Newburgh is a town in Ohio Township, Warrick County, United States, located just east of Evansville, along the Ohio River. The population was 3,325 at the 2010 census, although the town is part of the larger Evansville metropolitan area which recorded a population of 342,815, Ohio Township, which Newburgh shares with nearby Chandler, has a population of 37,749 in the 2010 Census; the area has been inhabited by various cultures for millennia dating back at least 10,000 years. Angel Mounds was a permanent settlement of the Mississippian culture from 1000 AD to around 1400 AD. By 1850 Newburgh was one of the larger riverports between Cincinnati and New Orleans, it was the first town north of the Mason–Dixon line to be captured by Confederate forces during the Newburgh Raid as part of the American Civil War. Shortly after the mid-nineteenth century Newburgh's growth leveled off until an economic boom of the 1960s and 1970s resulted in substantial growth as a bedroom community for families looking for new housing developments near Evansville.
Today, Newburgh is locally known for its charming, historic downtown district that features a number of specialty stores, antique shops, quaint dining establishments along its riverfront. Due to its top-rated schools and family-friendly atmosphere, the town remains a popular residential community for people working in or near Evansville; as a town situated on the fertile banks of the Ohio River, Newburgh has a long and rich history of human activity. Western explorers first arrived in the area in the 17th century, but for centuries prior to that it had been inhabited by the Shawnee and was near the center of prehistoric Mississippian culture as late as 1450 A. D. Evidence of this prehistoric society remains today at Angel Mounds, a National Historic Landmark, Ellerbusch Site, both two miles west of Newburgh; the principal founders of Newburgh are Abner Luce. Sprinkle, a businessman of German descent, landed in Newburgh in the spring of 1803, thirteen years before Indiana entered the Union as the 19th state.
He secured land grants in 1818 platted what became known as Sprinklesburgh. It was the first town in Warrick County; the original plat of Sprinklesburgh consisted of about 12 blocks west of today's downtown Newburgh. Abner Luce founded Newburgh directly to the east of Sprinklesburgh in 1829. In 1841 Luce's plat was merged with Sprinkelsburgh and the name of the town was changed to Newburgh. However, it was Samuel Short's land, a strip on the block west of State Street, that now has some of the most visible and important land in today's downtown Newburgh. Early on in its history Newburgh enjoyed prosperity. By 1850, the town had grown to be one of the largest riverports on the Ohio-Mississippi River between Cincinnati and New Orleans. Much of its growth in this time period was due to coal mining and its beneficial location on the Ohio River; the first underground mine shaft in Indiana was sunk in Newburgh in 1850. However, when the national railway system came to southern Indiana, it bypassed Newburgh in favor of Evansville, beginning a permanent shift in regional economic dominance.
According to a number of historical sources, Newburgh was a prominent stop on the Underground Railroad between the mouth of the Little Pigeon River and Lake Michigan. On July 18, 1862, Newburgh was the first town north of the Mason-Dixon line to be captured by the Confederate forces during the American Civil War in what would come to be known as the Newburgh Raid. Colonel Adam "Stovepipe" Johnson, with a partisan band, crossed the Ohio River and confiscated supplies and ammunition without a shot being fired; the Confederates would have been unable to shell. The Confederates' "cannons" were an assemblage of a stove pipe, a charred log, wagon wheels; the raid convinced the federal government that it was necessary to supply Indiana with a permanent force of regular Union Army soldiers to counter future raids. Many of the structures used in this raid are still standing, including The Exchange Hotel. Newburgh's economy benefited from the construction of the Lock and Dam 47 in the 1920s, its replacement in 1974 with the Newburgh Lock and Dam.
The town has benefited from the arrival, expansions, of the Aluminum Company of America in the 1950s and the 1970s. Many of Newburgh's residents are commuters to businesses and industry in Evansville and surrounding areas. In 1994, Newburgh leaders planned to annex large areas that would have extended town limits to Frame Road and SR 66. From a planning perspective, this would have given Newburgh the ability to plan land use for large open, undeveloped areas. However, by 2001 the town's leadership shifted its focus away from annexation toward planning in the well-established current town limits. On November 6, 2005, the Evansville Tornado of November 2005 caused 25 deaths in nearby Evansville. Newburgh suffered extensive property damage and some injuries, but suffered no fatalities during the 2:06 AM strike; the Old Newburgh Presbyterian Church and Original Newburgh Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Newburgh is located at 37°56′48″N 87°24′13″W. According to the 2010 census, Newburgh has a total area of all land.
