Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Awards 2016
The 15th Washington D. C. Area Film Critics Association Awards were announced on December 5, 2016. Best Film La La LandArrival Hell or High Water Manchester by the Sea MoonlightBest Director Damien Chazelle – La La LandBarry Jenkins – Moonlight Kenneth Lonergan – Manchester by the Sea David Mackenzie – Hell or High Water Denis Villeneuve – ArrivalBest Actor Casey Affleck – Manchester by the SeaJoel Edgerton – Loving Andrew Garfield – Hacksaw Ridge Ryan Gosling – La La Land Denzel Washington – FencesBest Actress Natalie Portman – JackieAmy Adams – Arrival Annette Bening – 20th Century Women Ruth Negga – Loving Emma Stone – La La LandBest Supporting Actor Mahershala Ali – MoonlightJeff Bridges – Hell or High Water Ben Foster – Hell or High Water Lucas Hedges – Manchester by the Sea Michael Shannon – Nocturnal AnimalsBest Supporting Actress Viola Davis – FencesGreta Gerwig – 20th Century Women Naomie Harris – Moonlight Molly Shannon – Other People Michelle Williams – Manchester by the SeaBest Adapted Screenplay Eric Heisserer – ArrivalLuke Davies – Lion Tom Ford – Nocturnal Animals Patrick Ness – A Monster Calls August Wilson – FencesBest Original Screenplay Damien Chazelle – La La LandBarry Jenkins and Tarell Alvin McCraney – Moonlight Yorgos Lanthimos and Efthimis Filippou – The Lobster Kenneth Lonergan – Manchester by the Sea Taylor Sheridan – Hell or High WaterBest Ensemble Hell or High Water20th Century Women Fences Manchester by the Sea MoonlightBest Animated Film Kubo and the Two StringsFinding Dory Moana Sausage Party ZootopiaBest Documentary Film 13thGleason I Am Not Your Negro O.
J.: Made in America WeinerBest Foreign Language Film Elle • FranceThe Handmaiden • South Korea Julieta • Spain The Salesman • France / Iran Toni Erdmann • Austria / GermanyBest Art Direction David Wasco and Sandy Reynolds-Wasco – La La LandStuart Craig and Anna Pinnock – Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them Paul Hotte and Patrice Vermette – Arrival Craig Lathrop – The Witch Véronique Melery and Jean Rabasse – JackieBest Cinematography Linus Sandgren – La La LandStéphane Fontaine – Jackie James Laxton – Moonlight Seamus McGarvey – Nocturnal Animals Bradford Young – ArrivalBest Editing Tom Cross – La La LandJoi McMillon and Nat Sanders – Moonlight Blu Murray – Sully Sebastián Sepúlveda – Jackie Joe Walker – ArrivalBest Original Score Justin Hurwitz – La La LandNicholas Britell – Moonlight Jóhann Jóhannsson – Arrival Mica Levi – Jackie Cliff Martinez – The Neon DemonBest Youth Performance Lucas Hedges – Manchester by the SeaLewis MacDougall – A Monster Calls Sunny Pawar – Lion Hailee Steinfeld – The Edge of Seventeen Anya Taylor-Joy – The WitchBest Animated Voice Performance Liam Neeson – A Monster CallsJason Bateman – Zootopia Auliʻi Cravalho – Moana Ellen DeGeneres – Finding Dory Ginnifer Goodwin – ZootopiaBest Motion Capture Performance Mark Rylance – The BFGLiam Neeson – A Monster CallsThe Joe Barber Award for Best Portrayal of Washington, D.
C. JackieJason Bourne Loving Miss Sloane Snowden The Washington D. C. Area Film Critics Association
Inception is a 2010 science fiction action film written, co-produced, directed by Christopher Nolan, co-produced by Emma Thomas. The film stars Leonardo DiCaprio as a professional thief who steals information by infiltrating the subconscious, is offered a chance to have his criminal history erased as payment for the implantation of another person's idea into a target's subconscious; the ensemble cast additionally includes Ken Watanabe, Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Marion Cotillard, Ellen Page, Tom Hardy, Dileep Rao, Cillian Murphy, Tom Berenger, Michael Caine. After the 2002 completion of Insomnia, Nolan presented to Warner Bros. A written 80-page treatment about a horror film envisioning "dream stealers" based on lucid dreaming. Deciding he needed more experience before tackling a production of this magnitude and complexity, Nolan retired the project and instead worked on 2005's Batman Begins, 2006's The Prestige, The Dark Knight in 2008; the treatment was revised over 6 months and was purchased by Warner in February 2009.
