SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Warsaw Convention

The Convention for the Unification of certain rules relating to international carriage by air known as the Warsaw Convention, is an international convention which regulates liability for international carriage of persons, luggage, or goods performed by aircraft for reward. Signed in 1929 in Warsaw, it was amended in 1955 at The Hague, in 1971 in Guatemala City, Guatemala. United States courts have held that, at least for some purposes, the Warsaw Convention is a different instrument from the Warsaw Convention as amended by the Hague Protocol. On 17 August 1923, the French government proposed the convening of a diplomatic conference in November 1923 for the purpose of concluding a convention relating to liability in international carriage by air; the conference was formally deferred on two occasions due to reluctant behavior of the governments of various nations to act on such a short notice without the knowledge of the proposed convention. Between 27 October and 6 November, the first conference met in Paris to study the draft convention.

Since most of the participants were diplomats accredited to the French government and not professionals, it was agreed unanimously that a body of technical, legal experts be set up to study the draft convention prior to its submission to the diplomatic conference for approval. Accordingly, the International Technical Committee of Legal Experts on Air Questions was formed in 1925. In 1927–28 CITEJA studied and developed the proposed draft convention and developed it into the present package of unification of law and presented it at the Warsaw Conference, where it was approved between 4 and 12 October 1929, it unified an important sector of private air law. The Convention was written in French and the original documents were deposited in the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Poland. After coming into force on 13 February 1933, it resolved some conflicts of jurisdiction. Between 1948–51 it was further studied by a legal committee set up by the International Civil Aviation Organization and in 1952 a new draft was prepared to replace the convention.

However it was rejected and it was decided that the convention be amended rather than replaced in 1953. The work done by the legal committee at the Ninth Session was presented to the International Conference on Air Law, convened by the Council of the ICAO and met at The Hague from 6 to 28 September 1955; the Hague Conference adopted a Protocol for the amendment of the Warsaw Convention. Between the parties of the Protocol, it was agreed that the 1929 Warsaw Convention and the 1955 Hague Protocol were to be read and interpreted together as one single instrument to be known as the Warsaw Convention as amended at the Hague in 1955; this was not an amendment to the convention but rather a creation of a new and separate legal instrument, only binding between the parties. If one nation is a party to the Warsaw Convention and another to the Hague Protocol, neither state has an instrument in common and therefore there is no mutual international ground for litigation; the Montreal Convention, signed in 1999, replaced the Warsaw Convention system.

There are five chapters: Chapter I – Definitions Chapter II – Documents of Carriage. In particular, the Warsaw Convention: Defines "international carriage" and the convention's scope of applicability Sets rules for documents of carriage Sets rules for the air carrier's liability and limitations thereof Sets rules for legal jurisdiction Mandates carriers to issue passenger tickets; the sums limiting liability were given in gold francs. These sums were amended by the Montreal Additional Protocol No. 2 to substitute an expression given in terms of SDRs. These sums are valid in the absence of a differing agreement with the carrier. Agreements on lower sums are void. A court may award a claiming party's costs, unless the carrier made an offer within 6 months of the loss which the claiming party has failed to beat; the Warsaw Convention provides that a plaintiff can file a lawsuit at his or her discretion in one of the following forums: The carrier's principal place of business The domicile of the carrier The carrier's place of business through which the contract was made The place of the destinationAccording to Clauses 17 and 18 of the Warsaw Convention, airline companies are liable for any damage that occurs to passengers or their belongings during in-flight.

