In Living Color
In Living Color is an American sketch comedy television series that ran on Fox from April 15, 1990 to May 19, 1994. Keenen Ivory Wayans created and starred in the program; the show was produced by Ivory Way Productions in association with 20th Century Fox Television and was taped at stage 7 at the Fox Television Center on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood, California. The title of the series was inspired by the NBC announcement of broadcasts being presented "in living color" during the 1960s, prior to mainstream color television, it refers to the fact that most of the show's cast was black, unlike other sketch comedy shows such as Saturday Night Live whose casts are white. It was controversial due to the Wayans' decision to portray black humor from the ghetto in a time when mainstream American tastes regarding black comedy had been set by more upscale shows such as The Cosby Show, causing an eventual feud for control between Fox executives and the Wayans. Other members of the Wayans family—Damon, Kim and Marlon—had regular roles, while brother Dwayne appeared as an extra.
The show starred the rising stand-up comic/actor Jim Carrey alongside unknown actor/comedians Jamie Foxx, Tommy Davidson, David Alan Grier, T'Keyah Crystal Keymáh. Additionally the show introduced Carrie Ann Inaba and Jennifer Lopez as members of In Living Color's dance troupe The Fly Girls, with actress Rosie Perez serving as choreographer; the show launched the careers of Carrey, Davidson, Keymáh, Inaba and Lopez, is credited with bringing the Wayans family to a higher level of fame as well. It was immensely popular in its first two seasons, capturing more than a 10-point Nielsen rating; the series won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy Series in 1990. The series gained international prominence for its bold move and its all-time high ratings gained by airing a live, special episode as a counterprogram for the halftime show of U. S. leader CBS's live telecast of Super Bowl XXVI, prompting the National Football League to book A-list acts for future game entertainment, starting with Michael Jackson the following year.
In 2018, a history of the show, Homey Don't Play That! by David Peisner, was released by 37 INK, an imprint of Simon & Schuster. Following Keenen Ivory Wayans' success with Hollywood Shuffle and I'm Gonna Git You Sucka, Fox Broadcasting Company approached Wayans to offer him his own show. Wayans wanted to produce a variety show similar to Saturday Night Live, but with a cast of people of color that took chances with its content. Fox gave Wayans a lot of freedom with the show, although Fox executives were a bit concerned about the show's content prior to its television debut. In announcing its debut, Fox described In Living Color as a "contemporary comedy variety show". In its preview, the Christian Science Monitor warned that its, "raw tone may offend some, but it does allow a talented troupe to experiment with black themes in a Saturday Night Live-ish format." Keenen Ivory Wayans said, "I wanted to do a show. We've added an Asian and a Hispanic minority to the show. We're trying in some way to represent all the voices....
Minority talent is not in the system and you have to go outside. We found Crystal doing her act in the lobby of a theater in Chicago. We went beyond the Comedy Stores and Improvs, which are not showcase places for minorities."The first episode aired on Sunday, April 15, 1990, following an episode of Married... with Children. The first episode was watched by 22.7 million people. The Miami Herald said the show was as "smart and saucy as it is self-aware" and "audacious and tasteless, but terrific fun"; the Philadelphia Inquirer called it "the fastest, funniest half-hour in a long time". The Seattle Times said it had "the free-wheeling, pointed sense of humor that connects with a large slice of today's audience"; the Columbus Dispatch described it as a "marvelously inventive" show that has "catapulted television back to the cutting edge". The sketch comedy show helped launch the careers of comedians/actors Jim Carrey, one of only two white members of the original cast; the series strove to produce comedy with a strong emphasis on modern black subject matter.
