘stealth photography’. With a more refined Rolleiflex twin-lens reflex camera strapped around his neck, he would roam the streets peering down into the 2×2 inch ground glass, he developed the skill of walking right up to a person and taking their photo without them realizing it.
His goal was to capture innocence. During this period he worked at the Wildenstein & Company Gallery and the Stephen Michael Studio in Manhattan where he further enhanced his photographic knowledge and technique. In 1948, Elkort showed his pictures of Hasidic Jewish boys playing in the streets to Edward Steichen, curator of photography at New York's Museum of Modern Art and America's most famous photographer at the time. Steichen rejected his photos, describing Martin's skills as "no better than the other 35 million amateur photographers in the country." Dejected but determined, Elkort worked tirelessly to improve his craft and two years he met with Steichen again. This time the famous curator bought three of his images for the museum's collection: "Soda Fountain Girl", "Puppy Love", "The Girl With Black Cat", all uplifting images of children at Coney Island. Elkort's photographs of liberated Jewish immigrants learning new work skills at the Bramson ORT School in Brooklyn offer a rare and intimate glimpse into of their optimistic struggle to integrate into a new society after World War II.
Some of his pictures show Jewish workers bearing tattoos evidencing their incarceration in Nazi concentration camps during The Holocaust. In 1951, more than 20,000 Jews received vocational training at the Bramson ORT School. Seamstresses, pattern makers, pressers. In 2008, Elkort donated 33 of his vintage ORT photographs to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D. C.. After receiving a digital camera for his 70th birthday, Martin's photographic career re-ignited, he began to show his current and older work in galleries around the country. He found a renewed interest in the New York Photo League. In 2002, he co-founded the Los Angeles League of Photographers along with David Schulman and David Stork. Modeled after the New York Photo League, its mission is to expose the wider public to photography's essential social and aesthetic values, he writes articles for magazines dealing with photography including Rangefinder and Black & White Magazine. As of March 2014, Elkort's work is exhibited and can be found in the permanent collections of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.
C.. Following his retirement from the travel industry in 1996, Elkort authored two books, Getting from Fired to Hired and The Secret Life of Food, he wrote numerous magazine articles for Rangefinder and Black & White magazines. In the 1970s, Martin and his wife Edythe bought and ran a travel agency in Beverly Hills, catering to a clientele that included many Hollywood stars. In 1976, Martin and his longtime friend Murray Vidockler founded the Society for Accessible Travel & Hospitality to promote better wheelchair access on buses and at airports and major destinations; the Secret Life of Food: A Feast of Food and Drink Histor
The New Zealand national cricket team toured South Africa from November 1994 to January 1995 and played a three-match Test series against the South Africa national cricket team. The tour was the third time that New Zealand had visited South Africa and their first tour to the country since the end of the apartheid regime which had led to a sporting boycott of South Africa. South Africa won the Test series 2–1, despite New Zealand having won the first match of the series - the first time that a side had lost a three-match series after having led since 1888 when Australia had lost against England. New Zealand competed in the Mandela Trophy with South Africa, Sri Lanka and Pakistan but were eliminated in the group stage, not winning any of their matches; the tour saw the New Zealand team in "disarray" and criticised for their lack of discipline on the field. Four players were suspended as a result of their off-field behaviour during the tour, three for smoking cannabis, the New Zealand captain, Ken Rutherford, was twice sanctioned by the ICC match referee Peter Burge.
Rutherford was sacked in the season following a domestic season which "degenerated into a series of traumas" and the tour manager, Mike Sandlant, coach Geoff Howarth both left their posts as a result of their handling of the team during the tour. The tour has been called the "Sex and Rock'n Roll" tour and is considered to have had a major influence on the ways in which New Zealand Cricket administered the international side for years ahead; the tour followed New Zealand's involvement in the Wills World Series in India in October 1994, the majority of the team travelling directly from India to South Africa. New Zealand did not win any of their four matches during the series; the organisation of the Test series by the United Cricket Board of South Africa was praised by Wisden. Over 150,000 spectators watched the three matches, the Board putting in place a system of reducing ticket prices throughout each day in order to attract more spectators; the policy was successful and the number of younger people who attended matches was picked out by the Almanack as a particular success.
