Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
The Nolichucky River is a 115-mile river that flows through Western North Carolina and East Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. Traversing the Pisgah National Forest and the Cherokee National Forest in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the river's watershed is home to some of the highest mountains in the Appalachians, including Mount Mitchell, the highest point in the eastern United States; the river is a tributary of the French Broad River, is impounded by Nolichucky Dam near Greeneville, Tennessee. The Nolichucky River rises as the confluence of the North Toe River and the Cane River near the community of Huntdale, North Carolina; the stream succeeds the North Toe as the boundary between Yancey County and Mitchell County, North Carolina. Trending westward, it flows along the northern base of Flattop Mountain; the gorge is steep on its north side. Geologically, the area is predominantly underlain by metamorphic rock of Precambrian age; the river enters Unicoi County, Tennessee, as it drops through a whitewater gorge, flowing between the ranges of the Bald Mountains and the Unaka Mountains.
Turning northwest, the stream is bridged by the Appalachian Trail, just beyond this, by U. S. Highway 19W southwest of Erwin, Tennessee. Near Erwin, two tributary streams, South Indian Creek and North Indian Creek, join the Nolichucky River. Turning more to the north, the stream is paralleled for several miles by State Route 81, crossing into Washington County; the river cuts between several mountains at this point, including Rich Mountain to the south and Buffalo Mountain to the north. Shortly after entering Washington County, the river makes a horseshoe bend near Embreeville, where it is bridged by Tennessee 81 and Tennessee 107 for the first time. At the northeastern end of Embreeville Mountain, the stream emerges from a large gap, turning west-southwest, is bridged by Tennessee 81 again. Here, it exits the Blue Ridge Mountains and enters the Ridge and Valley province, underlain by sedimentary rock of the Lower Paleozoic Era; the river continues west-southwest for several miles, paralleled by State Route 107.
The river leaves the roadside near Mt. Carmel. From there it flows northwest over a winding course to Davy Crockett Birthplace State Park near the Washington County–Greene County line. Many tributary creeks join the river in Greene Counties. At the county line one of the larger tributaries, Big Limestone Creek, joins the river. State Route 351 crosses the river west of Crockett's birthplace. From Crockett's birthplace the river flows southwestward, following the trends of the Ridge and Valley province's underlying geology. Bridged by Tennessee 107 again just east of Tusculum, the stream continues southwestward bridged by State Route 350 just above an impoundment caused by Nolichucky Dam; this dam was constructed as a hydroelectric project by the former Tennessee Electric Power Company in 1912. The dam was sold to the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1939; the TVA continued to operate the dam for electrical power purposes until the 1970s. The degree of siltation of the reservoir, called Davy Crockett Lake, had made continued efforts to operate the facility for hydroelectric purposes impracticable.
The agency retired the dam as a power source but continues to maintain it and to use it for flood control and recreational purposes. Just west of the dam, the river crosses State Route 70 and State Route 107 for a third and final time. Continuing due west, the river is bridged by U. S. Highway 321. Just before reaching the Greene County–Cocke County line, the river is bridged by State Route 340. Just past this point, the river becomes the Greene County–Cocke County line. A few miles below this point it is bridged by a Cocke County road. South of Interstate 81, Greene County, Cocke County, Hamblen County come to a point at a bend in river, where Lick Creek joins the river. From this point on, the meandering stream forms the Hamblen County–Cocke County line; the confluence of the Nolichucky with the French Broad River occurs in the upstream portion of the Douglas Lake impoundment, caused by Douglas Dam, a World War II-era TVA project located downstream along the French Broad. The mouth of the Nolichucky lies near the point where Hamblen and Jefferson County meet.
Near the mouth is the Rankin Wildlife Management Area, a reserve operated by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. While the origins of the name-place have long been debated and remain unclear, it is believed to be derived from the name of the Cherokee village Na’na-tlu gun’yi, or "Spruce-Tree Place," that once stood near modern Jonesborough, Tennessee. Others argue that, according to local lore, it means "Rushing Water", "Dangerous Water", or "Black Swirling Water". During the 1770s, European frontiersmen established the "Nolichucky settlements" along the river in modern Greene County, Tennessee, in what was part of Cherokee territory; these settlements were aligned with the Watauga settlements in, Tennessee. As hostilities intensified in the mid-1770s between the settlers and a faction of the Cherokee, known as the "Chickamaugas," who were opposed to the settlements, John Sevier, at the time a young militia officer, began overseeing the construction of Fort Lee. After an invasion was launched by Chickamauga leader Dragging Canoe in July 1776, Sevier abandoned the unfinished fort and fled to the Watauga settlements.