It became renowned for parody of race relations in the United States. For instance, Carrey was used to ridicule white musicians such as Snow and Vanilla Ice, who performed in genres more associated with black people; the Wayans themselves played exaggerated black ghetto stereotypes for humor and effect. A sketch parodying Soul Train mocked the show as Old Train, suggesting the show was out of touch and only appealed to the elderly and the dead; when asked about the show's use of stereotypes of black culture for comedy, Wayans said, "Half of comedy is making fun of stereotypes. They only get critical. Woody Allen has been having fun with his culture for years, no one says anything about it. Martin Scorsese, his films deal with the Italian community, no one says anything to him. John Hughes, all of his films parody upscale white suburban life. Nobody says anything to him; when I do it all of a sudden it becomes a racial issue. You know what I mean? It's my culture, I'm entitled to poke fun at the stereotypes that I didn't create in the first place.
I don't even
Air America (radio network)
Air America was an American radio network specializing in progressive talk radio. It was on the air from March 2004 to January 2010; the network featured programs with monologues by on-air personalities, guest interviews, call-ins from listeners, news reports. Several shows had million plus audiences, multiple weekday presenters continued on in radio, television, or politics after their time on Air America. For example, in 2008, The Thom Hartmann Program had 1.5–2 million unique listeners a week and The Lionel Show had 1.5–1.75 million unique listeners a week. Hartmann, Randi Rhodes, Mike Malloy had shows on other radio networks. Marc Maron started his" WTF podcast" by trespassing in Air America's studios after the network's demise, before moving to Los Angeles. Al Franken went from his show to the United States Senate, Rachel Maddow moved her show to television on the MSNBC network; the network was financially troubled, however. A scandal involving nearly $1 million in loans from a Boys & Girls Club in New York secretly transacted by Evan Cohen came out in 2005 and was a source of negative publicity.
The loans were repaid, but in October 2006, mounting debts forced Air America Radio to file Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The company was bought by New York real estate investor Stephen L. Green and his brother Mark J. Green, who purchased the network in March 2007 for US$4.25 million. The company changed its name from Air America Radio to Air America Media and lastly to just Air America, an effort to establish itself as a broadcaster on multiple media sources including television and the Internet, one not relegated to radio. Always a radio network, on January 21, 2010, Air America went off the air citing difficulties with the current economic environment, it liquidated itself. Bennett Zier was the company's last CEO including through the liquidation. Air America Media's progressive talk radio programming consisted of news, comedy, guest editorials, listeners' telephone calls; the talk portions featured some extended host monologues in the classic talk radio format. Live and pre-recorded comedy routines, featuring various comedians, were aired.
As with most syndicated broadcast networks, local affiliate stations were able to air select programs or the entire schedule, subject to contractual arrangements. The shows followed a half-hour format from six minutes past the hour to 28 minutes after the hour followed by a hard break for six minutes until 34 minutes past the hour; the final hard break occurs at 58 minutes past the hour, leading into the news at the top of the hour. There was a floating break in both the first and second half-hours. Local stations could run their own commercials, local news and weather or other features during the breaks. Air America featured its own news summary breaks at the top of each hour, with content from wire services such as the Associated Press and United Press International; some affiliates used other news services or would run their own newscasts during the six-minute "news hole" at the top of the hour. AAR switched to AP Radio Network News, Free Speech Radio News; these newscasts ended on June 29, 2007, with local stations signing up with other radio news networks.
The public affairs programs tended to follow current happenings in the news, with monologues and reflections offered by the hosts and their guests. Listener comments by phone or the Internet were worked into these segments along with the interviews. Although better known for its political shows, Air America featured a couple of music oriented shows on weekends. On the Real featuring Chuck D had a strong music focus; the Steve Earle Show mixed music with political commentary. Dr. Demento was a guest host on the network at least once. Most of the talk shows had their own theme songs, used bumper music to segue between commercials and segments, played political novelty songs. Theme songs and bumper music were commercially released rock music. Air America produced sixteen hours of weekday network programming; the entire schedule was carried on the network's internet stream, affiliates may have carried some, most or all shows. The network's schedule as of Mid-2009: A one-hour webcast, Breakroom Live with Maron & Seder, aired weekdays from 3-4PM Eastern.
