Warsaw Old Town
The Warsaw Old Town is the oldest part of the capital city. It is bounded by the Wybrzeże Gdańskie, along with the bank of Vistula river, Mostowa and it is one of the most prominent tourist attractions in Warsaw. The heart of the area is the Old Town Market Place, rich in restaurants, cafés, surrounding streets feature medieval architecture such as the city walls, the Barbican and St. Johns Cathedral. The Old Town was established in the 13th century, initially surrounded by an earthwork rampart, prior to 1339 it was fortified with brick city walls. The town originally grew up around the castle of the Dukes of Mazovia that became the Royal Castle, the Market Square was laid out sometime in the late 13th or early 14th century, along the main road linking the castle with the New Town to the north. Until 1817 the Old Towns most notable feature was the Town Hall built before 1429, in 1701 the square was rebuilt by Tylman Gamerski, and in 1817 the Town Hall was demolished. In the early 1910s Warsaw Old Town was the home of the prominent Yiddish writer Alter Kacyzne, parts of it were bohemian, with painters and artists having their studios, while some streets were a Red-light district housing brothels.
In 1918 the Royal Castle once again became the seat of Polands highest authorities, in the late 1930s, during the mayoralty of Stefan Starzyński, the municipal authorities began refurbishing the Old Town and restoring it to its former glory. The Barbican and the Old Town Market Place were partly restored and these efforts, were brought to an end by the outbreak of World War II. During the Invasion of Poland, much of the district was damaged by the German Luftwaffe. Following the Siege of Warsaw, parts of the Old Town were rebuilt, a statue commemorating the Uprising, the Little Insurgent, now stands on the Old Towns medieval city wall. After World War II, the Old Town was meticulously rebuilt, in an effort at anastylosis, as many as possible of the original bricks were reused. The rubble was sifted for reusable decorative elements, which were reinserted into their original places. The Old Town Market Place, which dates back to the end of the 13th century, is the heart of the Old Town. Here the representatives of guilds and merchants met in the Town Hall, and fairs, the houses around it represented the Gothic style until the great fire of 1607, after which they were rebuilt in late-Renaissance style.
Castle Square is a visitors first view of the reconstructed Old Town and it is an impressive sight, dominated by Zygmunts Column, which towers above the beautiful Old Town houses. Enclosed between the Old Town and the Royal Castle, Castle Square is steeped in history, here was the gateway leading into the city called the Kraków Gate. It was developed in the 14th century and continued to be an area for the kings
Warsaw Uprising (1794)
The Warsaw Uprising of 1794 or Warsaw Insurrection was an armed insurrection by the people of Warsaw early in the Kościuszko Uprising. Supported by the Polish Army, the uprising aimed to throw off control by the Russian Empire of the Polish capital city and it began on 17 April 1794, soon after Tadeusz Kościuszkos victory at the Battle of Racławice. Russian soldiers found themselves under crossfire from all sides and from buildings, Kościuszkos envoy, Tomasz Maruszewski, and Ignacy Działyński and others had been laying the groundwork for the uprising since early 1793. They succeeded in winning support, the majority of Polish units stationed in Warsaw joined the ranks of the uprising. A National Militia was formed by several volunteers, led by Jan Kiliński. Within hours, the fighting had spread from a street at the western outskirts of Warsaws Old Town to the entire city. Part of the Russian garrison was able to retreat to Powązki under the cover of Prussian cavalry, the isolated Russian forces resisted in several areas for two more days.
Following the Second Partition of Poland of 1793, the presence of Prussian, the foreign occupation forces contributed both to the economic collapse of the already-weakened state and to the growing radicalisation of the population of Warsaw. This move was opposed by many officers and the arms. Upon receiving news of Kościuszkos proclamation in Kraków and his subsequent victory at Racławice, Polish king Stanisław August Poniatowski was opposed to Kościuszkos uprising, and with the Permanent Council issued a declaration condemning it on 2 April. Igelström rejected the plan and saw no need for the Russians to evacuate Warsaw and he sent a corps under General Aleksandr Khrushchev to intercept Kościuszko and prevent him from approaching Warsaw. He ordered increased surveillance of suspected supporters of the uprising, Igelström issued orders for the arrest of those he suspected of having any connection with the insurrection. At the same time Russian forces started preparations to disarm the weak Polish garrison of Warsaw under General Stanisław Mokronowski by seizing the Warsaw Arsenal at Miodowa Street and these orders only made the situation worse as they were leaked to the Poles.