Sevier would acquire the nickname "Nolichucky Jack," or "Chucky Jack," for his exploits along the river and in its vicinity. Famed frontiersman Davy Crockett was born along the river near Limestone, Tennessee, in 1786; the site
Landon Carter Haynes
Landon Carter Haynes was an American politician who served as a Confederate States Senator from Tennessee from 1862 to 1865. He served several terms in the Tennessee House of Representatives, including one term as Speaker. In the early 1840s, Haynes worked as editor of the Jonesborough-based newspaper, Tennessee Sentinel, garnering regional fame for his frequent clashes with rival editor, William "Parson" Brownlow. Following the Civil War, Haynes moved to Memphis, his farm near Johnson City, the Tipton-Haynes Place, is now a state historic site. Haynes was born near Elizabethton, the eldest child of David Haynes, a land speculator, Rhoda Haynes, he attended the Anderson School in Carter County, graduated from Washington College near Jonesborough in 1838. Returning to Elizabethton, he read law with T. A. R. Nelson; when Nelson moved to Jonesborough in 1840, Haynes followed him to continue his study of law. He was admitted to the bar in late 1840. While still in Elizabethton, Haynes began to quarrel with William G. "Parson" Brownlow, a former circuit rider who had left the ministry in 1839 to publish and edit the Whig, a radically pro-Whig newspaper.
In March 1840, Brownlow accused Haynes of an assassination attempt after an unknown assailant fired two shots at him. A few weeks Brownlow attacked Haynes with a cane, igniting a brawl that ended with Haynes drawing a pistol and shooting Brownlow in the thigh. In 1841, Haynes was hired as editor of the Tennessee Sentinel, a pro-Democratic Party newspaper, published by his brother-in-law, Lawson Gifford, since 1835. Over the next five years and Brownlow engaged in a ruthless editorial war. Brownlow described Haynes as a "public debauchee and hypocrite," and accused him of stealing corn and selling diseased hogs. Haynes mocked Brownlow's lineage, dubbed him a "wretched abortion of sin," and charged that he had once been flogged for stealing jewelry in Nashville. In 1842, Haynes converted to Methodism, was licensed to preach as a Methodist minister. In December of that year, he began to quarrel with long-time minister C. W. C. Harris, who questioned his behavior during his feud with Brownlow. At a church conference in January 1843, Haynes charged Harris with falsehood, but Harris was acquitted.
Harris charged Haynes with falsehood at a conference in February, Haynes was found guilty and barred from the ministry. Crowing about the incident in the Whig, Brownlow stated that Haynes had been hanged "on the gallows he prepared for another." Although a Whig in his youth, Haynes joined the Democratic Party in 1839. In 1844, he was an elector for James K. Polk, while his old mentor, was an elector for Henry Clay. While canvassing for Polk, Haynes honed his skills as an orator, delivering eloquent speeches in favor of Democratic positions, such as the annexation of Texas. At one event, he accused Whigs of being "latitudinarious," prompting taunts from Brownlow, who stated there was no such word. Haynes and Nelson would serve as the respective electors for Lewis Cass and Zachary Taylor in 1848. Haynes was elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1845; as a legislator, he supported a repeal of the "quart" law, tried to amend the bill chartering Jackson College to obtain funds for Washington College and Tusculum, tried to amend a banking bill to establish branches of the state bank in each of the state's grand divisions.
In 1847, he was elected to the Tennessee Senate. In this capacity, he helped obtain funding for railroad construction and improvements to the upper Holston River, he returned to the House in 1849, where he was elected Speaker by a 38–31 vote, continued championing railroad construction. In 1851, a sizeable faction of the Democratic Party, angry with the policies of incumbent 1st district congressman Andrew Johnson, convinced Haynes to run against him in the general election. In what would prove to be one of Johnson's toughest campaigns, the two candidates canvassed the district together, engaging in fierce debates in front of large crowds. Haynes criticized Johnson's support for the Homestead Bill, arguing it was an abolitionist measure, accused Johnson of having opposed railroad construction and supporting Whig candidates. Johnson noted that Haynes had voted for Whig Governor Newton Cannon in 1839, pointed out that Haynes had been expelled from the Methodist ministry. Johnson won the election by just over 1,600 votes.