Marc Maron and Sam Seder hosted the show from the actual break room at Air America Media in New York. Breakroom Live aired its last show on July 15, 2009. On many Air America affiliates, weekends featured repeats and highlights from the network's weekday shows, combined with new original programming and some syndicated shows produced independently. Original network programming for weekends included: Marc Sussman's Money Message State of Belief with Rev. Dr. C. Welton Gaddy Freethought Radio with Dan Barker and Annie Laurie Gaylor Go Vegan with Bob Linden Ring of Fire with Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Mike Papantonio 7 Days in America with Carlos Watson and Arianna Huffington Radio Nation with Laura Flanders Politically Direct with David Bender The Steve Earle Show with Steve Earle On The Real with Chuck D and Gia'na Garel The Al Franken Show Aired March 31, 2004 – February 14, 2007. Called The O'Franken Factor. Franken left the show in order to run for the U. S. Senate from Minnesota; the Majority Report Aired March
Real Time with Bill Maher
Real Time with Bill Maher is a talk show that airs weekly on HBO, hosted by comedian and political satirist Bill Maher. Much like his previous series Politically Incorrect on Comedy Central and ABC, Real Time features a panel of guests who discuss current events in politics and the media. Unlike the previous show, guests are better versed in the subject matter: more experts such as journalists and politicians participate in the panel, fewer actors and celebrities are included. Real Time is a weekly hour-long program with a studio audience, airing live on Friday nights at 10:00 pm EST, it originates from Studio 33 at CBS Television City in Los Angeles. In addition, a 10- to 15-minute "Overtime" segment follows the show on YouTube, which answers questions posted by viewers through HBO's online website for the show; the show's seventeenth season premiered on January 18, 2019. HBO has renewed Real Time through 2020; the format of the show features an opening current events or political skit, followed by the credits and a comedy monologue.
Maher interviews an important figure via satellite or in-studio before sitting down with the panel guests for an extensive debate. Halfway through the panel session, Maher does a comedy skit that satirizes current news items. Following the comedy bit, Maher interviews another figure via in-studio; the format varies, with three people on the panel. Maher explains that the format is not rigid and that they prefer live interviews to satellite interviews. Near the end of every episode, Maher has a segment called "New Rules" which serves as a humorous editorial on popular culture and American politics; the final "New Rule" segues into Maher's closing editorial monologue. Since the show airs on HBO, the participants do not have to restrict their language to conform to the broadcast standards that existed on Politically Incorrect. Pictures shown on New Rules sometimes have nudity or uncensored images. In the first season, Paul F. Tompkins was featured as a correspondent; every episode would end with a performance by a stand-up comedian, none of which were political satirists.
The segments featuring Tompkins and comedians were dropped after the tenth episode. Viewers were able to call into the live show in the first season and ask questions over the air, but this was dropped. Starting with episode 67 in February 2006, audio-only episodes were made available as a free podcast via the iTunes Store and as a raw RSS feed; the podcasts feature material cut from the show but taped during the studio rehearsal, including New Rules not aired in the final version. During the fall of 2006, Maher began hosting a live chat on HBO's website following each broadcast including some of the show guests. Viewers are invited to submit questions prior to and during the original telecast for Maher and the guests to answer and discuss afterwards, it is available on the show's YouTube channel. The opening sequence begins with a spoken phrase from the Los Angeles speaking clock, featuring an Joanne Daniels as the time lady saying "Good Afternoon"; the theme song is composed by Christopher "Kid" Reid and his voice is heard saying "Start the clock", "Real Time" and "Bill Maher".
