Hosiery referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs. The term originated as the collective term for products of which a maker or seller is termed a hosier; the term is used for all types of knitted fabric, its thickness and weight is defined by denier or opacity. Lower denier measurements of 5 to 15 describe a hose which may be sheer in appearance, whereas styles of 40 and above are dense, with little to no light able to come through on 100 denier items; the first references to hosiery can be found in works of Hesiod, where Romans are said to have used leather or cloth in forms of strips to cover their lower body parts. The Egyptians are speculated to have used hosiery as socks have been found in certain tombs. Most hosiery garments are made by knitting methods. Modern hosiery is tight-fitting by virtue of stretchy fabrics and meshes. Older forms include binding to achieve a tight fit. Due to its close fit, most hosiery can be worn as an undergarment, but it is more worn as a combined under/outer garment.
Hosiery garments are the product of hosiery fabric produced from hosiery yarn. Like the yarn used for making woven fabric, hosiery yarn comes from a separate spinning process, is used with circular knitting machines to form fabric. One or more hosiery yarn is used to make knitted or hosiery fabric, garments produced out of this are referred to as hosiery garments. Bodystockings Compression stockings, a.k.a. support stockings Hold-ups, stay-ups or thigh-high stockings Hosen Knee highs Leggings Socks, tube socks, knee-highs and over-the-knees Stockings, held by a suspender belt Tights or pantyhose Toe socks Legwarmers Hosiery portal Pantyhose for men Undergarment Media related to Hosiery at Wikimedia Commons
Goshen, New Hampshire
Goshen is a town in Sullivan County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 810 at the 2010 census. Incorporated in 1791, Goshen was first settled in 1768 as a part of Saville; the name Goshen may have been taken from Goshen, where many residents had relatives. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.6 square miles, of which 22.5 sq mi is land and 0.1 sq mi is water, comprising 0.40% of the town. The long ridge of Mount Sunapee occupies the eastern edge of town; the highest point in Goshen is an unnamed knob on the ridge where the elevation reaches 2,529 feet above sea level. Goshen lies fully within the Connecticut River watershed, though a small corner in the southeast of town is in the Merrimack River watershed; as of the census of 2000, there were 741 people, 279 households, 219 families residing in the town. The population density was 32.9 people per square mile. There were 389 housing units at an average density of 17.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.03% White, 1.62% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 1.08% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.40% of the population. There were 279 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.5% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.5% were non-families. 17.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,625, the median income for a family was $45,208. Males had a median income of $33,333 versus $22,727 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,561. About 6.9% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 21.5% of those age 65 or over.
Goshen and the neighboring town of Lempster maintained a combined elementary and middle school, called Goshen-Lempster Cooperative School, located in Lempster. The school served kindergarten through 8th grade; the cooperative was dissolved in June 2016. The majority of Goshen elementary and middle-school aged children now attend NH schools. After 8th grade, students are given the choice to attend several neighboring high schools, including Newport High School, Sunapee Senior High School, Kearsarge Regional High School. John Williams Gunnison, US Army officer and explorer of the American West Town of Goshen official website New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile Sunapee-Ragged-Kearsarge Greenway Coalition
Bradford, New Hampshire
Bradford is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,650 at the 2010 census; the main village of the town, where 356 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Bradford census-designated place, is located in the northeast part of the town, west of the junction of New Hampshire routes 103 and 114. The town includes the village of Bradford Center. Granted by Governor Benning Wentworth in 1765 to John Pierce and George Jaffrey of Portsmouth, it was settled in 1771 by Dea. William Presbury and family. Three years other settlers arrived, several of them from Bradford, after which the town was named New Bradford, it was called Bradfordton, but upon incorporation by the General Court on September 27, 1787, it was named Bradford. Parts of the town are hilly. Streams provided water power for watermills. By 1859, when Bradford's population reached 1,341, industries included one woolen mill, one sash and door factory, one wheelwright shop, two sawmills, one gristmill, one tannery, one clothing mill.
