Brazos County, Texas
Brazos County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 194,851; the population estimate as of November 2018 was 226,099. The county seat is Bryan. Along with Brazoria County, the county is named for the Brazos River, which forms its western border; the county was formed in 1841 and organized in 1843. Brazos County is part of the Bryan-College Station, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of Bryan, College Station, smaller cities and towns in Brazos and Robertson counties. In 1837 most of the area of present-day Brazos County was included in Washington County; the Brazos River, which bisected the latter, proved a serious obstacle to county government, a new county, was formed in January 1841. The first court, with Judge R. E. B. Baylor presiding, was held that year in the home of Joseph Ferguson, fourteen miles west of the site of present Bryan; the county seat, named Boonville for Mordecai Boon, was located on John Austin's league and was surveyed by Hiram Hanover in 1841.
In January of the following year Navasota County was renamed Brazos County. One of the state's poorer counties, the county donated 2,416 acres of land in the 1870s to create Texas A&M University, which has enabled the county to be among the state's most financially successful. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 591 square miles, of which 585 square miles is land and 5.8 square miles is water. Burleson County Grimes County Madison County Robertson County Washington County As of the census of 2000, there were 152,415 people, 55,202 households, 30,416 families residing in the county; the population density was 260 people per square mile. There were 59,023 housing units at an average density of 101 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.45% White, 10.72% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 4.01% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 8.42% from other races, 1.97% from two or more races. 17.88% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
15.3% were of German, 8.4% English, 7.3% Irish and 7.2% American ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 55,202 households out of which 27.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.30% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.90% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.16. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.50% under the age of 18, 32.00% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 13.80% from 45 to 64, 6.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,104, the median income for a family was $46,530. Males had a median income of $32,864 versus $24,179 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $16,212. About 14.00% of families and 26.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.60% of those under age 18 and 10.30% of those age 65 or over. The Brazos Transit District operates a fixed route bus service and paratransit throughout Bryan and College Station. U. S. Highway 190 State Highway 6 State Highway 21 Easterwood Airport, owned by Texas A&M, is the local commercial airport, with flights to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport and George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston. Brazos County is a Republican stronghold, with no Democrat carrying the county since Texas native Lyndon Johnson in his 1964 landslide. Bryan College Station Navasota Wixon Valley Kurten Millican Lake Bryan Benchley Wellborn Boonville Zack National Register of Historic Places listings in Brazos County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Brazos County Brazos County government Brazos County AgriLife Extension office Brazos County Attorney's Office Brazos County, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Brazos County from the Texas Almanac Brazos County from the TXGenWeb Project Historic Brazos County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Waller County, Texas
Waller County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,205, its county seat is Hempstead. The county was named for Edwin Waller, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence and first mayor of Austin. Waller County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Although a majority-white county, it is home of the HBCU Prairie View A&M University. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 518 square miles, of which 513 square miles are land and 4.4 square miles are covered by water. Grimes County Montgomery County Harris County Fort Bend County Austin County Washington County As of the 2000 Census, 32,663 people, 10,557 households, 7,748 families resided in the county; the population density was 64 people per square mile. The 11,955 housing units averaged 23 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 57.83% White, 29.25% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 10.28% from other races, 1.76% from two or more races.
About 19.42% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 10,557 households, 35.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 13.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were not families. About 21.00% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.25. In the county, the population was distributed as 25.70% under the age of 18, 18.10% from 18 to 24, 26.40% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 9.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,136, for a family was $45,868. Males had a median income of $34,447 versus $25,583 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,338. About 11.50% of families and 16.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.00% of those under age 18 and 12.30% of those age 65 or over.
Igloo Corporation, a manufacturer of cooling and portable refrigeration products, is headquartered in unincorporated Waller County between Brookshire and Katy. In 2004, Igloo announced that it was consolidating its corporate and manufacturing operations in Waller County. Goya Foods has its Texas offices in an unincorporated area of the county near Brookshire. District 18: Lois Kolkhorst - first elected in 2014. District 28: John Zerwas - first elected in 2006. A history of controversies exists regarding the reluctance of county officials to allow students attending black Prairie View A&M University to vote in Waller County; as reported by the US District Court in Veasey v Perry, October 2014, pp 6–7 verbatim: In 1971, after the 26th Amendment extended the vote to those 18 years old and older, Waller County, home to Prairie View A&M University, a Black university, became troubled with race issues. Waller County's tax assessor and voter registrar prohibited students from voting unless they or their families owned property in the county.