After a hiatus in which he focused on his law practice, Haynes reentered politics in 1859 when he again ran for Congress. This time, his opponent was his old law mentor, T. A. R. Nelson. Haynes championed states' secession, while Nelson ran on a pro-Union platform. Unlike the 1851 campaign, the 1859 canvass was cordial, with Haynes at one point coming to Nelson's defense after a newspaper had misquoted him. On election day, Nelson edged Haynes by just 90 votes. During the presidential election of 1860, Haynes was an at-large elector for John C. Breckinridge, a position which required him to canvass the entire state. At one point, he jointly campaigned with his brother-in-law, Nathaniel G. Taylor, an elector for John Bell. In January 1861, following Abraham Lincoln's victory, Haynes joined a growing chorus of Tennesseans who called for the state to align itself with the burgeoning Confederate States of America. In July 1861, after Tennessee had seceded, Haynes wrote to Confederate Secretary of War LeRoy P. Walker, warning him that East Tennessee
Bristol is a city in Sullivan County, United States. The population was 26,702 at the 2010 census, it is the twin city of Bristol, which lies directly across the state line between Tennessee and Virginia. The boundary between the two cities is the state line, which runs along State Street in their common downtown district. Bristol is a principal city of the Kingsport−Bristol−Bristol, TN-VA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a component of the Johnson City−Kingsport−Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area − known as the "Tri-Cities" region. Bristol is best known for being the site of some of the first commercial recordings of country music, showcasing Jimmie Rodgers and the Carter Family, a favorite venue of the mountain musician Uncle Charlie Osborne; the U. S. Congress recognized Bristol as the "Birthplace of Country Music" in 1998, the Birthplace of Country Music Museum is located in Bristol. Bristol is the birthplace of Tennessee Ernie Ford. Bristol is the site of Bristol Motor Speedway, a NASCAR short track, one of the most well-known motorsports facilities in the country.
The U. S. Congress declared Bristol to be the "Birthplace of Country Music", according to a resolution passed in 1998, recognizing its contributions to early country music recordings and influence, the Birthplace of Country Music Museum is located in Bristol. In 1927 record producer Ralph Peer of Victor Records began recording local musicians in Bristol, to attempt to capture the local sound of traditional "folk" music of the region. One of these local sounds was created by the Carter Family, which got its start on July 31, 1927, when A. P. Carter and his family journeyed from Maces Spring, Virginia, to Bristol to audition for Ralph Peer, seeking new talent for the embryonic recording industry, they received $50 for each song. That same visit by Peer to Bristol resulted in the first recordings by Jimmie Rodgers. Since 1994, the Birthplace of Country Music Alliance has promoted the city as a destination to learn about country music and the city's role in the creation of an entire music genre; the Alliance is organizing the building of a new Cultural Heritage Center to help educate the public about the history of country music in the region.
On August 1, 2014, the Birthplace of Country Music Museum opened in Bristol, Virginia to commemorate the historical significance of the Bristol Sessions. The museum features a 24,000 sq. ft. building that houses core exhibits, space for special exhibits, a performance theater, a radio station. Every year, during the third weekend in September, a music festival called the Bristol Rhythm & Roots Reunion takes place; the festival is held downtown, where Tennessee and Virginia meet, it celebrates Bristol's heritage as the Birthplace of Country Music. Bristol is located in the northeast corner of Tennessee, at 36°34′9″N 82°11′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.5 square miles, of which 29.4 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Like much of the rest of the state, Bristol has a humid subtropical climate, although with cooler temperatures in the summer, due to elevation; the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 35.2 °F in January to 74.6 °F in July, while, on average, there are 8.8 days where the temperature stays at or below freezing and 17 days with a high at or above 90 °F per year.