Inception was filmed in six countries, beginning in Tokyo on June 19 and ending in Canada on November 22. Its official budget was split between Warner Bros and Legendary. Nolan's reputation and success with The Dark Knight helped secure the film's US$100 million in advertising expenditure. Inception's première was held in London on July 8, 2010. Inception grossed over US$828 million worldwide, becoming the fourth highest-grossing film of 2010; the home video market had strong results, with US$68 million in DVD and Blu-ray sales. Inception opened to acclaim from critics, who praised its screenplay, visual effects and ensemble cast, it won four Academy Awards for Best Cinematography, Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing, Best Visual Effects, was nominated for four more: Best Picture, Best Original Screenplay, Best Art Direction, Best Original Score. Dominick "Dom" Cobb and Arthur are "extractors", who perform corporate espionage using an experimental military technology to infiltrate the subconscious of their targets and extract valuable information through a shared dream world.
Their latest target, Japanese businessman Saito, reveals that he arranged their mission himself to test Cobb for a impossible job: planting an idea in a person's subconscious, or "inception". To break up the energy conglomerate of ailing competitor Maurice Fischer, Saito wants Cobb to convince Fischer's son and heir, Robert, to dissolve his father's company. In return, Saito promises to use his influence once the job is done to clear Cobb of a still unspecified obstacle preventing him from returning home to his children. Cobb assembles his team: Eames, a conman and identity forger. While dream-sharing with Cobb, Ariadne learns his subconscious houses an invasive projection of his late wife Mal; when the elder Fischer dies in Sydney, Robert Fischer accompanies the body on a ten-hour flight back to Los Angeles, which the team uses as an opportunity to sedate and take Fischer into a shared dream. At each dream level, the person generating the dream stays behind to set up a "kick" that will be used to awaken the other sleeping team members from the deeper dream level.
The first level is Yusuf's dream of a rainy Los Angeles. The team abducts Fischer, but they are attacked by armed projections from Fischer's subconscious, trained to defend him against such intruders; the team takes Fischer and a wounded Saito to a warehouse, where Cobb reveals that while dying in the dream would wake Saito up, the powerful sedatives needed to stabilize the multi-level dream will instead send a dying dreamer into "limbo", a world of infinite subconscious from which escape is difficult, if not impossible, in which a dreamer risks forgetting they are in a dream. Despite these setbacks, the team continues with the mission. Eames impersonates Fischer's godfather, Peter Browning, to suggest Fischer reconsider his father's will. Yusuf drives the van. In the second level, a hotel dreamed by Arthur, Cobb persuades Fischer that he has been kidnapped by Browning and Cobb is his subconscious protector. Cobb persuades him to go down another level to explore Browning's subconscious; the third level is a fortified hospital on a snowy mountain dreamed by Eames.
The team has to infiltrate it and hold off the guards as Saito takes Fischer into the equivalent of his subconscious. Yusuf, under pursuit by Fischer's projections in the first level, deliberately drives off a bridge and initiates his kick too soon; this causes an avalanche in Eames' level and removes the gravity of Arthur's level, forcing him to improvise a new kick synchronized with the van hitting the water. Mal's projection kills Fischer. Cobb and Ariadne enter Limbo to rescue Fischer and Saito, while Eames sets up a kick by rigging the hospital with explosives. Cobb reveals to Ariadne that he and Mal went to Limbo while experimenting with the dream-sharing technology. Sedated for a few hours of real time, they spent fifty years in a dream constructing a world from their shared memories; when Mal refused to retu
No Country for Old Men (film)
No Country for Old Men is a 2007 American neo-Western crime thriller film written and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, based on Cormac McCarthy's 2005 novel of the same name. A cat and mouse thriller starring Tommy Lee Jones, Javier Bardem, Josh Brolin, it follows a Texas welder and Vietnam War veteran in the desert landscape of 1980 West Texas; the film revisits the themes of fate and circumstance that the Coen brothers had explored in the films Blood Simple and Fargo. No Country for Old Men premiered in competition at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival on May 19; the film won 76 awards on 109 nominations across multiple organizations. The American Film Institute listed it as an AFI Movie of the Year, the National Board of Review selected the film as the best of 2007. More critics included No Country for Old Men on their 2007 top ten lists than any other film, many regard it as the Coen brothers' best film; as of February 2018, various sources had recognized it as one of the best films of its decade and still one of the best films of the 2000s.