Developments to the TV umpire system, introduced during Australia's tour the previous summer, both countries agreeing to a minimum of 90 overs per day were credited by Wisden. The New Zealand team was captained by Ken Rutherford in his last tour as captain. Martin Crowe, who became New Zealand's record run scorer in Test matches during the tour, was the vice-captain. Mark Priest was included in the tour party during the Mandela Trophy matches after having flown in as a replacement for the injured Matthew Hart who had broken a finger. Danny Morrison, not available for selection due to injury, joined the tour in its stages as a replacement for Dion Nash who had suffered a side injury. Morrison played including the second and third Tests. With the addition of Crowe, in South Africa rehabilitating from a knee injury, Lee Germon and Murphy Su'a, the Test team was the same side which had played in the Wills World Series before the tour; the party included two uncapped players: Darrin Murray made his Test debut in the first Test of the series, having played in one of the ODIs in India, while Lee Germon made his ODI debut during the Mandela Trophy matches.
Influential all-rounder Chris Cairns, who went on to play over 250 international matches, missed the tour with an injury. The tour party was considered to be weak due injuries and a lack of depth in talent in New Zealand cricket at the time. Speaking in 2017, Rutherford was of the opinion that "there was we left back home who deserved to play." The South African team was captained by Hansie Cronje in his first series as captain, having replaced Kepler Wessels following the team's failure to win a match in the 1994–95 Wills Triangular Series in Pakistan. Wessels resigned the captaincy in November before the first Test match to focus on his own batting performances but a "recurring" knee injury led to his retirement from international cricket in December without him playing a match during the tour; the first Test match in the series was played in late November. The second and third Tests were played between 26 December and 6 January after the Mandela Trophy ODI series. South Africa were without their leading fast bowler Allan Donald throughout the series due to injury.
Donald had played in every Test match since the reintegration of South Africa into international cricket in 1992. This and the absence of former captain Kepler Wessels through injury, left wicket-keeper Dave Richardson as the only player to have played in each Test since reintegration. Richardson, the leading run scorer of the series, was named the player of the series; the first Test was played at Wanderers Stadium in Johannesburg. New Zealander Darrin Murray made his Test debut in the match. New Zealand won the toss and chose to bat first on a cracked pitch which looked as if it may cause problems for batsmen - Wisden wrote that "Both sides distrusted the pitch" although it "played well enough until the fourth day". New Zealand scored 411 in their first innings after a good first day and an innings of 84 by Shane Thomson lower down the order and a tenth wicket partnership of 57 runs. In reply South Africa scored 279 with Dave Richardson, who batted with a broken thumb, top scoring with 83. Martin Crowe set a new New Zealand record for the number of Test match catches during the innings, catching Richard Snell to pass Jeremy Coney's 64 catches.
Fannie De Villiers bowled "brilliantly" to reduce New Zealand to 5/34 in their second innings before lower order runs once again helped to raise their score to 194, a lead of over 300. The wearing pi
Owen J. Bush Stadium was a baseball stadium in Indianapolis, United States, it was home to the Indianapolis Indians from 1931 to 1996. It was home to a few Negro League teams, as well as a Continental Football League team, the Indianapolis Capitols, who won the league's final championship in 1969; the stadium was built by Norm Perry, owner of the Indians, in 1931. He named it Perry Stadium as a memorial to his brother Jim, the former owner of the club who had died in plane crash a few years earlier. Construction was completed by Osborn Engineering, who constructed Fenway Park and other steel-and-concrete ballparks of that era; the Indians played their first game in the ballpark on September 5, 1931. It was renamed Victory Field on January 21, 1942, in response to the onset of World War II; the name was the winning entry of a fan contest held by the club's new owners. The day of its renaming, the Indianapolis News stated that the renaming was chosen "because of its timeliness with current affairs.