The Russian forces prepared a plan to seize the most important buildings to secure the city until reinforcements arrived from Russia. General Johann Jakob Pistor suggested that the barracks of unsafe Polish units be surrounded and the units disarmed, Kościuszko already had supporters in Warsaw, including Tomasz Maruszewski, his envoy who was sent to Warsaw with a mission to prepare the uprising. Maruszewski created the Revolution Association, organizing the previously independent anti-Russian factions, the Association included among its members various high-ranking officers from the Polish forces stationed in Warsaw. Among the most influential partisans of the uprising was General Jan August Cichowski, Cichowski undermined the Russian plan to reduce the number of soldiers serving in the Polish units, which added to the Polish successes. Also, a prominent burgher, shoemaking master Jan Kiliński, started gathering support from other townsfolk, the King remained passive, and subsequent events unfolded without any support — or opposition — from him
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland, roughly 260 kilometres from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Once described as Paris of the East, Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. On 9 November 1939, the city was awarded Polands highest military decoration for heroism, Warsaw is one of Europe’s most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world, in 2017 the city came 4th in the “Business-friendly” category and 8th in the “Human capital and life style”. It was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central, Warsaw is considered an Alpha– global city, a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural and economic hub.
The city is a significant centre of research and development, BPO, ITO, the Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external security, has its headquarters in Warsaw. Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union, the city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra and the University of Warsaw. The historic city-centre of Warsaw with its picturesque Old Town in 1980 was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, buildings represent examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. Warsaw provides many examples of architecture from the gothic, baroque and modern periods, the city is positioning itself as Europes chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and renowned restaurants. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman, according to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River with whom Wars fell in love.
In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the site of Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland, the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka, other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Варшава /Varšava /Varshava, Varšuva, Varsó. The first fortified settlements on the site of todays Warsaw were located in Bródno, after Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa
The November Uprising, Polish–Russian War 1830–31, known as the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire. The uprising began on 29 November 1830 in Warsaw when the young Polish officers from the local Army of the Congress Polands military academy revolted, led by lieutenant Piotr Wysocki and they were soon joined by large segments of societies of Lithuania and the Right-bank Ukraine. Despite local successes, the uprising was crushed by a numerically superior Imperial Russian Army under Ivan Paskevich. Tsar Nicholas I decreed that henceforth Poland was a part of Russia, with Warsaw little more than a military garrison. After the Partitions of Poland, Poland ceased to exist as an independent political entity at the end of 1795, the Napoleonic Wars and Polish participation in the wars against Russia and Austria resulted in the creation the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807. The Congress of Vienna brought that states existence to an end in 1815, and essentially solidified the long-term division of Poland among Russia, United with Russia through a personal union with the Tsar as King of Poland, the province could elect its own parliament and government.
The kingdom had its own courts and treasury, over time, the freedoms granted to the Kingdom were gradually taken back and the constitution was progressively ignored by the Russian authorities. Alexander I of Russia never formally crowned himself as King of Poland, instead, in 1815, he appointed Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich as de facto viceroy, disregarding the constitution. Soon after the Congress of Vienna resolutions were signed, Russia ceased to respect them, in 1819 Alexander I abandoned liberty of the press in Congress Kingdom and introduced censorship. As a result, after 1825 sessions of Polish Sejm were conducted in secret, Nicholas I of Russia formally crowned himself as King of Poland on 24 May 1829 in Warsaw. He abolished Polish social and patriotic organizations, the opposition of the Kaliszanie faction. Although married to a Pole, he was considered as an enemy of the Polish nation. Also, his command over the Polish Army led to conflicts within the officer corps. These frictions led to various conspiracies throughout the country, most notably within the army, the final spark that ignited Warsaw was a Russian plan to use the Polish Army to suppress Frances July Revolution and the Belgian Revolution, in clear violation of the Polish constitution.
