Baldwin County, Georgia
Baldwin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,337; the county seat is Milledgeville, developed along the Oconee River. Baldwin County is part of GA Micropolitan Statistical Area. For centuries the land was occupied by the Creek Nation, for thousands of years before them, varying cultures of indigenous peoples. Part of the land ceded by the Creek Nation in the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson in 1802 was used to create Baldwin County on May 11, 1803, by the Georgia General Assembly, the state's legislative body; the land west of the Oconee River was organized as Wilkinson counties. The Treaty of Washington with the Creek in 1805 extended the state's western boundary to the Ocmulgee River. A legislative act on June 26, 1806, added some of this additional land to both counties; the state legislature subsequently passed an act on December 10, 1807 that created four new counties from Baldwin County's 1806 borders. It expanded Baldwin to the east with land from Washington counties.
The new counties were Morgan, Jones and present-day Jasper. The county is named for Abraham Baldwin, a signer of the United States Constitution, U. S. congressman representing Georgia, the founder of the University of Georgia. White settlers moved into the area and developed large cotton plantations, made possible by the labor of slaves. Since the invention of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton could be profitably processed, it was well-suited to the uplands of Georgia. What became known as the Black Belt of Georgia, an arc of fertile soil, was one of the destinations for slaves being sold from the Upper South, as well as from the Low Country; the county seat of Milledgeville is the former state capital of Georgia. Other than Washington, DC, it is the only planned capital city in the United States; because of its central location within the state and its abundant supply of water from the Oconee River, Milledgeville grew into a bustling frontier town. On November 2, 1807, the state legislature held its first session in the newly completed statehouse in Milledgeville.
Georgia's first state penitentiary was built within the historic city limits of Milledgeville in 1817. This site is now used as the main campus of State University. In 1837 the General Assembly provided for the establishment of the state's first mental asylum, today known as Central State Hospital; when the state of Georgia seceded from the Union in January 1861 during a legislative session held in Milledgeville, Baldwin County became a target for Union forces. When Union general William T. Sherman's made his devastating March to the Sea through Georgia, his troops occupied the capital city in November 1864. Sherman and his Union armies burned the state penitentiary, vandalized the city, held a mock session of the legislature in the statehouse to repeal the state's ordinance of secession. In 1868, after the Civil War, Georgia's capital was moved from Milledgeville to its present location in Atlanta. Today Milledgeville is home to two institutions of higher education: Georgia College and State University and Georgia Military College.
Founded in 1889 as the Georgia Normal and Industrial College for Women, Georgia College and State University has since grown to become the state's premier public liberal arts university. Georgia Military College, founded in 1879, now occupies the Old Capitol Building. In addition to the Old Capitol and Governor's Mansion, visitors to Baldwin County can explore Andalusia, the family farm of writer Flannery O'Connor. Carl Vinson, who served for fifty years in the U. S. Congress, was born in Baldwin County. Oliver Hardy and film director, began his career in the Milledgeville Opera House. Flannery O'Connor and short-story writer, lived in Milledgeville, she is buried in her family plot in the city's historic Memory Hill Cemetery. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 267 square miles, of which 258 square miles is land and 9.6 square miles is water. The majority of Baldwin County, south of Lake Sinclair, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin.
The northern portion of the county is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. Putnam County, Georgia - north Hancock County, Georgia - northeast Washington County, Georgia - east Wilkinson County, Georgia - south Jones County, Georgia - west As of the census of 2010, there were 46,337 people, 14,758 households, 9,843 families residing in the county; the population density was 173 people per square mile. There were 17,173 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 54.17% White, 43.38% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 1.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,758 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.90% were married couples living together, 18.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.30% were non-families.
25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.70% under the age of 18, 14.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, and
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Georgia State Route 15
State Route 15 is a 346-mile-long state highway that travels south-to-north across the entire length of the U. S. state of Georgia, east of its centerline. It connects the Florida state line, south-southeast of Folkston with the North Carolina state line, in Dillard, via Folkston, Sandersville, Athens and Clayton. SR 15 used to travel through Hazlehurst and Dublin, now the path of SR 19, it used to travel from Dublin to Wrightsville, now the path of US 319/SR 31. It used to travel from Athens, through Arcade and Jefferson, to Commerce, now the route of SR 15 Alt. SR 15 enters Georgia just south of Folkston as a four-lane highway, along with US 1, US 23, US 301, SR 4. In Homeland, US 301 branches off to the north while the other four routes plus SR 121, head northwest. After about 10 miles, SR 15 and SR 121 branch off from US 1/US 23/SR 4, as a two-lane highway, crossing US 82/SR 520 in Hoboken; the two state routes continue northwest through Blackshear, where they cross US 84/SR 38. After that, the two state routes continue to stay together, heading north through the community of Bristol.
Soon after, SR 121 branches off to the north while SR 15 heads northwest to rejoin US 1 and SR 4 at Baxley. North of Baxley, the three highways continue, remaining a four-lane highway all the way to the Altamaha River. 10 miles past the river crossing, SR 15 branches off to the northwest again, where SR 29 begins and follows SR 15. At Vidalia, SR 15 and SR 29 turn west and follow US 280/SR 30 for several miles to the community of Higgston; the two highways head north from there through the community of Tarrytown and on to Soperton. SR 29 heads northwest of Soperton while SR 15, along with SR 78, continues north, reaching an interchange with I-16, goes to Adrian; the two state routes continue northwest to Wrightsville. SR 15 continues by itself through the adjacent cities of Sandersville. Through these cites, most of SR 15 has been widened to four lanes, it picks up SR 24. North of Sandersville, SR 15 crosses SR 24/SR 540 and heads north through the community of Warthen and onto Sparta. Through Sparta, SR 15 makes a few turns picking up SR 16 and SR 22.