The all-time record low is −21 °F, set on January 21, 1985, while the all-time record high is 103 °F, set on June 30, 2012. Precipitation is low compared to much of East Tennessee, averaging 41.0 inches annually, reaches a low during autumn. The rainiest calendar day on record is October 1964 when 3.65 inches of rain fell. Bristol's normal winter snowfall stands at 13.3 inches more than what most of Tennessee receives. The most snow in one calendar day was 16.2 inches on November 21, 1952, while the most in one month is 27.9 inches during March 1960, which contributed to the winter of 1959–60, with a total of 51.0 inches, finishing as the snowiest on record. As of the census of 2000, there were 24,821 people, 10,648 households, 6,825 families residing in the city; the population density in 2000 was 846 people per square mile. There were 11,511 housing units at an average density of 392.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.15% White, 2.97% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.68% of the population. There were 10,648 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. Nearly 32% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26, the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out, with 21.1% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,03
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Johnson City, Tennessee
Johnson City is a city in Washington and Sullivan counties in the U. S. state of Tennessee, with most of the city being in Washington County. As of the 2010 census, the population of Johnson City was 63,152, by 2017 the estimated population was 66,391, making it the ninth-largest city in the state. Johnson City is ranked the #65 "Best Small Place for Business and Careers" in the US by Forbes, #5 in Kiplinger's list of "The 10 Least-Expensive Cities For Living in the U. S. A." stating the low cost of living is attributed to affordable homes and below-average utility and health-care costs. Johnson City is the principal city of the Johnson City Metropolitan Statistical Area, which covers Carter and Washington counties and had a combined population of 200,966 as of 2013; the MSA is a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – known as the "Tri-Cities" region. This CSA is the fifth-largest in Tennessee with an estimated 500,538 people in residence. William Bean, traditionally recognized as Tennessee's first colonizer, built his cabin along Boone's Creek near Johnson City in 1769.
In the 1780s, Colonel John Tipton established a farm just outside. During the State of Franklin movement, Tipton was a leader of the loyalist faction, residents of the region who wanted to remain part of North Carolina rather than form a separate state. In February 1788, an armed engagement took place at Tipton's farm between Tipton and his men and the forces led by John Sevier, the leader of the Franklin faction. Founded in 1856 by Henry Johnson as a railroad station called "Johnson's Depot", Johnson City became a major rail hub for the Southeast, as three railway lines crossed in the downtown area. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Johnson City served as headquarters for the narrow gauge East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad and the standard gauge Clinchfield Railroad. Both rail systems featured excursion trips through scenic portions of the Blue Ridge Mountains and were engineering marvels of railway construction; the Southern Railway passes through the city. During the American Civil War, before it was formally incorporated in 1869, the name of the town was changed to "Haynesville" in honor of Confederate Senator Landon Carter Haynes.
Henry Johnson's name was restored following the war, with Johnson elected as the city's first mayor on January 3, 1870. The town grew from 1870 until 1890 as railroad and mining interests flourished. However, the national depression of 1893, which caused many railway failures and a resulting financial panic, halted Johnson City's boom town momentum. In 1901, the Mountain Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Mountain Home, Tennessee was created by an act of Congress introduced by Walter P. Brownlow. Construction on this 450-acre campus, designed to serve disabled Civil War veterans, was completed in 1903 at a cost of $3 million. Before the completion of this facility, the assessed value of the entire town was listed at $750,000; the East Tennessee State Normal School was authorized in 1911 and the new college campus directly across from the National Soldiers Home. Johnson City began growing and became the fifth-largest city in Tennessee by 1930. Together with neighboring Bristol, Johnson City was a hotbed for old-time music.
It hosted noteworthy Columbia Records recording sessions in 1928 known as the Johnson City Sessions. Native son "Fiddlin' Charlie" Bowman became a national recording star via these sessions; the Fountain Square area in downtown featured a host of local and traveling street entertainers including Blind Lemon Jefferson. During the 1920s and the Prohibition era, Johnson City's ties to the bootlegging activity of the Appalachian Mountains earned the city the nickname of "Little Chicago". Stories persist that the town was one of several distribution centers for Chicago gang boss Al Capone during Prohibition. Capone had a well-organized distribution network within the southern United States for alcohol smuggling. Capone was, according to local lore, a part-time resident of Montrose Court, a luxury apartment complex now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. For many years, the city had a municipal "privilege tax" on carnival shows, in an attempt to dissuade traveling circuses and other transient entertainment businesses from doing business in town.
The use of drums by merchants to draw attention to their goods is prohibited. Title Six, Section 106 of the city's municipal code, the so-called "Barney Fife" ordinance, empowers the city's police force to draft into involuntary service as many of the town's citizens as necessary to aid police in making arrests and in preventing or quelling any riot, unlawful assembly or breach of peace. Johnson City is run by a five-person board of commissioners, who are as follows: Mayor: Jenny Brock Vice Mayor: Joe Wise Commissioner: Larry Calhoun Commissioner: Todd Fowler Commissioner: John HunterThe city manager is M. Denis "Pete" Peterson. Johnson City is in northeastern Washington County at 36°20′N 82°22′W, with smaller parts extending north into Sullivan County and east into Carter County. Johnson City shares a contiguous southeastern border with Elizabethton. Johnson City shares a small contiguous border with Kingsport to the far north along I-26 and a longer one with Bluff City to the northeast along US 11E.
According to t