In 1967 the ballpark was sold to the city of Indianapolis. On August 30, 1967, it was renamed for former major league baseball player and Indianapolis native Donie Bush, who had served as president of the Indians from 1955 to 1969. English ivy was planted on the brick outfield walls of Perry Stadium prior to its opening. P. K. Wrigley liked the appearance of the ivy, subsequently instructed the iconic Wrigley Field ivy in Chicago to be planted; the ivy in Indianapolis remained after the stadium became Victory Field and Bush Stadium, but was discontinued in 1996, when the Indians moved to the current Victory Field ballpark downtown. During the 1930s, Perry Stadium was home to many Negro League teams; these included the ABCs, American Giants and Crawfords. It would be home to the Indianapolis Clowns, a barnstorming team, well known for "comical antics"; the Clowns won the Negro American League championship in 1952, with the help of Hank Aaron. They played in Indianapolis from 1944 to 1962; the Clowns featured Toni Stone, the first female Negro League player in history.
After the Indianapolis Indians integrated in 1952, the Clowns continued to play at the stadium. In 1987, Bush Stadium was dressed up in different ways to be used as the stand-in for both Comiskey Park and Crosley Field during the filming of Eight Men Out, about the "Black Sox Scandal", the throwing of the 1919 World Series. Indianapolis hosted the Pan Am Games in 1987, the baseball tournament was held at Bush Stadium. In mid-season 1996, the Indians left Bush Stadium for the new Victory Field at White River State Park. In 1997, Tony George, president of the nearby Indianapolis Motor Speedway, leased the property and converted it into a dirt track named the 16th Street Speedway for midget car auto racing; the ivy was removed from the outfield walls around this time. As happened with a similar venture involving Philadelphia's Baker Bowl several decades earlier, the auto racing venture failed; the property closed and the stadium fell into disrepair, with no apparent future. The Indy Parks Department had control of the land, zoned as a park.
At the time, it was estimated that renovations, which would include removal of asbestos and lead paint, could cost around $10 million. Between 2008 and 2011 the Stadium was used as a storage site for cars traded in as part of the Cash for Clunkers program. In 2011 it was proposed the stadium be turned into an apartment complex, on March 15, 2012, demolition began on portions of the 81-year-old structure; the 138 loft units were leased when the complex opened on July 27, 2013. The dirt portion of the infield has now been paved with stamped red concrete, but the lights that lit up the field at night still stand. Much of the exterior facade has been preserved, many of the historic features, such as the owner's suite and the ticket booth, have been incorporated into the loft apartments. There are studio and two bedroom units in the complex; the cost of the project was $13 million. The Stadium Lofts complex includes both the loft apartments within the former stadium building and newly constructed flats.
Original Left Field – 350 ft Left Center Field – 365 ft Center Field Corner – 500 ft Right Center Field – 365 ft Right Field – 350 ft 1945 Left Field – 335 ft Left Center Field – 350 ft Center Field Corner – 480 ft Right Center Field – 350 ft Right Field – 335 ft 1967 Left Field – 335 ft Left Center Field – 350 ft Deep Left Center – 405 ft Center Field Inner Fence – 395 ft Deep Right Center – 405 ft Right Center Field – 350 ft Right Field – 335 ft Ballparks of North America, by Michael Benson. Minor league ballparks page Decaying Diamond by IndyStar Historic American Landscapes Survey No. IN-6, "Bush Stadium, 1501 West 16th Street, Marion County, IN", 4 measured drawings, 13 data pages Official site of the new Victory Field Photos of the interior in 2011 from Abandoned Indiana Stadium lofts story Stadium lofts promo