The Guardian's John Patterson wrote: "the Coens' technical abilities, their feel for a landscape-based Western classicism reminiscent of Anthony Mann and Sam Peckinpah, are matched by few living directors", Peter Travers of Rolling Stone said that it is "a new career peak for the Coen brothers" and "as entertaining as hell". In 2016, it was voted the 10th best film of the 21st century as picked by 177 film critics from around the world. In Texas, 1980, hitman Anton Chigurh strangles a deputy sheriff with the handcuffs he is in to escape custody and uses a captive bolt pistol to kill a driver and steal his car, he spares the life of a gas station owner who guesses the result of a coin Chigurh flipped, revealing Chigurh's modus operandi: killing those who cannot guess his coin flip. Poaching pronghorns in the desert, Llewelyn Moss comes across the aftermath of a drug deal gone bad, he finds several dead men and dogs, a wounded Mexican man begging for water, two million dollars in a briefcase.
He takes the money and returns home. That night, Moss returns to the scene with water, he is pursued by two men in escapes. At home, he sends his wife, Carla Jean, to stay with her mother drives to a motel in Del Rio, where he hides the case in his room's air conditioning duct. Chigurh, hired to recover the money, arrives to search Moss's home, where he uses his bolt pistol to blow the lock out of the door. Investigating the break in, Terrell County Sheriff Ed Tom Bell observes the blown-out lock. Following an electronic tracking device hidden in the money, Chigurh goes to Moss's motel room and kills a group of Mexicans who are waiting to ambush Moss. Moss has rented a second room adjacent to the Mexicans' room with access to the duct where the money is hidden, he retrieves the briefcase just before Chigurh finds it empty. Moving to a hotel in the border town of Eagle Pass, Moss discovers the tracking device, but Chigurh has found him, their firefight spills onto the streets, killing a civilian, both are wounded.
Moss flees across to Mexico. Finding Moss injured, a passing norteño band takes him to a hospital. Carson Wells, another hired operative, fails to persuade Moss to accept protection in return for the money. Chigurh stitches his own wounds with stolen supplies and sneaks up on Wells at his hotel. After Wells unsuccessfully attempts to barter for his life, Chigurh kills him in his hotel room. Moss telephones the room and Chigurh answers, who promises to kill Carla Jean unless Moss gives up the money. Moss retrieves the case from the bank of the Rio Grande and arranges to meet Carla Jean at a motel in El Paso, where he plans to give her the money and hide her from danger. Carla Jean is approached by Sheriff Bell. Carla Jean's mother unwittingly reveals Moss' location to a group of Mexicans, tailing them. Bell reaches the motel rendezvous at El Paso, only to hear gunshots and spot a pickup truck speeding from the motel; as Bell enters the parking lot, he sees Moss lying dead. When Carla Jean arrives, she chokes up upon discovering.
That night, Bell finds the lock blown out. Chigurh hides behind the door after retrieving the money. Bell sees that the vent has been removed. Bell visits his uncle Ellis, an ex-lawman, tells him he plans to retire because he feels "over-matched". Ellis clarifies. Weeks Carla Jean returns from her mother's funeral to find Chigurh waiting in her bedroom, as per his threat to Moss, she refuses his offer of a coin toss for her life, stating that he cannot pass blame to luck: the choice is his. Chigurh checks his boots for blood; as he drives through the neighborhood, a car crashes into his at an intersection and Chigurh is injured. He bribes two young witnesses for their silence and flees. Now retired, Bell shares two dreams with his wife. In the first, he lost some money. In the other, he and his father were riding through a snowy mountain pass; the role of Llewelyn Moss was offered to Heath Ledger, but he turned it down to spend time with his newborn daughter Matilda. Garret Dillahunt was in the running for the role of Llewelyn Moss, auditioning five times for the role, but instead was offered the part
Capote is a 2005 biographical film about Truman Capote directed by Bennett Miller. It follows the events during the writing of Capote's non-fiction book In Cold Blood. Philip Seymour Hoffman won several awards, including the Academy Award for Best Actor, for his critically acclaimed portrayal of the title character; the film was based on Gerald Clarke's biography Capote. It was filmed in Manitoba in the autumn of 2004, it was released September 2005, to coincide with Truman Capote's birthday. In 1959, the four dead bodies of the Clutter family are discovered on their Kansas farm. While reading The New York Times, Truman Capote is riveted by the story and calls The New Yorker magazine editor William Shawn to tell him that he plans to document the tragedy. Capote travels to Kansas, he intends to interview those involved with the Clutter family, with Lee as his go-between and facilitator. Alvin Dewey, the Kansas Bureau of Investigation's lead detective on the case, brushes him off, but Dewey's wife Marie is a fan of Capote's writing and persuades her husband to invite Capote and Lee to their house for dinner.
