Quakertown is a borough in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in the USA. As of 2016, it had a population of 8,798; the borough is 15 miles south of Allentown and Bethlehem and 47 miles north of Philadelphia, making Quakertown a border town of both the Delaware Valley and Lehigh Valley metropolitan areas. It is considered part of the United States Census Bureau's Philadelphia−Camden−Wilmington MSA and the Delaware Valley. Quakertown is surrounded by Richland Township. Quakertown was settled by members of the Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers; the settlement was not known as Quakertown until its first post office opened in 1803. On September 18, 1777, during the American Revolutionary War, a convoy of wagons carrying the Liberty Bell from Philadelphia to Allentown, under the command of Col. Thomas Polk of Charlotte, North Carolina, stopped in Quakertown; the Liberty Bell was stored overnight behind the home of Evan Foulke, the entourage stayed at the Red Lion Inn. The John Fries' Rebellion was started in the Red Lion Inn in 1799.
In 1854, Quakertown elected its first Burgess. The North Pennsylvania Railroad caused a great increase in population, by 1880, the population of Quakertown had reached 1,800. Liberty Hall, Quakertown Historic District, Quakertown Passenger and Freight Station, Enoch Roberts House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the American Civil War along with national economic expansion changed Quakertown from a tiny village to a commercial manufacturing center. In the nineteenth century, local industrial establishments included cigar and cigar box factories, silk mills, harness factories, stove foundries; until 1969, Quakertown generated its own electrical power. The population of Quakertown in 1900 was 3,014. By 1940, the population had reached 5,150 people. At the 2010 census, the borough's population was 8,979. Today, Quakertown has several restaurants and businesses that line Pennsylvania Route 309. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land.
Licking Run begins in passes through Quakertown from the west to the east and drains into the Tohickon Creek. Tohickon Creek, which drains into the Delaware River, flows past the northeastern edge of the borough. Quakertown is in hardiness zone 6b; as of the census of 2010, there were 8,979 people residing in the borough. The racial makeup of the borough was 90.6% White, 2.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.0% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,931 people, 3,421 households, 2,251 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,424.7 people per square mile. There were 3,631 housing units at an average density of 1,798.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 94.46% White, 1.20% African American, 0.13% Native American, 1.51% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.58% from other races, 1.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.88% of the population.
There were 3,421 households, out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.11. In the borough the population was spread out, with 25.5% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $41,942, the median income for a family was $51,194. Males had a median income of $33,697 versus $26,988 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $20,562. About 3.7% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.0% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over.
Quakertown has a council-manager system of government. The borough has a seven-member Borough Council elected at-large to four-year terms; the council appoints a Borough Manager. As of 2017, the members of Borough Council are President L. James Roberts Jr. Vice President Donald E. Rosenberger, Jon Roth, Michael Johnson, Douglas Propst, Lisa J. Gaier, Esq. and Jann Paulovitz. State Representative Craig Staats, Pennsylvania House of Representatives, District 145 State Senator Bob Mensch, Pennsylvania Senate, District 24 US Representative Brian Fitzpatrick, Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district Police services in the borough is provided 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by the Quakertown Borough Police Department, which consists of a Chief, Detective Lieutenant, Administrative Sergeant, two Patrol Sergeants, two Detectives, twelve Patrol Officers, three support staff. Fire protection in Quakertown and surrounding areas is provided by the Quakertown Fire Department, a volunteer fire department which operates the Quakertown Fire Company #1-Station 17 on West Broad Street and the West End Fire Company-Station 18 on Park Avenue.
Quakertown is directly served by four state highways. PA 309 passes through the western part of Quakertown as West End Boulevard and runs north to Allentown and south to Montgomeryville and Philadelphia. PA 313 begins at PA 309 in Quakertown and passes through the t
Penndel is a borough in Bucks County, United States. The population was 2,328 at the 2010 census. Penndel is located at 40°9′22″N 74°54′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all of it land. In 2014, the borough was estimated to be 72.4% Non-Hispanic White, 15.3% Black or African American, 2.3% Asian, 2.1% none of the former, 2.6% were two or more races. 11.8% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the 2010 census, the borough was 81.9% Non-Hispanic White, 8.6% Black or African American, 2.7% Asian, 3.2% were two or more races. 4.3% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,420 people, 900 households, 549 families residing in the borough; the population density was 5,541.5 people per square mile. There were 927 housing units at an average density of 2,122.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 91.98% White, 3.02% African American, 0.12% Native American, 3.26% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, 0.91% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.94% of the population. There were 900 households, out of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.0% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.11. In the borough the population was spread out, with 21.4% under the age of 18, 17.9% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 90.4 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 84.4 men. The median income for a household in the borough was $36,296, the median income for a family was $46,336. Males had a median income of $33,813 versus $29,911 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $17,897. About 2.4% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 1.6% of those age 65 or over.