The rebels managed to enter the Belweder, but Grand Duke Constantine had escaped in womens clothing, the rebels turned to the main city arsenal, capturing it after a brief struggle. The following day, armed Polish civilians forced the Russian troops to north of Warsaw. This incident is called the Warsaw Uprising or the November Night. Taken by surprise by the unfolding of events during the night of 29 November
Warsaw Citadel is a 19th-century fortress in Warsaw, Poland. It was built by order of Tsar Nicholas I after the suppression of the 1830 November Uprising in order to bolster imperial Russian control of the city. It served as a prison into the late 1930s, especially the dreaded Tenth Pavilion of the Warsaw Citadel, the Citadel was built by personal order of Tsar Nicholas I after the 1830 November Uprising. Its chief architect, Major General Johan Jakob von Daehn, used the plan of the citadel in Antwerp as the basis for his own plan, the cornerstone was laid by Field Marshal Ivan Paskevich, de facto viceroy of Congress Poland. The fortress is a brick structure with high outer walls. Its construction required the demolition of 76 residential buildings and the resettlement of 15,000 inhabitants. Work on it commenced May 31,1832, on the site of a demolished monastery, officially it ended May 4,1834, to mark the 18th birthday of Russian Crown Prince Alexander, for whom it was named. In reality, the fortress was not completed until 1874, in peacetime, some 5,000 Russian troops were stationed there.
During the 1863 January Uprising, the garrison was reinforced to over 16,000, by 1863 the fortress housed 555 artillery pieces of various calibers, and could cover most of the city center with artillery fire. About the fortress,104 prison casemates were built, providing cells for 2,940, mostly political, most notably, is included the Tenth Pavilion. The Citadels Tenth Pavilion has, since 1963, served as a museum, well before the turn of the 20th century, it was apparent that such traditional fortifications had been made obsolete by modern rifled artillery. The Tsarist authorities had planned in 1913 to raze the fortress, in 1915 Warsaw was occupied by German forces with little opposition from the Russian garrison, which abandoned the fortress and withdrew east. The Germans blew up several of its structures, but the part of the Citadel remained intact. After Poland regained her independence in 1918, the Citadel was taken over by the Polish Army and it was used as a garrison, infantry training center, and depot for materiel.
During the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, Citadels German garrison prevented linking between the city center and the northern Żoliborz district, the fortress survived the war and in 1945 became again Polish Army property. Warsaw Fortress Festung Warschau Cytadela warszawska, Encyklopedia Polski, p.109
The Warsaw Uprising was a major World War II operation by the Polish resistance Home Army to liberate Warsaw from German occupation. The uprising was timed to coincide with the Soviet Unions Red Army approaching the eastern suburbs of the city and the retreat of German forces. However, the Soviet advance stopped short, enabling the Germans to regroup and demolish the city while defeating the Polish resistance, the Uprising was the largest single military effort taken by any European resistance movement during World War II. The Uprising began on 1 August 1944, as part of a plan, Operation Tempest. The main Polish objectives were to drive the Germans from the city and help with the fight against Nazi Germany. Also, short-term causes included the threat of a German round-up of able-bodied Poles, the Poles established control over most of central Warsaw, but the Soviets ignored Polish attempts to establish radio contact and did not advance beyond the city limits. Intense street fighting between the Germans and Poles continued, arthur Koestler called the Soviet attitude one of the major infamies of this war which will rank for the future historian on the same ethical level with Lidice.
Winston Churchill pleaded with Stalin and Franklin D. Roosevelt to help Britains Polish allies, without Soviet air clearance, Churchill sent over 200 low-level supply drops by the Royal Air Force, the South African Air Force, and the Polish Air Force under British High Command. Later, after gaining Soviet air clearance, the U. S. Army Air Force sent one high-level mass airdrop as part of Operation Frantic, the Soviet Union refused to allow American bombers from Western Europe to land on Soviet airfields after dropping supplies to the Poles. Although the exact number of remains unknown, it is estimated that about 16,000 members of the Polish resistance were killed. In addition, between 150,000 and 200,000 Polish civilians died, mostly from mass executions, Jews being harboured by Poles were exposed by German house-to-house clearances and mass evictions of entire neighbourhoods. German casualties totalled over 8,000 soldiers killed and missing, during the urban combat approximately 25% of Warsaws buildings were destroyed.
