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Washington Hall (University of Notre Dame)

Washington Hall at the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, Indiana is the seventh oldest university owned building on the historic campus. It is part of the University of Notre Dame: Main and North Quadrangles historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was the original home of the university's music and performing arts programs; the theater is located just east of the University's Golden Dome, the University's main administrative building, on the main quad on campus known as God Quad. Since the university's earliest years, the site of Washington Hall has been associated in the minds of Notre Dame students, alumni and staff with music and recreation. In the 19th century, Notre Dame was a small and much self-contained institution; as early as 1846, the combination of a recognition that Notre Dame would have to provide its own entertainment and a French-inspired appreciation for the fine and musical arts led the university's founders to reserve a building for artistic instruction and performance.

The original music hall, which stood on the site next to the Administration Building now occupied by Washington Hall, was a two-story clapboard building. It housed classrooms and practice rooms as well as facilities for lectures and campus assemblies; the building played a major role in the life of Notre Dame throughout the early years. On April 23, 1879, the life of the university changed abruptly when a fire destroyed the five major campus buildings, including the music hall. Although the university stood in ashes, the Congregation of Holy Cross was determined to rebuild Notre Dame. Wiloughby J. Edbrooke, a Chicago architect, was commissioned to create a new campus. Two years the task was completed. Among the new buildings was Washington Hall. Named for the political hero of the university's founder, Father Edward Sorin, Washington Hall was built in the “Modern Gothic” style so popular in the 19th-century Midwest and so much in evidence in Notre Dame's oldest buildings; the placement, façade and proportions of the new building were intended to parallel those of nearby Sacred Heart Church.

Because they do so Washington Hall from the beginning helped to define the boundaries of the main quadrangle of the campus. Thus today, Washington Hall remains at the physical core of the university; the new building retained its function as a music hall. One of its two components continued to provide classrooms and practice rooms for individual students, the orchestra and the marching band. Nonetheless, the octagonal-shaped theatre, which the building housed, became synonymous with the words Washington Hall; this theatre, painted over in 1956, once stood as a fine example of the late 19th century décor. Frescoes and murals by Luigi Geogori and Signor Rusca included four emblematic figures of tragedy, comedy and poetry above which were portraits of Shakespeare, Molière, Mozart and Dante. Over the proscenium, Washington loomed, flanked by Cicero on either side; the theatre could accommodate another 400 on the ground floor. Over the years, the theatre has provided the Notre Dame community with countless hours of entertainment and intellectual stimulation.

Numerous student productions have been offered on its stage, beginning with the 1882 production of Oedipus Tyrannus. It has served as a forum for speakers ranging from Henry James, William Butler Yeats and William Jennings Bryan to Tennessee Williams, Pete Seeger and Phil Donahue. Notre Dame has associated in the public mind with legendary figures but few Notre Dame legends have endured as long or lodged themselves as in campus apocrypha as has the ghost of Washington Hall. Theories as to the ghost's identity vary, with the most persistent hypotheses being that the ghost is either that of George Gipp, who slept on the steps of Washington Hall the night before he became fatally ill in 1920 or a Steeplejack who fell to his death while working in 1886. While they may not agree on the ghost's identity, few students scoff at stories of doors slamming on windless nights, footsteps heard on the roof, or inexplicable noises heard during late-night play preparations. To them the ghost of Washington Hall is real and much a part of the respect for the tradition that makes Notre Dame, Notre Dame.

In May 1978 seventy acres of the University of Notre Dame campus were entered as an historic district on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the federal government's official list of the nation's cultural resources worthy of preservation. Inclusion of a district, site or building on the National Register is determined after both state and federal review boards have assessed the quality of significance of the nominated property in American history, architecture and culture. Districts must possess integrity of location, setting, workmanship and association, a) Be associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our national history. Listing on the National Register makes properties eligible for protection under federal preservation law and for federal grants-in-aid for exterior restoration. Notre Dame's historic district was assessed to be of significance in the areas of architecture, community planning and educational and religious history.