In 1850, the Concord & Claremont Railroad opened from Concord to Bradford, which would remain its terminus until the line was extended to Claremont in 1871-72. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 36.0 square miles, of which 35.3 sq mi is land and 0.7 sq mi is water, comprising 1.94% of the town. The village of Bradford is located near the northern border of the town, at the intersection of routes 103 and 114, just north of the Warner River and adjacent to the outlet of Todd Lake; the largest water body in the town is Lake Massasecum, near the town's eastern border. The highest point in Bradford is an unnamed 2,096-foot summit overlooking Ayers Pond on the town's western border. Knights Hill—1,910 ft above sea level—and Rowes Hill—1,950 ft —constitute a large, hilly mass occupying the southern portion of town. Bradford lies within the Merrimack River watershed; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,650 people, 667 households, 471 families residing in the town.
There were 917 housing units, of which 250, or 27.3%, were vacant. 203 of the vacant units were for recreational uses. The racial makeup of the town was 97.5% white, 0.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.2% some other race, 1.6% from two or more races. 1.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 667 households, 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were headed by married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.1% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47, the average family size was 2.86. In the town, 20.7% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.3% were from 18 to 24, 20.9% from 25 to 44, 38.9% from 45 to 64, 13.2% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.6 males. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household was $59,783, the median income for a family was $68,750. Male full-time workers had a median income of $55,119 versus $40,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $28,152. 7.1% of the population and 4.8% of families were below the poverty line. 7.8% of the population under the age of 18 and 8.5% of those 65 or older were living in poverty. Bement Covered Bridge, built 1854 Odds Bodkin and musician John Q. A. Brackett, 36th governor of Massachusetts John Milton Hawks and physician Mason Tappan, US Congressman and State Attorney General Bainbridge Wadleigh, US senator Town of Bradford official website Bradfordnh.com Brown Memorial Library New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Jonathan Belcher was a merchant and politician from the Province of Massachusetts Bay during the American colonial period. Belcher served for over a decade as colonial governor of the British colonies of New Hampshire and Massachusetts and for ten years as governor of New Jersey. Born into a wealthy Massachusetts merchant family, Belcher attended Harvard College and entered into the family business and local politics, he was instrumental in promoting Samuel Shute as governor of Massachusetts in 1715, sat on the colony's council, but became disenchanted with Shute over time and joined the populist faction of Elisha Cooke, Jr. After the sudden death of Governor William Burnet in 1729 Belcher acquired the governorships of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. During his tenure, Belcher politically marginalized those who he perceived as opposition and made many powerful enemies in both provinces. In a long-running border dispute between Massachusetts and New Hampshire, Belcher sided with Massachusetts interests despite proclaiming neutrality in the matter.
It was discovered that he allowed illegal logging on Crown lands by political allies. His opponents, led by William Shirley and Samuel Waldo convinced the Board of Trade to replace Belcher, the border dispute was resolved in New Hampshire's favor. Belcher was appointed governor of New Jersey in 1747 with support from its Quaker community, he unsuccessfully attempted to mediate the partisan conflicts between New Jersey's Quakers and large landowners, promoted the establishment of the College of New Jersey, now Princeton University. Through most of his tenure as royal governor, Belcher was ill with a progressive nervous disorder, died in office in 1757. Belchertown, Massachusetts is named for him. Jonathan Belcher was born in Cambridge, Province of Massachusetts Bay, on 8 January 1681/2; the fifth of seven children, his father Andrew was an adventurer and businessman, his mother, Sarah Gilbert Belcher, was the daughter of a politically well connected Connecticut merchant and Indian trader. His mother died when he was seven, his father sent him to live with relatives in the country while he expanded his trading business.
Andrew Belcher was successful in trade, although some of it was in violation of the Navigation Acts, some was conducted with pirates. However he made his money, he became one of the wealthiest men in Massachusetts in the 1680s and 1690s. To promote the family's status, he sent his son to the Boston Latin School in 1691, Harvard College in 1695, where Belcher was listed second behind Jeremiah Dummer. Belcher and Dummer both went on to political careers in the province, sometimes as allies, but as opponents. Belcher's five sisters all married into politically or economically prominent families, forging important connections that would further his career. In January 1705/6 Belcher married Mary Partridge, the daughter of former New Hampshire Lieutenant Governor William Partridge, an occasional business partner of his father's; the couple had three children before she died in 1736. His brother-in-law through this marriage was the painter Nehemiah Partridge. Belcher graduated from Harvard at the age of 17, entered into his father's business.