Following the surrender of Polish forces, German troops systematically levelled another 35% of the city block by block, by July 1944, Poland had been occupied by the forces of Nazi Germany for almost five years. The Polish Home Army, which was loyal to the Polish government-in-exile, had planned some form of insurrection against the occupiers. Germany was fighting a coalition of Allied powers, led by the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the initial plan of the Home Army was to link up with the invading forces of the Western Allies as they liberated Europe from the Nazis. However, in 1943 it became apparent that the Soviets, rather than the Western Allies, in this country, we have one point from which every evil emanates. If we didnt have Warsaw in the General Government, we wouldnt have four-fifths of the difficulties with which we must contend and it became obvious that the advancing Soviet Red Army might not come to Poland as an ally but rather only as the ally of an ally. The Soviets and the Poles distrusted each other, and Soviet partisans in Poland often clashed with Polish resistance increasingly united under the Home Armys front, Stalin created the Rudenko Commission, whose goal was to blame the Germans for the war crime at all costs
An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned. Arsenal and armoury or armory are mostly regarded as synonyms, although differences in usage exist. A sub-armory is a place of storage or carrying of weapons and ammunition. From Italian and French, from Arabic, دار تعبئة, dār a-tabiya, in a second-class arsenal, the factories would be replaced by workshops. The situation of an arsenal should be governed by strategic considerations. If of the first class, it should be situated at the base of operations and supply, secure from attack, not too near a frontier, the importance of a large arsenal is such that its defences would be on the scale of those of a large fortress. The usual subdivision of branches in a great arsenal is into storekeeping, under construction, Gun factory, carriage factory, small-arms factory and tent factory, powder factory, etc. In a second-class arsenal there would be instead of these factories.
Frederick Taylor introduced command and control techniques to arsenals, including the U. S. s Watertown Arsenal, armorer Dresden Armory Halifax Armoury Harpers Ferry Armory Kremlin Armoury Royal Arsenal Royal Armouries Springfield Armory Zeughaus Magazine
Invasion of Poland
The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German-Soviet Frontier Treaty. German forces invaded Poland from the north and west the morning after the Gleiwitz incident, as the Wehrmacht advanced, Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish–German border to more established lines of defence to the east. After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, Polish forces withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom. While those two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September, in the end their aid to Poland was very limited. The Soviet Red Armys invasion of Eastern Poland on 17 September, in accordance with a protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible, on 6 October, following the Polish defeat at the Battle of Kock and Soviet forces gained full control over Poland.
The success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic, the Soviet Union incorporated its newly acquired areas into its constituent Belarusian and Ukrainian republics, and immediately started a campaign of sovietization. In the aftermath of the invasion, a collective of underground resistance formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Many of the exiles that managed to escape Poland subsequently joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West. On 30 January 1933, the Nazi Party, under its leader Adolf Hitler, as part of this long-term policy, Hitler at first pursued a policy of rapprochement with Poland, trying to improve opinion in Germany, culminating in the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934. Earlier, Hitlers foreign policy worked to weaken ties between Poland and France, and attempted to manoeuvre Poland into the Anti-Comintern Pact, forming a front against the Soviet Union. The Poles feared that their independence would eventually be threatened altogether, the so-called Polish Corridor constituted land long disputed by Poland and Germany, and inhabited by a Polish majority.
The Corridor had become a part of Poland after the Treaty of Versailles, many Germans wanted the city of Danzig and its environs to be reincorporated into Germany. Danzig was a city with a German majority. It had been separated from Germany after Versailles and made into the nominally independent Free City of Danzig, the series of border violations, which are unbearable to a great power, prove that the Poles no longer are willing to respect the German frontier. Poland participated with Germany in the partition of Czechoslovakia that followed the Munich Agreement and it coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the region of Český Těšín by issuing an ultimatum to that effect on 30 September 1938, which was accepted by Czechoslovakia on 1 October. This region had a Polish majority and had been disputed between Czechoslovakia and Poland in the aftermath of World War I, the Polish annexation of Slovak territory served as the justification for the Slovak state to join the German invasion. Poland rejected this proposal, fearing that after accepting these demands, it would become subject to the will of Germany
The Operation Arsenal, code name, Meksyk II was the first major operation by the Szare Szeregi Polish Underground formation during the Nazi occupation of Poland. It took place on March 26,1943 in Warsaw and its name was coined after the Warsaw Arsenal, in front of which the action took place. The plan was to free the troop leader Jan Bytnar Rudy, the operation was executed by 28 scouts led by Warsaw Standard Commander Stanisław Broniewski Orsza. The initiator and the commander of the Attack Group was Tadeusz Zawadzki Zośka, Bytnar himself died four days on account of injuries sustained due to German torture. Both of his interrogators were assassinated by Szare Szeregi within two months, the Operation was presented in a 1978 Polish film Akcja pod Arsenałem. Meksyk II Tomasz Strzembosz, Odbijanie więźniów w Warszawie 1939-1944, warszawa, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe,1972, s.114