Washington Hall, the seventh oldest extant structure in the district, was identified as a critical structure in both the original campus d

Saudi–Yemen barrier

The Saudi–Yemen barrier is a physical barrier constructed by Saudi Arabia along part of its 1,800-kilometer border with Yemen. It is a structure made of pipeline three metres high filled with concrete, acting as a "security barrier along sections of the now demarcated border with Yemen" and fitted with electronic detection equipment. Construction of the barrier began in September 2003; when construction of the 75-kilometer barrier by the Saudis began, the Yemeni government objected, stating that it violated a border treaty signed in 2000. Thus Saudi Arabia agreed to stop construction in February 2004. In 2000, after 65 years or so of sporadic conflict and Saudi Arabia agreed on border demarcations by signing the 2000 Jeddah border treaty. Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz, deputy prime minister and minister of defence, has long managed the Yemen portfolio. For decades, he paid a network of Yemeni contacts and informants, which generated resentment on the Yemeni side about Saudi "meddling". Sultan headed the small Special Office for Yemen Affairs, which remained the main locus of Saudi Arabia's Yemen policy and patronage throughout the 1980s and 1990s, a role that weakened beginning in 2000.

Its annual budget was believed to be $3.5 billion per year until the Treaty of Jeddah was signed in 2000. But as late as early 2011, the "number of people thought to be receiving subsidies still remained in the thousands, but in April recipients were notified that payments were being terminated"; the tribal elites Saudi Arabia supports to weaken Yemen central government are behind the drug trade. Saudi Arabia overreached, according to Yemen, "by accusing Yemeni smugglers of fomenting terrorism" because "homegrown Saudi terrorists—with or without weapons obtained from across the border—cannot be blamed on Yemen". In February 2004, after extensive Egyptian and U. S. diplomatic efforts, Saudi Arabia decided to halt the construction, Yemen agreed to take part in joint patrols and to set up watch towers to curb smuggling and infiltration. However, it was reported in October 2006, after plans were revealed of Saudi plans to build another fence along its border with Iraq, that the Saudis have enjoyed "relative success by building a similar, though shorter, security barrier-fence along their southern border with Yemen to cut down on the 400,000 illegal immigrants who cross it every year looking for work in the far more prosperous Saudi state.

Saudi authorities believe that the fence has "made their efforts to prevent the infiltration of revolutionary Islamists through Yemen far easier". In February 2007 the Arab Times reported that the “Saudis have been pursuing an $8.5 billion project to fence off the full length of its porous border with Yemen for some years”. In January 2008, Saudi authorities commenced construction of a wall along the border in the Harad district. A local sheikh claimed that erection of the wall broke the Jeddah border treaty that established the rights of both Yemeni and Saudi citizens to roam freely; the news website Mareb Press reported quoted a Yemeni military source saying that Yemeni border guards tried to prevent the construction, but the Saudis mobilized and threatened force if they were unable to commence work. Deep tunnels and concrete arches have been constructed and barbed wire has been laid along the frontiers to the south of the Saudi towns of Towal and Khawjarah. Local sources from Harad stated that over 3,000 tribesmen from nearby gathered to rally against it, claiming their interests would be harmed by preventing them from crossing the border to visit their relatives and cultivate their farms.

In late 2009, the Houthis extended their insurgency into Saudi Arabia when they killed a border guard as revenge for Saudi Arabia allowing the Military of Yemen to launch attacks from its territory. Saudi Arabia responded by deploying the Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia, under the command of Assistant Minister of Defence and Aviation Prince Khaled bin Sultan; the result was deemed "humiliating blow to the Saudis’ well-financed but inexperienced military"—at least 133 Saudi soldiers were killed over three months of fighting. During the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Saudi Arabia began removing sections of the Barrier fence along its border with the Sa'dah and Hajjah governorates on 3 April 2015; the purpose of the removal was not clear. In the early 1990s terrorist attacks in Saudi Arabia used explosives; the border is 1,800-kilometer, with much in the Rub' al Khali desert, or the "Empty Quarter". In October 2010 The New York Times called the border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen "an emblem of the global threats emanating from Yemen: fighters from Al Qaeda, Shiite insurgents and arms smuggling and, well under the world’s radar, one of the largest flows of economic refugees on earth".