A montage of historical events from the beginning of time to election night on November 4, 2008 accompanies the music along with a crawl at the bottom listing the guests for that night's show. According to HBO the show receives an average of 4 million viewers per week. Maher has been a critic of the Obama administration, the Bush administration and the Trump administration, his panel attempts to present a diverse set of views. It consists of a liberal commentator or political figure, a conservative commentator or political figure, a third individual who does not have as clear an ideological label, or someone with moderate beliefs; this third individual is an actor, musician or other entertainment figure, though many times the commentator is conservative or liberal. On his previous TV series, Politically Incorrect, he used the word "libertarian" to describe his political leanings. Regarding religion, he considers himself a "rationalist", as someone "preaching the gospel of'I don't know'". Maher identifies himself as politically unaffiliated and disagrees with the Republican party on many issues, with the Democratic Party on many of their party platform's planks.
He endorsed the candidacy of Ralph Nader of the Green Party in the US presidential campaign of 2000. After the 2000 election, Maher was among those who felt that votes cast by progressives for Nader cost Democratic candidate Al Gore the election, put George W. Bush in the White House. During an episode on which Nader and Michael Moore were guests, both Maher and Moore begged Nader not to run again in 2004, he endorsed Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry leading up to the 2004 presidential election. In 2008, he endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama and harshly criticized Republican candidate John McCain's political campaign, he heavily criticized McCain's vice presidential pick, Sarah Palin, on her qualifications and intelligence. Maher interviewed then-presidential-candidate, Republican Ron Paul, giving him some positive air time, he cites Paul's views in order to demonstrate the diversity of views on the right. Maher has strong opinions on US drug policy, advocating for the legalization of marijuana.
He is against censorship citing his own dismissal from ABC and the backlash against the Dixie Chicks for their comments on the Iraq War. He is against conservative attitudes towards sex and sexuality, mocking outrages over the
Late Night with Conan O'Brien
Late Night with Conan O'Brien is an American late-night talk show hosted by Conan O'Brien that aired 2,725 episodes on NBC between 1993 and 2009. The show featured varied comedic material, celebrity interviews, musical and comedy performances. Late Night aired weeknights at 12:37 am Eastern/11:37 pm Central and 12:37 am Mountain in the United States. From 1993 until 2000, Andy Richter served as O'Brien's sidekick; the show's house musical act was The Max Weinberg 7, led by E Street Band drummer Max Weinberg. The second incarnation of NBC's Late Night franchise, O'Brien's program debuted in 1993 after David Letterman moved to CBS to host Late Show opposite The Tonight Show. In 2004, as part of a deal to secure a new contract, NBC announced that O'Brien would leave Late Night in 2009 to succeed Jay Leno as the host of The Tonight Show. Jimmy Fallon began hosting his version of Late Night on March 2, 2009. Upon Johnny Carson's retirement from The Tonight Show in 1992, executives at NBC announced that Carson's frequent guest-host Jay Leno would be Carson's replacement, not David Letterman.
NBC said that Letterman's high ratings for Late Night were the reason they kept him where he was. Letterman was bitterly angry at not having been given The Tonight Show job. CBS signed Letterman to host his own show opposite The Tonight Show. Letterman moved his show to CBS unchanged, taking most of the staff and comedy formats with him. However, NBC owned the rights to the Late Night name, forcing Letterman to re-christen his show Late Show with David Letterman. NBC was not prepared to replace both Late Night. Aside from the name, it needed to build a new show. Both Dana Carvey and Garry Shandling declined to host it. Saturday Night Live producer Lorne Michaels was brought in to develop the new show, comedians Jon Stewart, Drew Carey, Paul Provenza auditioned to host. Michaels suggested to Conan O'Brien, an unknown writer for The Simpsons and former writer for Saturday Night Live, that he should audition for the job. Despite having "about 40 seconds" of television-performance experience as an occasional extra on Saturday Night Live sketches, O'Brien auditioned for the show on April 13, 1993.