Capote's stories of movie sets and film stars captivate Marie. Over time, her husband allows him to view the photographs of the victims; the Deweys and Capote are having dinner when the murder suspects, Perry Smith and Richard "Dick" Hickock, are caught. Flattery, a keen insight into the human condition facilitate Capote's visits to the prison where the accused are held. Capote begins to form an attachment to Smith, he informs Shawn of his intent to expand the story into a full-length book. Following the trial and conviction, Capote gains continued access to the murderers by bribing Warden Marshall Krutch. Capote spends the following years visiting Smith and learning about his life, excepting a year-long stint when he goes to Morocco and Spain to write the "first three parts" of the book, accompanied by his romantic partner Jack Dunphy; the story of Smith's life, his remorseful manner, his emotional sincerity impress Capote, who becomes attached to him despite the gruesome murders. Capote aids Hickock by obtaining expert legal counsel for them and initiating an appeal.
Still he is frustrated, as Smith declines to relate what happened on the night of the murders. Though an effort to provide proper representation and extend Capote's opportunity to speak with the killers, the appeals process drags on for several years. Without the court case being resolved, Capote feels he is stuck with a story without an ending, he is unable to complete his book, he gets Smith to describe the killings and his thoughts at the time in great detail. He has what he wants from Smith, but in the process he sees a callousness and selfishness in his own actions. Now with everything in hand, Capote still must wait for the appeals process to conclude before he feels he can publish his work. In the course of time, Lee's best-selling novel To Kill a Mockingbird is turned into a movie, but Capote is unable to share in the joy of his friend's success, too caught up in drinking through his own misery. With the last appeal rejected, Smith pleads for Capote to return before he is executed, but Capote cannot bring himself to do so.
A telegram from Smith to Harper Lee compels Capote to return to Kansas. There he is an eyewitness as Hickock are executed. Capote talks to Lee about the horrifying experience and laments that he could not do anything to stop it, she replies, "Maybe not. The fact is you didn't want to." The final scenes show Capote looking through photos from the case and at the writings and drawings given to him by Smith. An epilogue points out that In Cold Blood turned Capote into the most famous writer in America noting that he never finished another book. A postscript to the film gives the epigraph he would have chosen for the title of Answered Prayers: "More tears are shed over answered prayers than unanswered ones", a quote from Saint Teresa of Ávila. Capote grossed $28.8 million in the United States and Canada and $21.2 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $50 million, sales of its DVD/Blu-ray releases have cashed $17 million, against a production budget of $7 million. Upon its release, Capote received wide acclaim from critics, with Hoffman's performance the subject of particular praise.
Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 90% of critics gave the film a positive review, with an average rating of 8.2/10 based on 187 reviews. The site's consensus reads: "Philip Seymour Hoffman's riveting central performance guides a well-constructed retelling of the most sensational and significant period in author Truman Capote's life." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 88 out of 100 based on 40 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". Roger Ebert gave the film a full 4/4 star rating, stating: "Capote is a film of uncommon strength and insight, about a man whose great achievement requires the surrender of his self-respect." Wins for Philip Seymour Hoffman Academy Award for Best Actor BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor National Board of Review Award for Best Actor National Society of Film C
Crash (2004 film)
Crash is a 2004 American drama film produced, co-written by Paul Haggis. The film features social tensions in Los Angeles. A self-described "passion piece" for Haggis, Crash was inspired by a real-life incident, in which his Porsche was carjacked in 1991 outside a video store on Wilshire Boulevard; the film features an ensemble cast, including Sandra Bullock, Don Cheadle, Matt Dillon, Jennifer Esposito, William Fichtner, Brendan Fraser, Terrence Howard, Chris "Ludacris" Bridges, Thandie Newton, Michael Peña, Ryan Phillippe. Matt Dillon was praised for his performance and received Academy Award, BAFTA, Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild Award nominations for Best Supporting Actor. Additionally, the cast won the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture; the film received six Academy Award nominations, won three for Best Picture, Best Original Screenplay, Best Film Editing at the 78th Academy Awards. It was nominated for nine BAFTA awards, won two, for Best Original Screenplay and Best Supporting Actress for Thandie Newton.