Saudi Arabia claimed the barrier was necessary to protect from terrorism and smuggling weapons and illegal drugs—namely qat. Saudi Arabia claimed that smugglers provide weapons to radical Islamists within Saudi Arabia and were the source of explosives used in attacks like the 2003 Riyadh compound bombings, which killed 35 and injured over a hundred. Two years after the Yemeni Revolution of 2011, the country found itself a "haven for foreign terror fighters" where the Yemen-based Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula has "remained resilient and enjoyed a resurgence". In 2008, after starting a new section of barrier in Harad District, the Saudis declared that the barrier was necessary to stem the influx of illegal immi

Thorsten Goldberg

Thorsten Goldberg born 1960 in Dinslaken is a German multimedia artist. From 1982 to 1991 Thorsten Goldberg studied sculpture at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart in the class of Inge Mahn. In 1991 he won the first prize of the Forum of Young Art for his photographic work, "Class of 97" with exhibition stations at Kunsthalle Kiel, Kunstverein Mannheim, Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg, Württembergischer Kunstverein Stuttgart and Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden. Along with the screenwriter Wieland Bauder he created the fictional character Thomas Bauer for joint artistic performances; when Thomas Bauer received the scholarship for photography by the Berlin Senate in 1991, he took part in the art exhibition “Art on a world scale” at the Kunsthalle Kiel in 1993. Since 1995 and in addition to photographs and video works Thorsten Goldberg has been creating site-specific works and public art, he realized numerous projects in public space throughout Germany, in Poland and Canada and taught at various academies.