His guests were Jason Alexander and Mimi Rogers, the audition took place on the set of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. NBC offered the show to O'Brien on April 26, O'Brien made his first meaningful television appearance that day when Leno introduced him on Tonight. On the final episode of his 16-year run, O'Brien stated that he "owed his career to Lorne Michaels." O'Brien's Late Night debuted with Andy Richter chosen as O'Brien's sidekick. The premiere episode featured John Goodman, who received a "First Guest" medal for his appearance, Drew Barrymore, Tony Randall; the episode featured a cold open of O'Brien's walk to the studio with constant reminders that he was expected to live up to Letterman. After seeming to be unaffected by the comments, O'Brien arrives at his dressing room and cheerfully prepares to hang himself. However, a warning that the show is about to start causes him to abandon his plans; the show's first musical guest was English rock band Radiohead, who performed during the second episode.
American singer-songwriter Jonathan Richman was the show's second musical guest. O'Brien's inexperience was apparent, the show was considered mediocre by critics in terms of hosting; the Chicago Sun-Times' Lon Grankhe called O'Brien "nervous and geeky", Tom Shales wrote "As for O'Brien, the young man is a living collage of annoying nervous habits. He titters, jiggles about and fiddles with his cuffs, he has beady little eyes like a rabbit. He's one of the whitest white men ever." The originality and quality of the comedy, led by original head writer Robert Smigel, was praised. Although O'Brien benefited by comparison from the quick critical and commercial failure of the fellow new late-night The Chevy Chase Show, NBC only offered short-term contracts, 13 weeks at a time and once for six weeks, as reported by the press at the time. O'Brien was almost fired at least once in this period, but NBC had no one to replace him. According to Smigel, "We were canceled at Conan, they changed their minds in August of'94, gave us a reprieve."
According to O'Brien, NBC network executive Warren Littlefield told him, with regard to Andy Richter, he'd "never succeed until I'got rid of that big fat dildo.' That was the tone of the conversations between us and the network." It was expected that the host of Talk Soup, Greg Kinnear would take over the role, but Kinnear turned down the opportunity and decided to pursue a career in acting. Stars like Tom Hanks agreed to appear on Late Night. Letterman, who admired O'Brien's comic sensibility, appeared as a guest to register his support. O'Brien's performance style improved through experience, he began to receive more favorable reviews and ratings the following year. With the ratings improving over the course of two years, Late Night reached a new level of critical and commercial success in 1996. Tom Shales recanted his previous critical review with the headline "I was wrong", O'Brien received his first Emmy nomination for writing, since which he has gone on to receive every year. In 2000, Richter
Robin McLaurin Williams was an American actor and comedian. Born in Chicago, Williams began performing stand-up comedy in San Francisco and Los Angeles during the mid-1970s, is credited with leading San Francisco's comedy renaissance. After rising to fame playing the alien Mork in the sitcom Mork & Mindy, Williams established a career in both stand-up comedy and feature film acting, he was known for his improvisation skills and the wide variety of memorable character voices he created. Williams has been called the funniest person of all time. After his first starring film role in Popeye, Williams starred in numerous films that achieved critical and commercial success, including The World According to Garp, Moscow on the Hudson, Good Morning, Dead Poets Society, Aladdin, The Fisher King, One Hour Photo and World's Greatest Dad, as well as box office hits, such as Hook, Mrs. Doubtfire, The Birdcage, Good Will Hunting and the Night at the Museum trilogy. Williams was nominated four times for the Academy Awards, winning once for Best Supporting Actor for his performance as psychologist Sean Maguire in Good Will Hunting.
He received two Primetime Emmy Awards, seven Golden Globe Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, four Grammy Awards. On August 11, 2014, Williams committed suicide in his Paradise Cay, home at the age of 63, his wife attributed his suicide to his struggle with Lewy body disease. Robin McLaurin Williams was born at St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago, Illinois, on July 21, 1951, his father, Robert Fitzgerald Williams, was a senior executive in Ford Motor Company's Lincoln-Mercury Division. His mother, Laurie McLaurin, was a former model from Mississippi. Through her, he was a great-great-grandson of Mississippi governor Anselm J. McLaurin. Williams had two elder half-brothers, he had English, Welsh, Irish and German ancestry. While his mother was a practitioner of Christian Science, Williams was raised in the Episcopal Church his father belonged to. Williams wrote a list: "Top Ten Reasons to Be an Episcopalian". During a television interview on Inside the Actors Studio in 2001, Williams credited his mother as an important early influence on his humor, he tried to make her laugh to gain attention.