However, airline companies will not be held responsible if the damage results from the passenger's own fault or one of their temporary servants such as doctors assisting ill passengers on their own initiative. To be covered by air carriers, doctors should respond to the captain's call when it comes to assisting ill passengers. In such

High Power Electric Propulsion

High Power Electric Propulsion is a variation of ion thruster for use in nuclear electric propulsion applications. It was ground-tested in 2003 by NASA and was intended for use on the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, canceled in 2005; the HiPEP thruster differs from earlier ion thrusters because the xenon ions are produced using a combination of microwave and magnetic fields. The ionization is achieved through a process called Electron Cyclotron Resonance. In ECR, the small number of free electrons present in the neutral gas gyrate around the static magnetic field lines; the injected microwaves' frequency is set to match this gyrofrequency and a resonance is established. Energy is transferred from the right-hand polarized portion of the microwave to the electrons; this energy is transferred to the bulk gas/plasma via the rare - yet important - collisions between electrons and neutrals. During these collisions, electrons can be knocked free from the neutrals, forming ion-electron pairs; the process is a efficient means of creating a plasma in low density gases.

The electrons required were provided by a hollow cathode. The thruster itself is in the 20-50 kW class, with a specific impulse of 6,000-9,000 seconds, a propellant throughput capability exceeding 100 kg/kW; the goal of the project, as of June 2003, was to achieve a technology readiness level of 4-5 within 2 years. The pre-prototype HiPEP produced 670 mN of thrust at a power level of 39.3 kW using 7.0 mg/s of fuel giving a specific impulse of 9620 s. Downrated to 24.4 kW, the HiPEP used 5.6 mg/s of fuel giving a specific impulse of 8270 s and 460 mN of thrust. List of spacecraft with electric propulsion Solar electric propulsion NASA GRC Media Packet on HiPEP. "The High Power Electric Propulsion Ion Thruster NASA/TM—2004-213194 AIAA–2004–3812"

Micro Live

Micro Live was a BBC2 TV series, produced by David Allen as part of the BBC's Computer Literacy Project, followed on from earlier series such as The Computer Programme, Computers In Control, Making the Most of the Micro. As the name implies, the series was broadcast live; the first programme was a one-off two-hour-long special, broadcast on Sunday 2 October 1983 as Making the Most of the Micro Live. A second one-hour special was broadcast in the summer of 1984, during which it was announced that Micro Live would be back on BBC2 as a regular monthly one-hour series starting in October of that year. A second season of Micro Live launched in 1985 as a weekly half-hour programme and was followed by a third series of weekly half-hour shows in 1986; the series broadcast its last programme on 28 March 1987. The scope of the programme was much wider than the preceding computer series and had a less formal feel due to its live nature. Not only did it cover more subject areas but it featured more microcomputers instead of its main focus being the BBC Micro.

It included stories from the United States and recorded various small but significant milestones, such as the first on-air transatlantic mobile phone call, made in a snowstorm from the top of a New York skyscraper to Lesley Judd sitting in a Sinclair C5 outside Television Centre. Ian McNaught-Davis was once again the anchorman and he was joined over the course of the series by regulars Lesley Judd, Fred Harris and Connor Freff Cochran, an American journalist who did live broadcast and filmed reports from the USA; the joint winners of this competition held in 1984 were Trevor Inns from Drayton Manor High School and Simon Harriss and David Eldridge of William Howard School, Brampton. The first one-off special was the subject of a memorable hacking incident. Ian McNaught-Davis and John Coll logged into the programme's BT Gold email account to demonstrate the features of the relatively new idea of email, only to find that the account had been hacked. Shortly before air, the floor manager had informed Ian McNaught-Davis the password for the account while his microphone was live.

Visiting computer guests, who were in the green room, overheard this information and telephoned a friendly hacker, who proceeded to use the information to get into the account. The following text was displayed. Illegal access. I hope your Television PROGRAMME runs as smoothly as my PROGRAM worked out your passwords! Nothing is secure! Hackers' Song."Put another password in, Bomb it out and try again, Try to get past logging in, we're Hacking, Hacking. Try his first wife's maiden name, This is more than just a game, It's real fun, but just the same, It's Hacking, Hacking."The NutCracker HI THERE, OWLETS, FROM OZ AND YUG After that John Coll was able to read his email and continue the demonstration as no damage had been done to the account. Micro Men The Computer Programme Making the Most of the Micro Computers in Control The Computer Chronicles Micro Live on IMDb