Plans to expand town limits through annexation have been abandoned in favor of planning and development within the current town limits. Newburgh faces the Ohio River along its southern boundary. Much of the town is protected from flood risk by dams completed in the 1960s. Notable landmarks on the west side is the Angel Mounds Historic Site, a burial site believed to be abandoned a few hundred years ago
Elberfeld is a town in Greer Township, Warrick County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 625 at the 2010 census. Elberfeld is one of a few towns in Indiana of its size not to have any kind of main highway running through it or direct access to a major highway. Interstate 64 runs just north of the municipal boundary. Interstate 69 passes just west of the community, but it, lacks a direct access point; the nearest state road is Indiana 68, 2.5 miles north of town. A post office has been in operation at Elberfeld since 1868; the town was built up chiefly by Germans, who named their community after Elberfeld, in Germany. Elberfeld was platted in 1885. Elberfeld is located at 38°9′36″N 87°26′51″W; the town lies northeast of Evansville in the northwest corner of Warrick County. According to the 2010 census, Elberfeld has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 625 people, 251 households, 186 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,016.1 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 275 housing units at an average density of 887.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.3% White, 0.2% African American, 1.0% Native American, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 251 households of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 25.9% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the town was 38.3 years. 25.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.1% male and 49.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 636 people, 261 households, 192 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,050.7 people per square mile.
There were 271 housing units at an average density of 873.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 0.16 % Asian and 0.16 % Pacific Islander. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.31% of the population. There were 261 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.7% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.4% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.88. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 28.0% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $40,833, the median income for a family was $47,292.
Males had a median income of $38,250 versus $21,063 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,236. About 4.3% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Elberfeld has a branch of the Boonville-Warrick County Public Library. Media related to Elberfeld, Indiana at Wikimedia Commons Elberfeld Police Department
Boonville is a city in Boon Township, Warrick County, United States. The population was 6,246 at the 2010 census; the city is the county seat of Warrick County. Boonville was named for Jesse Boon, father of Ratliff Boon. A post office has been in operation at Boonville since 1820. Boonville was incorporated in 1858. President Abraham Lincoln studied law in Boonville; when Abraham Lincoln and his family moved from Kentucky to present-day Spencer County in 1816, their homestead was considered to be within Boonville's Warrick County boundaries. The future president walked to Boonville to borrow books and watch local attorney John Brackenridge argue cases, thus earning Boonville the distinction of being "where Lincoln learned the law." The Boonville post office contains a casein tempera-on-canvas mural titled Boonville Beginnings, painted in 1941 by Ida Abelman. Murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department.
The Boonville Public Square Historic District and Old Warrick County Jail are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Boonville is located at 38°2′46″N 87°16′21″W. According to the 2010 census, Boonville has a total area of 3.013 square miles, of which 3 square miles is land and 0.013 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Boonville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the 2010 census, there were 6,246 people, 2,549 households, 1,647 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,082.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,867 housing units at an average density of 955.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.7% White, 0.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 2,549 households of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.4% were non-families.
31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the city was 39.4 years. 23.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.3% male and 53.7% female. As of the 2000 census, there were 6,834 people, 2,688 households, 1,854 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,318.9 people per square mile. There were 2,910 housing units at an average density of 987.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.51% White, 0.64% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.03% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.44% of the population. There were 2,688 households out of which 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families.
27.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,913, the median income for a family was $42,096. Males had a median income of $32,264 versus $22,227 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,869. About 6.5% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.1% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over. The government consists of a city council; the mayor is elected in citywide vote. The city council consists of five members. Four are elected from individual districts.