2003 - 2008 he was Adjunct Professor for Art in Public Space at the Art Academy Linz/AT and 2007 - 2009 Professor for arts and media at the Muthesius Art Academy Kiel/Germany. As a member of different committees and advisory boards he is involved in the election and organisation of competitions for art in public. Thorsten Goldberg is Initiator and Co-Publisher of „Public Art Wiki“, a Germany-wide internet archive for art in public space in the German-speaking-area He is Co-Publisher of „Kunst in der Großsiedlung Marzahn-Hellersdorf“ a printed documentation of more than 460 public works and author of several texts on public art. Thorsten Goldberg lives in Berlin/Germany. 1991 going home, being home, staying home, 10 billboards, Stuttgart/DE 1993 International sculpture, Kunsthalle Kiel/DE 1996 reichweite, permanent neon installation, Berlin-Hellersdorf/DE 1997 big game, Central Square Luedenscheid/DE 1997 Rock-Paper-Scissors, randomized neon signs as a permanent marking of the former frontier crossing point, Berlin/DE 1998 Once much of all, permanent sculpture, Levillain-Park, Museum Heidenheim/DE 2000 Hunger and Thirst and Sausage, intervention with three singers, sculpture project, Wiesbaden/DE 2000 stand-by Potsdam, horizontal gas flame on a chimney of a fallow industrial area, Potsdam/DE 2001 concierge, temporary sculpture, brick doorpost with integrated plate and entryphone, Bergkamen-Heil/DE 2002 curtain mov. permanent installation, slow moving curtain, kinetic installation, State Hospital, Eberswalde/DE 2002 finger walks, permanent video installation on 5 large TFT Panels, State Hospital, Eberswalde/DE 2003 milk & honey, historical map of the land of milk and honey as a large back light display, Unter den Linden, Berlin/DE 2004 next stop - milk & honey, Hauptstrasse Heidenheim/DE 2005 Wismar depot, neon writing on a shallow storage building in the old harbour of Wismar/DE 2006 Rivers of wine and beer, neon sculpture, temporary installation in Wiesbaden/DE 2006 Inventory of the historical busts and bases, Charité Hospital Berlin/DE 2009 Cumulus 08.07, neon-sculpture for „Lichtpromenade“-Lichtkunst-Skulpturenpfad, Lippstadt/DE 2010 die Potsdamer, Berlin/DE 2010 Cumulus Berlin, sculpture for the Federal Ministry of Food and Consumer Protection, Berlin/DE 2010 milk & honey, Museum for History of the City, Ratingen/DE 2012 60°N 05°E - land-art and light sculpture in Bergen/NO 2012 Cumulus 11.08, sculpture for the Herbert-Gerisch Sculpture park in Neumuenster/DE 2013 And honey upon hawthorn grows, sculpture in the park Nadmorski in Gdansk/PL 2014 Radom Cumulus, light sculpture made of 19 layers of curved neon contours, Mazovian Centre of Contemporary Art - Elektrownia, Radom/PL 2015 reflected ministry, interactive video projections at the Kreuzbauten, Federal Ministry of Transport and Urban Development, Bonn/DE 1985 media exposure, Kuenstlerhaus Stuttgart/DE 1989 half the rent, Stuttgart/DE 1992 one weekend, Wuerttembergischer Kunstverein Stuttgart/DE 1993 Loock Gallery, Berlin/DE 1993 Glamor and Misery, Gallery Noeth, Kirchheim/DE 1994 Loock Gallery, Berlin/DE 1995 schmutz, Museum of Fine Arts Heidenheim/DE 1996 remotes, Loock Gallery, Berlin/DE 1996 birdies, Wewerka Pavillon, Muenster/DE 1996 senatorial chair, Senate of Culture, Berlin/DE 1997 birdies inside, Loock Gallery, Berlin/DE 1998 Bellevuegallery, Wiesbaden/DE 1999 Gallery Hafemann, Wiesbaden/DE 2001 XX1 Gallery, Warsaw/PL 2002 detached village, Exhibition Hall, Muenster/DE 2002 Gallery Hafemann, Wiesbaden/DE 2002 generic profile, Gallery RLBQ, Marseille/FR 2002 HEINZGERDKURTKLAUS Gallery HO, Berlin/DE 2005 things are different behind closed doors, Espai 13, Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona/ES 2010 Constructing clouds, WHITECONCEPTS, Berlin/DE 2012 54°4 min.

Herbert-Gerisch Foundation, Neumuenster/DE 2013 54°24 min. Laznia Centre for Contemporary Art, Gdansk/PL 2013 51°15 min. Municipal Gallery, Viersen/DE The city of Gdansk/PL The Mazovian Centre of Contemporary Art – Elektrownia in Radom/PL The City of Bergen/NO The Land of Berlin/DE The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Urban Development/DE The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research Bonn/DE The City of Lippstadt/DE The City of Heidenheim/DE The Charité University Clinicum Berlin/DE The Martin-Gropius-Hospital Eberswalde/DE The Daimler Art Collection/DE The Art-Museum Heidenheim/DE Herbert-Gerisch Foundation, Neumuenster/DE The collection Stefan Haupt, Berlin/DE Dr. Martin Henatsch, Eulalia Domanowska, Jadwiga Charzynska, Kristin Danger, Nicole Loeser, catalogue: 5

Breton horse

The Breton is a breed of draft horse. It was developed in Brittany, a province in northwest France, from native ancestral stock dating back thousands of years; the Breton was created through the crossbreeding of many different Oriental breeds. In 1909, a stud book was created, in 1951 it was closed; the breed is chestnut in color, is strong and muscular. There are three distinct subtypes of the Breton, each coming from a different area of Brittany; the Corlay Breton is the smallest type, is used for light draft and under saddle work. The Postier Breton is used for light farm work; the Heavy Draft Breton is the largest subtype, is used for the hardest draft work. This horse breed has been used in military and agricultural capacities, it has been used to improve and create many other draft breeds, to produce mules. Breton horses are about 1.58 metres tall, but may range from 1.55 to 1.63 m, depending on type. They have a chestnut coat with a flaxen mane and tail, but can be bay, grey, or red or blue roan.