North of Sparta, it picks up SR 77, continues north through White Plains and Siloam. At Siloam, SR 15 has an interchange with I-20. SR 77 departs to the north while SR 15 continues northwest to Greensboro, passing beneath I-20, but without direct access. In Greensboro, SR 15 makes two more turns following US 278/SR 12 through downtown. SR 15 continues northwest to Watkinsville, after which it joins US 129/US 441, it travels together with US 441 as a four-lane highway throughout the rest of their course in Georgia. The three highways, along with several others, circle around the east side of Athens along the SR 10 Loop and head north through the town of Nicholson and around the east side of Commerce via a bypass; the highways have an interchange with I-85, head between the towns of Baldwin and Cornelia, where they become a limited access freeway for a short time and rejoin US 23. The three highways remain together and head through the cities of Tallulah Falls and Dillard before crossing into North Carolina.
The entire length of SR 15 is included as part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility. SR 15 was established at least as early as 1919 on three segments; the southern segment extended from the current southern terminus through Folkston and Alma, ended at Hazlehurst. The central segment extended from SR 27 in Lumber City to SR 19/SR 30 west-southwest of Mount Vernon; the northern segment extended from SR 30 in Mount Vernon to Athens, through Jefferson to its current northern terminus. There was no indication. By the end of September 1921, the portion of SR 15 from west-southwest of Mount Vernon to Wrightsville was shifted westward, to travel north-northwest to Dublin and had a separate segment from SR 26 east-northeast of Dublin to Wrightsville, its former path from Mount Vernon to Adrian was redesignated as part of SR 56. By October 1926, US 1 was designated on SR 15 from the Florida state line to north-northeast of Alma. US 129 was designated on SR 15 from just south of Watkinsville to Jefferson.
Three segments had a "completed hard surface": a portion southwest of Waycross, a portion in the south-southwest part of Athens, the Cornelia–Clarkesville segment. By October 1929, SR 4 was designated on US 1/SR 15 from the Florida state line to north-northeast of Alma; this segment, as well as a portion south of Sandersville, had a completed hard surface. By the middle of 1930, the southern terminus was truncated to the point it left the concurrency with US 1/SR 4 north-northeast of Alma. Four segments had a completed hard surface: a portion in the northwestern part of Athens, from southeast of Jefferson to southwest of Commerce, the Baldwin–Cornelia segment, the Clarkesville–North Carolina segment. Between November 1930 and the beginning of 1932, US 23 was designated on the Baldwin–North Carolina segment. In January 1932, SR 29 was established on SR 15's current path from US 1/SR 4 in South Thompson through Vidalia to SR 56 in Soperton. In March, the Watkinsville–Athens segment was completed.
The next month, SR 24 was extended from Athens on what is now SR 15's. The Tennille–Sandersville segment was completed. Nearly two years SR 121 was established from US 84/SR 50 in Hoboken to SR 38 in Blackshear; that yea
Georgia's 10th congressional district
Georgia's 10th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Republican Jody Hice, includes a large swath of urban and rural territory between Atlanta and Augusta; the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia. The first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. Located in the eastern part of the state, the new district boundaries include the cities of Athens, Jackson, Monroe and Winder. Baldwin Barrow Butts Butts Clarke Columbia Glascock Greene Gwinnett Hancock Henry Jasper Jefferson Johnson Lincoln McDuffie Morgan Newton Oconee Oglethorpe Putnam Taliaferro Walton Warren Washington Wilkes As of January 2018, there are three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 10th congressional district who are living at this time. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 10th district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 10th district at GovTrack.us
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Wilkinson County, Georgia
Wilkinson County, established in 1803 and named for General James Wilkinson, is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,563; the county seat is Irwinton. The county was created on May 11, 1803. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 452 square miles, of which 447 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. The entirety of Wilkinson County is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. Baldwin County Bleckley County Washington County Johnson County Laurens County Twiggs County Jones County As of the census of 2000, there were 10,220 people, 3,827 households, 2,805 families residing in the county; the population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 4,449 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 57.96% White, 40.70% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.40% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races.
0.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,827 households out of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.60% were married couples living together, 18.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 24.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.20% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,723, the median income for a family was $39,349. Males had a median income of $31,814 versus $21,461 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,658.
About 14.60% of families and 17.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.90% of those under age 18 and 18.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,563 people, 3,666 households, 2,638 families residing in the county; the population density was 21.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,487 housing units at an average density of 10.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58.5% white, 38.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 1.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 14.7% were American. Of the 3,666 households, 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.0% were non-families, 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.06.
The median age was 41.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,902 and the median income for a family was $49,138. Males had a median income of $39,009 versus $25,935 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,929. About 17.9% of families and 23.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.1% of those under age 18 and 21.9% of those age 65 or over. Wilkinson County Primary/Elementary SchoolWilkinson County Middle/High SchoolWilkinson County is home of the 9-time state high school basketball class A champions. Allentown Danville Gordon Irwinton - county seat Ivey McIntyre Toomsboro National Register of Historic Places listings in Wilkinson County, Georgia