Penndel Borough, although small, is rich in history. The area inhabited by the Lenape Indians, was settled by Thomas Langhorne, an English Quaker preacher, by Henry Paulin, a Quaker Yeoman, on land grants from William Penn. Penndel remained a farming region until 1876 when the Philadelphia Reading Railroad began service, the Langhorne train station was established. Individual homes and small businesses were built within close proximity to the railroad, the town expanded from there, it began as the Eden Post Office, was incorporated as the borough of Attleboro in 1899. Today Penndel has both a thriving industrial district and residential areas with both new and significant homes. Penndel lies within the Neshaminy School District. Students attend Herbert Hoover Elementary School for grades K-4, Maple Point Middle School for grades 5-8, Neshaminy High School for grades 9-12. George Bruce. Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles.. Borough of Penndel
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Bucks County, Pennsylvania
Bucks County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 625,249, making it the fourth-most populous county in Pennsylvania and the 99th-most populous county in the United States; the county seat is Doylestown. The county is named after the English county of Buckinghamshire or more its shortname. Bucks County constitutes part of the northern boundary of the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, more known as the Delaware Valley, it is located northeast of Philadelphia and forms part of the southern tip of the eastern state border. Bucks County is one of the three original counties created by colonial proprietor William Penn in 1682. Penn named the county after Buckinghamshire, the county, he built a country estate called Pennsbury Manor in Bucks County. Some places in Bucks County were named after locations in Buckinghamshire, including Buckingham Township, named after the county town of Buckinghamshire.
Bucks County was much larger than it is today. Northampton County was formed in 1752 from part of Bucks County, Lehigh County was formed in 1812 from part of Northampton County. General George Washington and his troops camped in Bucks County as they prepared to cross the Delaware River to take Trenton, New Jersey, by surprise on the morning of December 26, 1776, their successful attack on Britain's Hessian forces was a turning point in the American War of Independence. The town of Washington Crossing and Washington Crossing Historic Park were named to commemorate the event. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 622 square miles, of which 604 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water; the southern third of the county between Philadelphia and Trenton, New Jersey called Lower Bucks, resides in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, is flat and near sea level, the county's most populated and industrialized area. Bucks County shares a western border with Montgomery County, borders Philadelphia to the southwest, Northampton and Lehigh Counties to the north.
From north to south, it is linked to Warren, Hunterdon and Burlington Counties in New Jersey by bridges. Tohickon Creek and Neshaminy Creek are the largest tributaries of the Delaware in Bucks County. Tohickon Creek empties into the river at Point Neshaminy at Croydon. Lehigh County Northampton County Warren County, New Jersey Hunterdon County, New Jersey Mercer County, New Jersey Burlington County, New Jersey Philadelphia County Montgomery County Relatively speaking, Bucks County experiences warm/hot and humid summers with chilly/cold and somewhat snowy winters. Episodes of high humidity occur every year during or close to the summer months occasionally reaching extreme levels; when high humidity combines with air temperatures in the mid-upper 90's, dangerous heat index values of >= 105 °F can sometimes result. Winter minimum air temperatures fall into the single digits to below 0 °F; when the coldest temperatures combine with higher winds, wind chill values can sometimes plummet below 0 °F to as cold as -20 °F. Spring and fall are comparatively tranquil.
The climate cools as one moves from the lower elevation, dense suburban areas in southern Bucks County, to the higher elevation, rural areas of northern Bucks. Precipitation is well-distributed throughout the year; the average seasonal snowfall, which can occur from as early as October to as late as April, is around 2 feet in extreme southern Bucks, around 3 feet in the highest elevations of far northern Bucks. The fall foliage season peaks in mid-October in northern Bucks, mid-late October in central Bucks, late-October/early-November in southern Bucks; these dates correlate with the typical date of first freeze. Peak spring foliage occurs during the month of April, which correlates with the typical date of last freeze. Bucks County has four distinct seasons and has a hot-summer humid continental climate except for some far southern lowlands including Bristol which have a humid subtropical climate; the hardiness zones are 7a. Monthly climatic averages for Quakertown, upper Bucks County, PA. Monthly climatic averages for Doylestown, central Bucks County, PA.
Monthly climatic averages for Bristol, lower Bucks County, PA. As of the 2010 census, there were 625,249 people; the population density was 1,034.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.6% White non-Hispanic, 3.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 4.1% Asian 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.7% were of two or more races, 1.5% were of other races. 4.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 218,725 households, 160,981 families residing in the county. There were 225,498 housing units at an average density of 371 per square mile. 20.1 % were of 19.1 % Irish, 14.0 % Italian, 7.5 % English and 5.9 % Polish ancestry. There were 218,725 households, out of which 35.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.20% were married coup
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
In the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a borough is a self-governing municipal entity, best thought of as a town smaller than a city, but with a similar population density in its residential areas. Sometimes thought of as "junior cities", boroughs have fewer powers and responsibilities than full-fledged cities. Boroughs tend to have more developed business districts and concentrations of public and commercial office buildings, including court houses. Both are larger, less spacious, more developed than the rural townships, which have the greater territory and surround boroughs of a related or the same name. There are 56 cities in Pennsylvania, but only one town, the town of Bloomsburg. All municipalities in Pennsylvania are classified as boroughs, or townships; the only exception is the town of Bloomsburg, recognized by state government as the only incorporated town in Pennsylvania and uses the distinction in its promotion. Many home rule municipalities remain classified as boroughs or townships for certain purposes if the state's Borough and Township Codes no longer apply to them.