One is elected at-large. The Boonville Airport is located two nautical miles west of the central business district. Boonville has the Warrick Area Transit System, a public bus line which connects with the nearby Metropolitan Evansville Transit System; the town has the Boonville-Warrick County Public Library. Louis A. Arnold – HVAC worker and Socialist Party of America Wisconsin State Senator Benoni S. Fuller – schoolteacher and Democratic state legislator and Congressman Monte M. Katterjohn – screenwriter for 68 films between 1912 and 1931 Menz Lindsey – lawyer, a quarterback in the early National Football League for the Evansville Crimson Giants W. Otto Miessner – composer and music educator Ken Penner – baseball pitcher who played Major League Baseball for two seasons between decades of a minor league career that lasted through 1943 Dustin Ransom – musician, vocalist, music transcriber, film composer Rachel Rockwell – theatre director, choreographer and actor Robert G. Roeder - Professor Rockefeller University.
Pioneer in Molecular Biology Jeremy Spencer – musician, songwrite
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Evansville is a city and the county seat of Vanderburgh County, United States. The population was 117,429 at the 2010 census, making it the state's third-most populous city after Indianapolis and Fort Wayne, the largest city in Southern Indiana, the 232nd-most populous city in the United States, it is the commercial and cultural hub of Southwestern Indiana and the Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky tri-state area, home to over 911,000 people. The 38th parallel crosses the north side of the city and is marked on Interstate 69. Situated on an oxbow in the Ohio River, the city is referred to as the "Crescent Valley" or "River City"; as a testament to the Ohio's grandeur, early French explorers named it La Belle Rivière. The area has been inhabited by various indigenous cultures for millennia, dating back at least 10,000 years. Angel Mounds was a permanent settlement of the Mississippian culture from 1000 AD to around 1400 AD; the European-American city was founded in 1812. Four NYSE companies are headquartered in Evansville, along with the global operations center for NYSE company Mead Johnson.
Three other companies traded on the NASDAQ are headquartered in Evansville. The city is home to public and private enterprise in many areas, as Evansville serves as the region's economic hub. A tourist destination, Evansville is home to the state's first casino; the city has several educational institutions. The University of Evansville is a small private school on the city's east side, while the University of Southern Indiana is a larger public institution just outside the city's westside limits; the Indiana University School of Medicine maintains a campus in Evansville. Other local educational institutions include the nationally ranked Signature School and the Evansville Vanderburgh Public Library. In 2008, Evansville was voted the best city in the country in which "to live and play" by the readers of Kiplinger, in 2009 as the 11th best. See main article: History of Evansville, Indiana. There was a continuous human presence in the area that became Evansville from at least 8,000 BC by Paleo-Indians.
Archaeologists have identified several archaic and ancient sites in and near Evansville, with the most complex at Angel Mounds. This was built and occupied from about 900 A. D. to about 1600 A. D. just before the arrival of Europeans to North America. Following the abandonment of Angel Mounds between the years 1400 and 1450, tribes of the historic Miami, Piankeshaw, Wyandot and other Native American peoples were known to be in the area. French hunters and trappers were among the first Europeans to come to the area, using Vincennes as a base of operations for fur trading; the land encompassing Evansville was formally relinquished by the Delaware in 1805 to General William Henry Harrison governor of the Indiana Territory. On March 27, 1812, Hugh McGary Jr. purchased about 441 acres and named it "McGary's Landing". In 1814, to attract more people, McGary renamed his village "Evansville" in honor of Colonel Robert Morgan Evans. Evansville incorporated in 1817 and was designated as the county seat on January 7, 1818.
The county was named for Henry Vanderburgh, a deceased chief judge of the Indiana Territorial Supreme Court. Evansville became a thriving commercial town with a river trade, the town began to expand outside of its original footprint. Evansville's west side was for many years cut off from the city's main part by Pigeon Creek and the factories that developed along it, making the creek an industrial corridor; the land comprising the former town of Lamasco was platted in 1837 and was annexed in 1870. Evansville's economy received a boost in the early 1830s when Indiana unveiled plans to build the longest canal in the world, a 400-mile ditch to connect the Great Lakes at Toledo, Ohio with the inland rivers at Evansville; the project was intended to open Indiana to commerce and improve transportation from New Orleans to New York City. The project was so poorly engineered that it would not hold water. By the time the Wabash and Erie Canal was finished in 1853, Evansville's first railroad, Evansville & Crawfordsville Railroad, was opened to Terre Haute.