Williams attended public elementary school in Lake Forest at Gorton Elementary School and middle school at Deer Path Junior High School. He described himself as a quiet child who did not overcome his shyness until he became involved with his high school drama department, his friends recall him as funny. In late 1963, when Williams was 12, his father was transferred to Detroit; the family lived in a 40-room farmhouse on 20 acres in suburban Bloomfield Hills, where he was a student at the private Detroit Country Day School. He excelled in school, where he was on the school's soccer team and wrestling team, was elected class president; as both his parents worked, Williams was attended to by the family's maid, his main companion. When Williams was 16, his father took early retirement and the family moved to Marin County, settling in Tiburon, California. Following their move, Williams attended Redwood High School in nearby Larkspur. At the time of his graduation in 1969, he was voted "Most Likely Not to Succeed" and "Funniest" by his classmates.
After high school graduation, Williams enrolled at Claremont Men's College in Claremont, California, to study political science. Williams studied theatre for three years at the College of Marin, a community college in Kentfield, California. According to College of Marin's drama professor James Dunn, the depth of the young actor's talent became evident when he was cast in the musical Oliver! as Fagin. Williams improvised during his time in the drama program, leaving cast members in hysterics. Dunn called his wife after one late rehearsal to tell her that Williams "was going to be something special". In 1973, Williams attained a full scholarship to the Juilliard School in New York City, he was one of 20 students accepted into the freshman class and one of two accepted by John Houseman into the Advanced Program at the school that year. William Hurt and Mandy Patinkin were classmates. According to biographer Jean Dorsinville, Franklyn Seales and Williams were roommates at Juilliard. Reeve remembered his first impression of Williams when they were new students at Juilliard: He wore tie-dyed shirts with tracksuit bottoms and talked a mile a minute.
I'd never seen. He was like an untied balloon, inflated and released. I watched in awe as he caromed off the walls of the classrooms and hallways. To say that he was "on" would be a major understatement. Williams and Reeve had a class in dialects taught by Edith Skinner, who Reeve said was one of the world's leading voice and speech teachers. According to Reeve, Skinner was bewildered by Williams, who could perform in many accents, including Scottish, English and Italian, their primary acting teacher was Michael Kahn, "equally baffled by this human dynamo". Williams had a reputation for being funny, but Kahn criticized his antics as simple stand-up comedy. In a production, Williams silenced his critics with his well-received performance as an old man in The Night of the Iguana by Tennessee Williams. "He was the old man," wrote Reeve. "I was astonished by h
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Christopher Julius Rock III is an American comedian, writer and director. After working as a standup comic and appearing in small film roles, Rock came to wider prominence as a cast member of Saturday Night Live in the early 1990s, he went on to more prominent film appearances, with starring roles in Down to Earth, Head of State, The Longest Yard, the Madagascar film series, Grown Ups, its sequel Grown Ups 2, Top Five, a series of acclaimed comedy specials for HBO. He developed and narrated the sitcom Everybody Hates Chris, based on his early life. Rock hosted the 77th Academy Awards in 2005 and the 88th in 2016, he has won four Emmy Awards and three Grammy Awards. He was voted the fifth-greatest stand-up comedian in a poll conducted by Comedy Central, he was voted in the United Kingdom as the ninth-greatest stand-up comic on Channel 4's 100 Greatest Stand-Ups in 2007, again in the updated 2010 list as the eighth-greatest stand-up comic. Christopher Julius Rock III was born in Andrews, South Carolina on February 7, 1965.