Borough List of towns and boroughs in Pennsylvania Category:Self-governance References Sources
Doylestown is a borough and the county seat of Bucks County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. It is located 35 miles north of 80 miles southwest of New York City; as of the 2010 census, the borough population was 8,380. Doylestown's origins date to 1745 when William Doyle obtained a license to build a tavern on what is now the northwest corner of Main and State Street. Known for years as "William Doyle's Tavern," its strategic location — at the intersection of the road linking Swede's Ford and Coryell's Ferry and the road linking Philadelphia and Easton — allowed the hamlet to blossom into a village; the first church was erected in 1815, followed by a succession of congregations throughout the 19th century. As the population of Central and Upper Bucks County grew throughout the 18th and into the 19th century, discontent developed with the county seat's location in Newtown, where it had been since 1725; the county seat moved north to the more centrally located Doylestown in 1813. An outgrowth of Doylestown's new courthouse was the development of "lawyers row", a collection of Federal-style offices.
One positive consequence of early 19th-century investment in the new county seat was organized fire protection, which began in 1825 with the Doylestown Fire Engine Company. In 1838 the Borough of Doylestown was incorporated. An electric telegraph station was built in 1846, in 1856 the North Pennsylvania Railroad completed a branch to Doylestown; the first gas lights were introduced in 1854. Because of the town's high elevation and a lack of strong water power, substantial industrial development never occurred and Doylestown evolved to have a professional and residential character. During the mid-19th century, several large tracts located east of the courthouse area were subdivided into neighborhoods; the next significant wave of development occurred after the Civil War, when the 30-acre Magill property to the southwest of the town's core was subdivided for residential lots. In 1869 Doylestown established; the first telephone line arrived in 1878, the same year. 1897 saw the first of several trolley lines connecting Doylestown with Willow Grove and Easton.
A private sewer system and treatment plant were authorized in 1903. The Borough took over and expanded sewer service to about three-quarters of the town in 1921. In the early 20th century, Doylestown became best known to the outside world through the "Tools of the Nation-Maker" museum of the Bucks County Historical Society. Henry Chapman Mercer constructed the reinforced concrete building in 1916 to house his collection of mechanical tools and utensils. Upon his death in 1930, Mercer left his constructed home Fonthill and adjacent Moravian Pottery and Tile Works, to be operated as a museum; the home was left on the condition that his housekeeper be allowed to live there for the rest of her life. She gave tours until the mid-1970s. In 1916, Doylestown Country Club was established and still operates a private golf course and caddy program. By 1931, the advent of the automobile and improved highway service had put the last trolley line out of business, Doylestonians were forced to embrace the automobile as the primary means of travel within the region.
The Great Depression took its toll, as many grand old houses constructed a century earlier fell into disrepair. During the 1930s, the Borough expanded its land area to the north by admission of the tract known as the Doylestown Annex. In the decade following World War II, Doylestown's business community boomed. During the 1940s, streets were paved for the first time in two decades and parking meters were introduced downtown in 1948. However, the Borough's post-war housing boom did not begin in earnest until the 1950s, when 550 new homes were built; this housing boom continued into the 1960s and 1970s, as more than 1,600 new homes were built during those decades and the Borough's population grew from 5,917 in 1960 to 8,717 in 1980. As with many small towns across the country, the growth of the post-war decades brought a new competitor to the downtown business district—the shopping mall. By the 1960s, the toll could be seen in Doylestown by the numerous vacant buildings and dilapidated storefronts in the center of town.
The Bucks County Redevelopment Authority responded with a federal urban renewal scheme that called for the demolition of 27 historic buildings. The local business community objected to such wholesale clearance and responded with its own plan called Operation'64, the Doylestown Plan for Self-Help Downtown Renewal; this private initiative was successful in saving Doylestown's old buildings and historic character, while improving business at the same time. One historic landmark that could not be saved was the 80-year-old courthouse and clock tower, replaced by the present county complex in the early 1960s. By the end of the 1980s, the downtown business district was again showing the toll of massive new competition from the latest wave of suburban shopping centers, as well as the recession that hit hardest in the northeastern states. In response, the Borough Council established a volunteer group of civic-minded representatives from business organizations and the residential community to begin formulating plans for the downtown area in 1992.
This effort resulted in streetscape improvements composed of cast iron street lamps and brick pavers, facade improvements and other beautification efforts, the establishment of a Main Street Manager Program. As the 1990s progressed, the downtown area rebuilt itself by turning to an out-of-town audience. Doylestown had long been respected as a bucolic tourist destination; the gent