The expansion of railroads in this territory had made the canal obsolete. Only two flat barges made the entire trip; the canal basin at Fifth and Court street in downtown Evansville became the site of a new courthouse in 1891. The era of Evansville's greatest growth occurred in the second half of the 19th century, following the disruptions of the Civil War; the city was a major stop for steamboats along the Ohio River, it was the home port for a number of companies engaged in trade via the river. Coal mining and hardwood lumber was a major source of economic activity. By 1900 Evansville was one of the world's largest hardwood furniture centers, with 41 factories employing 2,000 workers. Railroads became more important and in 1887 the L&N Railroad constructed a bridge across the Ohio River. Along with a major rail yard southwest of Evansville in Howell, annexed in 1916 and completed the city's counterclockwise march around the horseshoe bend. Throughout this period Evansville's main ethnic groups consisted of Protestant Scotch-Irish from the South, Catholic Irish coming for canal or railroad work, New England businessmen, Germans fleeing Europe after the 1848 revolutions, freedmen from Western Kentucky.
By the U. S. census of 1890 Evansville ranked as the 56th-largest urban area in the United States, but it was surpassed in population by other cities
Indiana's 8th congressional district
Indiana's 8th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Indiana. Based in southwest and west central Indiana, the district is anchored in Evansville and includes Jasper, Terre Haute and Washington. Referred to as "The Bloody Eighth" at the local levels, it was a notorious swing district. However, due to a political realignment similar to contemporary realignment happening in the Deep South and Appalachia, it has in recent elections become a safe Republican district; as of 2013. 13 Crawford County exists in both the 9th Congressional Districts. Within Crawford County, two whole townships. Evansville - 117,429 Terre Haute - 60,785 Vincennes - 18,423 Jasper - 15,038 Washington - 11,509 Greencastle - 10,326 Princeton - 8,644 Brazil - 7,912 Tell City - 7,272 Mt. Vernon - 6,687 Boonville - 6,246 Linton - 5,413 Clinton - 4,893 North Terre Haute - 4,305 Sullivan - 4,249 Newburgh - 3,325 Fort Branch - 2,771 Bicknell - 2,892 Based in Evansville, the 8th Congressional District was widened when Indiana lost a seat after the 2000 U.
S. Census to include much of 7th Congressional Districts. At that time, Bloomington was moved into the 9th Congressional District, while the 8th Congressional District was extended northward to include much of the former 7th Congressional District in west-central Indiana, including Terre Haute; as a result of this expansion, the district is the largest in area in Indiana with all or part of 18 counties. The district has been nicknamed "The Bloody Eighth" because of a series of hard-fought campaigns and political reversals. Unlike most other districts in the state, which give their representatives long tenures in Washington, the 8th Congressional District has a reputation for ousting its incumbents. Voters in the district ousted six incumbents from 1966 to 1982; the election in 1984 was so close that the House of Representatives itself determined which of two candidates to sit, accepting the recommendation of a Democratically controlled House task force sent to Indiana to count the ballots, with the winner holding a margin of four votes out of 233,000 cast.
Although Southern Indiana is ancestrally Democratic, the Democrats in this area are nowhere near as liberal as their counterparts in the rest of the state. The district has a strong tint of social conservatism. In 2000, a New York Times reporter said of the district: "With a populist streak and a conservative bent, this district does not cotton to country club Republicans or to social-engineering liberals," and said, "More than 95 percent white and about 41 percent rural, the region shares much of the flavor of the Bible Belt."The district was represented by Brad Ellsworth, a moderate Democrat. As a result of Ellsworth's landslide defeat of 12-year incumbent John Hostettler, it was the first district picked up by the Democrats on Election Night 2006. Ellsworth ran unsuccessfully for U. S. Senate in 2010 and was succeeded by Republican Larry Bucshon in the same election cycle. In 2013, the district shifted away from Northern Indiana and more towards Evansville, losing Fountain and Warren Counties, gaining Dubois and Spencer Counties, a portion of Crawford County, uniting southwestern Indiana under one district.