This practice was ended by a three-judge court in 1979. In 1992, a county prosecutor indicted PVAMU students for illegally voting, but dropped the charges after receiving a protest from the DOJ. In 2003, a PVAMU student ran for the commissioner's court; the local district attorney and county attorney threatened to prosecute students for voter fraud—for not meeting the old domicile test. These threatened prosecutions were enjoined, but Waller County reduced early voting hours, harmful to students because the election day was during their spring break. After the NAACP filed suit, Waller County reversed the changes to early voting and the student narrowly won the election. In 2007-08, during Senator Barack Obama's campaign for president, Waller County made a number of voting changes without seeking clearance; the county rejected “incomplete” voter registrations and required volunteer deputy registrars to find and notify the voters of the rejection. The county limited the number of new registrations any VDR could submit, thus limiting the success of voter registration drives.
These practices were prohibited by a consent decree. In 2018, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund filed a lawsuit a U. S. district court, alleging that the county's early-voting plan unduly limits early voting opportunities for students at Prairie View A&M. On October 10, Jacob Aronowitz, a field director for Democratic U. S. House candidate Mike Siegel, delivered a letter from Siegel, which indicated a solution to attempts to keep students at Prairie View A&M University from voting, to a clerk on the county executive's staff; as a result, Aronowitz was arrested for what he was told was "48 hour investigative detention". It appears. School districts serving Waller County include: Hempstead Independent School District Royal Independent School District Katy Independent School District Waller Independent School District Brazos Valley Sudbury School was in operation in Waller County. Prairie View A&M University is the only university located within the county. Interstate 10 U. S. Highway 90 U. S. Highway 290 State Highway 6The TTC-69 component of the onc
The Brazos River, called the Río de los Brazos de Dios by early Spanish explorers, is the 11th-longest river in the United States at 1,280 miles from its headwater source at the head of Blackwater Draw, Curry County, New Mexico to its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico with a 45,000-square-mile drainage basin. Being one of Texas' largest rivers, it is sometimes used to mark the boundary between East Texas and West Texas; the river is associated with Texas history the Austin settlement and Texas Revolution eras. Today major Texas institutions like Texas A&M University and Baylor University are located close to the river, as are parts of metropolitan Houston; the Brazos proper begins at the confluence of the Salt Fork and Double Mountain Fork, two tributaries of the Upper Brazos that rise on the high plains of the Llano Estacado, flowing 840 miles southeast through the center of Texas. Another major tributary of the Upper Brazos is the Clear Fork Brazos River, which passes by Abilene and joins the main river near Graham.
Important tributaries of the Lower Brazos include the Paluxy River, the Bosque River, the Little River, Yegua Creek, the Nolan River, the Leon River, the San Gabriel River, the Lampasas River, the Navasota River. Running east towards Dallas-Fort Worth, the Brazos turns south, passing through Waco and the Baylor University campus, further south to near Calvert, Texas past Bryan and College Station through Richmond, Texas in Fort Bend County, empties into the Gulf of Mexico in the marshes just south of Freeport; the main stem of the Brazos is dammed in three places, all north of Waco, forming Possum Kingdom Lake, Lake Granbury, Lake Whitney. Of these three, Granbury was the last to be completed, in 1969; when its construction was proposed in the mid-1950s, John Graves wrote the book Goodbye to a River. The Whitney Dam, located on the upper Brazos, provides hydroelectric power, flood control, irrigation to enable efficient cotton growth in the river valley. A small municipal dam is near the downstream city limit of Waco at the end of the Baylor campus.
This impoundment of the Brazos through Waco is locally called Lake Brazos. A total of nineteen major reservoirs are located along the Brazos. In 1822, the lower river valley of the Brazos River became one of the major Anglo-American settlement sites in Texas; this was one of the first English-speaking colonies along the Brazos and was founded by Stephen F. Austin at San Felipe de Austin. In 1836, Texas declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos, a settlement in now Washington County, known as "the birthplace of Texas". Brazos River was the scene of a battle between the Texas Navy and Mexican Navy during the Texas Revolution. Texas Navy ship, it is unclear when it was first named by European explorers, since it was confused with the Colorado River not far to the south, but it was seen by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle. Spanish accounts call it Los Brazos de Dios, for which name there were several different explanations, all involving it being the first water to be found by thirsty parties.