Shortly after his birth, his parents moved to the Crown Heights neighborhood of New York. A few years they relocated and settled in the working-class area of Bedford–Stuyvesant, his mother, was a teacher and social worker for the mentally handicapped. Julius died in 1988 after ulcer surgery. Rock's younger brothers Tony and Jordan are in the entertainment business, his older half-brother, died in 2006 after a long struggle with alcoholism. Rock has said that he was influenced by the performing style of his paternal grandfather, Allen Rock, a preacher. Rock's family history was profiled on the PBS series African American Lives 2 in 2008. A DNA test showed that he is of Cameroonian descent from the Udeme people of northern Cameroon. Rock's great-great-grandfather, Julius Caesar Tingman, was a slave for 21 years before serving in the American Civil War as part of the United States Colored Troops. During the 1940s, Rock's paternal grandfather moved from South Carolina to New York City to become a taxicab driver and preacher.
Rock was bused to schools in predominately white neighborhoods of Brooklyn, where he endured bullying and beatings from white students. As he got older, the bullying became worse and Rock's parents pulled him out of James Madison High School, he dropped out of high school altogether, but he earned a GED. Rock worked menial jobs at various fast-food restaurants. Rock began doing stand-up comedy in 1984 in New York City's Catch a Rising Star, he rose up the ranks of the comedy circuit in addition to earning bit roles in the film I’m Gonna Git You Sucka and the TV series Miami Vice. Upon seeing his act at a nightclub, Eddie Murphy mentored the aspiring comic. Murphy gave Rock his first film role in Beverly Hills Cop II. Rock became a cast member of the popular sketch comedy series Saturday Night Live in 1990, he and other new cast members Chris Farley, Adam Sandler, Rob Schneider and David Spade became known as the Bad Boys of SNL. In 1991, he released his first comedy album, Born Suspect and won acclaim for his role as a crack addict in the film New Jack City.
His tenure on SNL gave Rock national exposure. With plans to leave Saturday Night Live after the 1992-93 season, Rock was "fired" from the show. Beginning that fall, he appeared in six episodes of the predominantly African-American sketch show In Living Color as a special guest star; the show was canceled a month. Rock wrote and starred in the low-budget comedy CB4, which made $18 million against its budget of $6 million. Rock starred in his first HBO comedy special in 1994 titled Big Ass Jokes as part of HBO Comedy Half-Hour, his second special, 1996's Bring the Pain, made Rock one of the most acclaimed and commercially successful comedians in the industry. Rock gained large critical acclaim; the most well-known and controversial piece of the special was "Niggas vs. Black People". Adding to his popularity was his much-publicized role as a commentator for Comedy Central's Politically Incorrect during the 1996 Presidential elections, for which he earned another Emmy nomination. Rock was the voice for the "Lil Penny" puppet, the alter ego to basketball star Penny Hardaway in a series of Nike shoe commercials from 1994–1998, hosted the'97 MTV Video Music Awards.
Rock had two more HBO comedy specials: Bigger & Blacker in 1999, Never Scared in 2004. Articles relating to both specials called Rock "the funniest man in America" in Time and Entertainment Weekly. HBO aired his talk show, The Chris Rock Show, which gained critical acclaim for Rock's interviews with celebrities and politicians; the show won an Emmy for writing. His television work has won him a total of 15 nominations. By the end of the decade, Rock was established as one of the preeminent stand-up comedians and comic minds of his generation. During this time, Rock translated his comedy into print form in the book Rock This! and released the Grammy Award-winning comedy albums, Roll with the New, Bigger & Blacker and Never Scared. Rock's fifth HBO special, Kill the Messenger, premiered on September 27, 2008, won him another Emmy for outstanding writing for a variety or music program. On October 30, 2016, Netflix announced that they would be releasing two new stand-up comedy specials from Rock, with Rock being paid $40 million per special.
The first special, Chris Rock: Tamborine, was released on Netflix on February 14, 2018, it was filmed at the Brooklyn Academy of Music. The specials m