The movie begins with Detective Graham Waters and his partner Ria being involved in a minor collision with a car being driven by Kim Lee. A subsequent exchange of racially charged insults occurs. Waters arrives at a crime scene. Earlier the previous day, Farhad, a Persian shop owner, his daughter Dorri are in a gun shop arguing over what bullets they should buy; the gun store owner grows impatient and degrades the two of them by referring to Farhad as "Osama." Farhad is forced to leave the store and Dorri becomes responsible for the choice. That night, two black men and Peter, carjack District Attorney Rick Cabot and his wife Jean. At the couple's house, the Hispanic locksmith Daniel Ruiz overhears Jean arguing with Rick, demanding that the locks be changed again as she suspects that Daniel is a gangster due to his tattoos and outfit. Daniel leaves. Sergeant John Ryan and his partner Officer Tom Hansen pull over an SUV being driven by director Cameron Thayer and his wife Christine, performing fellatio on him.
After an intoxicated Christine mouths off to Ryan, he subjects the couple to a body search. Ryan molests Christine in Hansen who watches in disgust. Ryan releases them with a warning. In the carjacked SUV, Anthony and Peter hit a Korean man Park while passing a parked van, dump him in front of a hospital, drive away. Daniel's next call is to replace a lock at Farhad's shop, but when Daniel warns Farhad that the real problem is the door, Farhad won't listen; the next day, Farhad finds that his store has been defaced with graffiti. Waters visits his hard drug-abusing mother. Ryan comes across a car accident and as he crawls into the overturned vehicle, he finds Christine trapped. Although she resists frantically at first, with the help of his partner and spectators, Ryan pulls the terrified Christine out just as her car bursts into flames. Anthony and Peter carjack another navigator. Only after opening the door do. Police officers arrive on the scene and a chase ends with Cameron and Anthony in Cameron's car on a dead end residential street.
Hansen is one of the pursuing officers and, out of guilt for the part he played in the assault of Cameron's wife, vouches for Cameron to be let off with a warning. Cameron drops him off near a bus stop. Farhad locates Daniel's house and waits in ambush, but as he confronts Daniel and shoots, Daniel's daughter jumps into Daniel's arms, attempting to protect her father. Everyone watches in horror as Daniel clutches his daughter, but they soon realize that she has not been shot and the family retreats inside. Farhad tells his daughter that he believes the little girl was his guardian angel, preventing him from committing a terrible crime, he gives the gun to his daughter, seen going over near the cash register to retrieve the box of gun cartridges that her father had not known were blanks. Hansen pulls over to pick up a hitchhiking Peter, who fled from the carjacking that took place earlier. Throughout the drive Hansen becomes more suspicious of Peter's intentions. Peter offends Hansen by beginning to laugh, when Peter reaches for his pocket, Hansen shoots.
In Peter's hand is a statuette similar to the one on Hansen's dash and, Hansen hides the body in some nearby bushes and burns his car. Waters arrives at the scene with his partner and the connection is made that Peter is his missing brother and the "dead boy.". Waters is disowned by his mother for not finding Peter alive. Anthony decides to steal the van of the Korean man he accidentally hit and, when he drops it off at a chop shop he frequents, he discovers a number of Cambodian immigrants locked in the back of the van; the chop shop owner offers him $500 per immigrant but Anthony has other plans. After driving into Chinatown and setting the Cambodian people free, he passes by a car crash where, once again, an exchange of racially charged insults takes place. Crash had a wide release on May 6, 2005, was a box office success in the late spring of 2005; the film had a budget of $6.5 million. Because of the financial constraints, director Haggis filmed in his own house, borrowed a set from the TV show M
Zero Dark Thirty
Zero Dark Thirty is a 2012 American thriller film directed by Kathryn Bigelow and written by Mark Boal. The film dramatizes the nearly decade-long international manhunt for al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden after the September 11 attacks; this search leads to the Lion Team RB discovery of his compound in Pakistan and the military raid that resulted in bin Laden's death on May 2, 2011. Jessica Chastain stars as Maya, a fictional CIA intelligence analyst, with Jason Clarke, Joel Edgerton, Mark Strong, James Gandolfini, Kyle Chandler, Stephen Dillane, Chris Pratt, Édgar Ramírez, Fares Fares, Jennifer Ehle, John Barrowman, Mark Duplass, Frank Grillo in supporting roles, it was produced by Boal and Megan Ellison, independently financed by Ellison's Annapurna Pictures. The film premiered in Los Angeles on December 19, 2012 and had its wide release on January 11, 2013. Zero Dark Thirty received acclaim and appeared on 95 critics' top ten lists of 2012, it was nominated in five categories at the 85th Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actress for Chastain, Best Original Screenplay, Best Film Editing, won the award for Best Sound Editing, shared with Skyfall.