As of January 2019, four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Indiana's 8th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was H. Joel Deckard on September 6, 2016; the most serving representative to die was Frank McCloskey on November 2, 2003. Note: There has been another change since the "most recent" image, reflected on the'Indiana districts' page. Indiana's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Congressman Larry Bucshon Official House Site39°N 87°W
Battle of Tippecanoe
The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought on November 7, 1811 in Battle Ground, Indiana between American forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and Indian forces associated with Shawnee leader Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, leaders of a confederacy of various tribes who opposed settlement of the American West. As tensions and violence increased, Governor Harrison marched with an army of about 1,000 men to disperse the confederacy's headquarters at Prophetstown, near the confluence of the Tippecanoe River and the Wabash River. Tecumseh was not yet ready to oppose the United States by force and was away recruiting allies when Harrison's army arrived. Tenskwatawa was a spiritual leader but not a military man, he was in charge. Harrison camped near Prophetstown on November 6 and arranged to meet with Tenskwatawa the following day. Early the next morning, warriors from Prophetstown attacked Harrison's army, they took the army by surprise. The Indians were repulsed when their ammunition ran low.
After the battle, they abandoned Prophetstown and Harrison's men burned it to the ground, destroying the food supplies stored for the winter. The soldiers returned to their homes. Harrison accomplished his goal of destroying Prophetstown and proclaimed that he had won a decisive victory, he gained the nickname "Tippecanoe", popularized in the campaign song "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" during the presidential election of 1840 which Harrison won. The defeat was a setback for Tecumseh's confederacy from which it never recovered. Americans blamed the violence on British interference in American affairs because they had supplied the Indians with financial support and ammunition; this led to a further deterioration of relations with Britain and was a catalyst of the War of 1812, which began six months later. The US declared war on the United Kingdom in June 1812, Tecumseh's confederacy was ready to launch its war against the United States in alliance with the British. In preparation, the Indians rebuilt Prophetstown.
Frontier violence in the region continued until well after the War of 1812, although Tecumseh was killed in 1813 during the Battle of the Thames. William Henry Harrison was appointed governor of the newly formed Indiana Territory in 1800, he sought to secure title to the area for settlement. In particular, he hoped that the Indiana Territory would attract enough settlers to qualify for statehood, he negotiated numerous land cession treaties with American Indians, including the Treaty of Fort Wayne on September 30, 1809 in which Miami, Pottawatomie and other tribal leaders sold 3,000,000 acres to the United States. Tenskwatawa was known as the Prophet and had been leading a religious movement among the northwestern tribes, calling for a return to the ancestral ways, his brother Tecumseh was outraged by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, he revived an idea advocated by Shawnee leader Blue Jacket and Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, which stated that Indian land was owned in common by all tribes, land could not be sold without agreement by all the tribes.
Tecumseh was not ready to confront the United States directly, he found that he was opposed by the Indian leaders who had signed the treaty. He threatened to kill anyone and their followers who carried out the terms of the treaty, he traveled urging warriors to abandon their chiefs and join his resistance at Prophetstown, insisting that the Fort Wayne treaty was illegitimate, he met with Governor Harrison in 1810 and demanded that Harrison nullify the treaty, he warned that settlers should not attempt to settle the lands sold in the treaty. Harrison rejected his demands and insisted that the tribes could have individual relations with the United States. Tecumseh warned him. Tensions had been high for several months between the United States and Britain as a result of British interference in American commerce with France; as early as 1810, British agents had sought to secure an alliance with Indians to assist in the defense of Canada should hostilities break out, but the Indians had been reluctant to accept their offer, fearing that they had little to benefit from such an arrangement.
In August 1811, Tecumseh again met with Harrison at Vincennes, he assured Harrison that the Shawnee brothers meant to remain at peace with the United States. Tecumseh traveled to the Southeast on a mission to recruit allies among the "Five Civilized Tribes". Most of the southern tribes rejected his appeals, but a faction of the Creek people answered his call to arms and became known as the Red Sticks, they led the Creek War, an internal war among factions that were divided over adoption of some American ways. This became a part of the War of 1812. By contrast, the Creek of the Lower Towns were more integrated with American culture and supported the US against Britain. Harrison left the territory for business in Kentucky shortly after the meeting with Tecumseh, secretary John Gibson was acting governor. Gibson had lived among the Miami tribe for many years and learned of Tecumseh's plans for war, he called out the territory's militia and sent emergency letters calling for the return of Harrison.
Most of the militia regiments had formed by mid-September and Harrison had returned, accompanied by a small force of army regulars, he took command. He had communicated with his superiors in Washington, D. C. and he was authorized to march against the confederacy in a show of force in the hopes that its members would accept peace. Harrison gathered the