Bretons have a well-proportioned head of medium volume with a straight profile and a strong, short neck well-set into muscular withers. The shoulder is long and sloping, the chest broad and muscular, the back short and wide, the croup sloping; the legs are well-feathered, with broad joints and well-formed hooves. There are several subtypes of the Breton breed. Two, the Trait Breton and the Postier Breton, are recognised, while others such as the Corlais or Cheval de Corlay and the Centre-montagne or Central Mountain Breton are not. Older types that have disappeared include the Bidet Breton or Bidet d'Allure; the Corlay Breton is derived from crossbreeding native stock with the Arabian and Thoroughbred, is considered the real descendant of the original Breton. It is smaller with a more dished face, it was used for light draft work that required speed and under saddle, its numbers have been decreasing in recent years. The type is known as the Cheval de Corlay, is now rare, it was used in local races because of its speed, which it inherited from its Arabian and Thoroughbred ancestors.

Postier Bretons were developed as a result of crossbreeding with the Norfolk Trotter and the Hackney during the 19th century. This type is bred in central Brittany, has a attractive gait, is a good coach horse, capable of light farming work, its name originates from its use in pulling mail coaches. The Postier was used extensively by the French Horse Artillery, it has been described as a lighter version of the Suffolk Punch draft breed from Great Britain; the Heavy Draft Breton is derived from an infusion of Percheron blood. It is strong relative to its size and has short but muscular legs, it is bred in Merléac. This type has absorbed another, older type, called the Grand Breton, a heavier horse, used to improve many other draft breeds; the Centre-montagne or Central Mountain Breton is a smaller draft type. Bretons were bred for great strength and durability. Horses have been present in the Breton mountains for thousands of years, but nobody knows how they first arrived. One theory is that they were brought to Europe during the Aryan migration from Asia over 4,000 years ago, while another school of thought has them descending from horses bred by Celtic warriors before their conquest of Great Britain.

The original ancestors of the Breton were a population of horses that lived in the Breton mountains descended from steppe horses ridden by Celts. During the Crusades, these mountain horses were crossed with oriental horses to create a type known as the Bidet Breton. In the Middle Ages, the ancestral Breton horse was sought by military leaders because of its comfortable gait, said to be partway between a brisk trot and an amble. Due to its gaits and the fact that it only stood about 1.40 m high, it was nicknamed the Bidet d'Allure or Bidet Breton. Horses of other bloodlines brought back to Europe during the Crusades had a strong influence on the Breton, two types subsequently developed; the Sommier was the common, heavier type, used as a pack horse and for farm and draft work. From the Sommier, the Roussin was developed, was used in wars and on long journeys; the Roussin's natural ambling gait made it popular as a lighter riding horse. The breed retained its mountain roots with its main stud, the National Provincial Stud, being located in the mountain country of Langonnet.

It was at this time that Arabian and Thoroughbred blood was added to the breed, creating the Corlay subtype. From the Middle Ages until the early 1900s, the Breton was crossed with various horses, both native and foreign, including the Boulonnais and Ardennes breeds. In the 19th century it was crossbred with the Norfolk Trotter, which resulted in a lighter weight type of Breton, the Postier subtype. Today, the Breton breed is controlled by the Syndicat des Éleveurs de Cheval Breton, an organization dating its studbook to 1909 when it was created, with separate books for the Heavy Draft and Postier types. In 1912, the books were combined but separate sections were used for each type, in 1926 the sections were combined so that all types of Bretons are now registered together. Postier Bretons must pass in-harness performance tests. In 1920, the decision was made to permit no new outside blood into the studbook, in 1951 the studbook was closed to outside horses. Breton horses are only eligible to be registered if they were