It earned Golden Globe Award nominations for Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director, Best Screenplay, with Chastain winning the award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. The depiction of so-called enhanced interrogation generated controversy, with some critics describing it as pro-torture propaganda, as the interrogations are shown producing reliably useful and accurate information. Acting CIA director Michael Morell felt the film created the false impression that torture was key to finding bin Laden. Others described it as an anti-torture exposure of interrogation practices. Republican Congressman Peter T. King charged that the filmmakers were given improper access to classified materials, which they denied. An unreleased draft IG report published by the Project on Government Oversight, in June 2013, stated that former CIA Director Leon Panetta discussed classified information during an awards ceremony for the SEAL team that carried out the raid on the bin Laden compound. Unbeknownst to Panetta, screenwriter Boal was among the 1,300 present during the ceremony.
Maya is a CIA analyst tasked with finding the al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden. In 2003 she is stationed at the U. S. embassy in Pakistan. She and officer Dan attend the black site interrogations of Ammar, a detainee with suspected links to several of the hijackers in the September 11 attacks and, subjected to approved torture interrogation techniques. Ammar provides unreliable information on a suspected attack in Saudi Arabia, but reveals the name of the personal courier for bin Laden, Abu Ahmed al-Kuwaiti. Other detainee intelligence connects courier traffic by Abu Ahmed between Abu Faraj al-Libbi and bin Laden. In 2005, Faraj denies knowing about a courier named Abu Ahmed. In 2009, during the Camp Chapman attack, Maya's fellow officer and friend Jessica is killed. A case manager that liked the Abu Ahmed lead shares with her an interrogation with a Jordanian detainee claiming to have buried Abu Ahmed in 2001. Maya learns what the CIA was told five years earlier: that Morocco caught Ibrihim Sayeed traveling under the name of Abu Ahmed al-Kuwaiti.
Realizing her lead may be alive, Maya contacts Dan, now a senior officer at the CIA headquarters. She speculates that the CIA's photograph of Ahmed is that of his brother, killed in Afghanistan. Maya says that their beards and native clothes make the brothers look alike, explaining Ammar's account of Ahmed's "death" in 2001. A Kuwaiti prince trades the phone number of Sayeed's mother for a Lamborghini. CIA operatives use electronic methods to pinpoint a caller in a vehicle who exhibits behaviors that delay confirmation of his identity, they track the vehicle to a large urban compound in Abbottabad, near the Pakistan Military Academy. After gunmen attack Maya while she is in her vehicle, she is recalled to Washington, D. C. as her cover is blown. The CIA obtains no conclusive identification of bin Laden; the President's National Security Advisor tasks the CIA with creating a plan to capture or kill bin Laden. Before briefing President Barack Obama, the CIA director holds a meeting of his senior officers, who estimate that bin Laden is 60-80% to be in the compound.
Maya in the meeting, places her confidence at 100%. On May 2, 2011, the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment flies two stealth helicopters from Afghanistan into Pakistan with members of DEVGRU and the CIA's SAD/SOG to raid the compound. One helicopter crashes, but the SEALs gain entry and kill a number of people in the compound, including a man they believe is bin Laden. At a U. S. base in Jalalabad, Maya confirms the identity of the corpse. She boards a military transport back to the U. S. the sole passenger. She begins to cry; the film's working title was For Country. The title Zero Dark Thirty was confirmed at the end of the film's teaser trailer. Bigelow has explained that "it's a military term for 30 minutes after midnight, it refers to the darkness and secrecy that cloaked the entire decade-long mission." Bigelow and Boal had worked on and finished a screenplay centered on the December 2001 Battle of Tora Bora, the long, unsuccessful efforts to find Osama bin Laden in the region. The two were about to begin filming.
They shelved the film they had been working on and redirected their focus starting from scratch. "But a lot of the homework I'd done for th