The trading empire his father built encompassed trade from the West Indies to Europe, included shares or outright ownership of more than 15 ships. In the spring of 1704 Belcher's father sent him to London to cultivate business contacts of his own, to secure military supply contracts. After forging relations based on his father's letters of introduction in London, Belcher traveled to the Netherlands to do the same with Dutch merchants, to begin a tour of western Europe. After seeing the sights of Rotterdam and Amsterdam he traveled to Hanover, where he was received by Electress Sophia and met the future King of Great Britain, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. After calling on the Prussian court in Berlin, he returned to New England. During these travels he was exposed to a variety of religious practices, but found regular comfort in Christian services most similar to the Calvinist-leaning New England Congregational Church, he came to see himself as a defender of that faith practice, which permeated his political life.
During the years of the War of the Spanish Succession, Belcher's father was retained as a major supplier to the provincial militia and served as the province's commissary general. Belcher was involved in the management of the family's trading activities. In 1708 he traveled again to London. Before returning to Massachusetts he once again traveled to Hanover, where he was well received at court; the war effort caused economic upheavals in Massachusetts, the Belchers, who stockpiled grain and other supplies for military use, became a focus for popular discontent when food shortages arose late in the war. The family's warehouses were the targets of mob action, Belcher was beaten by a mob on one occasion. Belcher's merchant interests included the occasional trafficking in slaves, he is known to have owned slaves, ordering them from Isaac Royall, Sr.. He presented an enslaved Indian to Electress Sophia on his second visit to Hanover in 1708. Despite this, he expressed a distaste for slavery, writing in 1739, "We have but few in these parts, I wish there were less."In addition to the mercantile tra
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevation may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum –, used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and aircraft flight levels. A common and straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied over geological time scales; however 20th century and current millennium sea level rise is caused by global warming, careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change. The term above sea level refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a "mean sea level" is difficult to achieve because of the many factors that affect sea level. Instantaneous sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of space.
This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point and use it as a datum. For example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point. Still-water level or still-water sea level is the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves averaged out. MSL implies the SWL further averaged over a period of time such that changes due to, e.g. the tides have zero mean. Global MSL refers to a spatial average over the entire ocean. One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the mean sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the vertical datum was MSL at the Victoria Liverpool. Since the times of the Russian Empire, in Russia and other former its parts, now independent states, the sea level is measured from the zero level of Kronstadt Sea-Gauge.
In Hong Kong, "mPD" is a surveying term meaning "metres above Principal Datum" and refers to height of 1.230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and offers the longest collapsed data about the sea level, it is used for main part of Africa as official sea level. As for Spain, the reference to measure heights below or above sea level is placed in Alicante. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, which dates back to the 1690s. Satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite in 2008. Height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum, it is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to mean sea level, in the atmospheric sciences, land surveying.
An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, what systems such as GPS do. In aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is used to define heights; the alternative is to use a geoid-based vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, variations in elevation are shown by contour lines; the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, the elevation AMSL is negative. For one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. To extend this definition far from the sea means comparing the local height of the mean sea surface with a "level" reference surface, or geodetic datum, called the geoid. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravitational field.
In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations and salinity variations, etc. this does not occur, not as a long-term average. The location-dependent, but persistent in time, separation between mean sea level and the geoid is referred to as ocean surface topography, it varies globally in a range of ± 2 m. Adjustments were made to sea-level measurements to take into account the effects of the 235 lunar month Metonic cycle and the 223-month eclipse cycle on the tides. Several terms are used to describe the changing relationships between sea level and dry land; when the term "relative" is used, it means change relative to a fixed point in the sediment pile. The term "eustatic" refers to global changes in sea level relative to a fixed point, such as the centre of the earth, for example as a result of melting ice-caps; the term "steric" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations. The term "isostatic" refers to changes in
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w