In 1842, Indian commissioner of Texas, Ethan Stroud established a trading post on this river. The river was important for navigation before and after the American Civil War, steam boats sailed as far up the river as Washington-on-the-Brazos. While attempts to improve commercial navigation on the river continued, railroads proved more reliable; the Brazos River flooded seriously, on a regular basis before a piecemeal levee system was replaced, notably in 1913 when a massive flood affected the course of the river. The river is important today as a source of water for power and recreation; the water is administered by the Brazos River Authority. The 2000 book and Sternwheelers: Steam Navigation on the Brazos by Pamela A. Puryear and Nath Winfield, Jr. with introduction by J. Milton Nance, examines the early vessels that attempted to navigate the Brazos. On June 2, 2016, the rising of the river required evacuations for portions of Brazoria County; the Brazos River watershed covers a total area of 119,174 square kilometers.
Within the watershed lie 42 lakes and rivers which have a combined storage capacity of 2.5 million acre-feet. The Brazos watershed has an estimated ground water availability of 119,275 acre-feet per year. 31% of the land use within the watershed is cropland. 61% is grassland shrubland and forest while urban use only makes up 4.6%. The population density within the watershed is 19.5 people per square kilometer. The main water quality issues within the Brazos Watershed are high nutrient loads, high bacterial and salinity levels and low dissolved oxygen; these water quality issues can be attributed to livestock and chemical run off. Sources of run off are croplands and industrial sites among others. Fracking is cause for concern regarding water quality within the Brazos Watershed; the Barnett Shale lies within the watershed, the second largest source of natural gas in the US. Studies have shown that the watershed receiving the most toxic pollution is the lower Brazos river which received 33.4 million pounds of toxic waste in 2012.
Canoeing is a popular recreational activity on the Brazos River with many locations favorable for launching and recovery. The best paddling can be found below Possum Kingdom Lake and Lake Granbury. Sandbar Camping is permitted since the entire streambed of t
Burleson County, Texas
Burleson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,187, its county seat is Caldwell. The county is named for a general and statesman of the Texas Revolution. Burleson County is part of TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. From 1975 to 1995, the Burleson county judge, who presides over the commissioner's court, were the son and father team of Mark Steglich Caperton, a Caldwell attorney, Woods Allen Caperton. Mark Caperton was the judge from 1975 to 1983 and was succeeded by his father, a former agent of the United States Soil Conservation Service. Woods Caperton served seventeen years as a member of the Caldwell Independent School District and was a member too of the Burleson County Hospital District. During his time on each board, a new high school and hospital were begun. Woods Caperton was chairman of the Brazos Valley Development Council and the Brazos Valley Mental Health Mental Retardation Center, he founded the Caldwell Cub Scouts and was instrumental in the development of the Caldwell Little League.
Another son, Kent Caperton, served from 1981 to 1991 as the District 5 state senator. Kent Caperton of Bryan, is a lobbyist and lawyer in Austin. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 677 square miles, of which 659 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. State Highway 21 State Highway 36 Robertson County Brazos County Washington County Lee County Milam County As of the census of 2000, there were 16,470 people, 6,363 households, 4,574 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 8,197 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.07% White, 15.06% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 8.25% from other races, 1.92% from two or more races. 14.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.8% were of German, 11.3% American, 10.7% Czech and 6.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 6,363 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.40% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families.
24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,026, the median income for a family was $39,385. Males had a median income of $28,795 versus $20,146 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,616. About 13.20% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.90% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. Caldwell Snook Somerville National Register of Historic Places listings in Burleson County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Burleson County Burleson County official website Burleson County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas.
History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Bastrop, Travis and Burleson counties, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Texas's 10th congressional district
Texas District 10 of the United States House of Representatives is a congressional district that serves the northwestern portion of the Greater Houston region stretching to the Austin area of Texas. The current representative is Michael McCaul. For most of the time from 1903 to 2005, the 10th was centered on Austin, it included large portions of the Texas Hill Country. Future President Lyndon Johnson represented this district from 1937 to 1949. During the second half of the 20th century, Austin's dramatic growth resulted in the district becoming more compact over the years. By the 1990s, it was reduced to little more than Austin itself and surrounding suburbs in Travis County. However, in a mid-decade redistricting conducted in 2003, the 10th was altered, it lost much of the southern portion of its territory. To make up for the loss in population, it was extended all the way to the outer fringes of Houston. On paper, the new district was Republican. Five-term Democratic incumbent Lloyd Doggett was forced to transfer to another district.
McCaul won the open seat in 2004, has held it since. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present