Alternative versions of the Punisher

In addition to his mainstream incarnation, the Punisher has been depicted in other fictional universes, in which the character's history and behavior vary from the mainstream setting. In some stories, another character besides Frank Castle serves as the Punisher; the Marvel 2099 universe follows the story of Public Eye police officer, Jake Gallows, after the murder of his mother and sister-in-law. Gallows comes across Frank Castle's war journal in the Public Eye archives, took the mantle as the new Punisher. At first he follows Frank's old code of justice, only killing those, he loses his mind, at one point proposing murdering two people because they were having sex with each other. He is named Minister of Punishment in Doctor Doom's 2099 government, he is joined by a lab-bred humanoid who becomes his partner. Marvel Knights' Punisher 2099, another take on the year 2099, featured Cassondra Castle who goes by the alias of Cossandra Natchios, she has a son named Franklin. When she is diagnosed with cancer, Cossandra sets out to teach her son everything he needs to know to become the next Punisher.

Upon her death, Franklin chooses not to take over, allowing the Punisher title to end with his mother. In Amalgam Comics, the Punisher is merged with Steve Trevor to make Trevor Castle. In this continuity Trevor Castle lost his family when they were caught in a gang war, which led him to become the Punisher and marry Diana Prince, with whom he had a son named Ryan before they separated. In Bullets and Bracelets, Ryan is kidnapped which leads to Trevor and Diana to work together to figure out, responsible, their search leads them to Thanoseid, who kills their son. Trevor was about to kill Thanosied's personal assassin Kanto, but was stopped by Diana who figured out Kanto was Ryan. Wanting revenge on Trevor for indirectly causing the death of his own son, Thanoseid sent Ryan back in time to become Kanto so that either Trevor will kill his son or Kanto would kill his father. With his plan foiled, he sent Trevor and Diana back to Earth, with the two deciding to give their relationship another chance.

Alternative versions of the Punisher have appeared for over three decades. The earliest examples of those alternative versions can be found within the monthly. Using existing Marvel stories as a starting point, the series examined scenarios in which, for example, Frank Castle's family has not died or he had killed Daredevil in their first encounter. Other "what if" stories looked at his adventures as a new Captain America or as an agent of S. H. I. E. L. D. Garth Ennis wrote a one-off special entitled Punisher Kills the Marvel Universe where Frank Castle kills every superhero and supervillain in the Marvel Universe after his family are caught in the crossfire of a battle with the Brood; the Punisher featured in a number of more extended looks at alternative universes and lives such as the Age of Apocalypse's Frank Castle. In the alternative universe House of M, Castle appears as a media vigilante nicknamed the "Punisher" and is recruited after his arrest by John Proudstar to join and be the other human in the strikeforce known as the Brotherhood.

The Punisher: A Man Named Frank, written by Chuck Dixon, was a western themed take on the character. Castle is a cowboy during the time of the American Old West, out for revenge to the criminals who killed his family. In The Punisher Noir, Frank Castelione is a veteran of World War I who has a winged version of a skull tattooed on his chest, his wife died from cancer and Castelione is killed by Jigsaw and the Russian after a fight. His only son is the Punisher; this version of Punisher wears a mask emblazoned with his trademark skull, carved into his chest by Jigsaw. The Punisher fights against a criminal conspiracy controlling the entire city, kills Barracuda by ripping him in half. In this universe, Frank takes advantage of the fact that the heroes and law enforcement officers are busy with zombies and he hunts and shoots down the super-villain leadership of New York City, known as the Kingpin, The Owl, Hammerhead. Along the way he allies himself with Ash Williams; when Ash sees him kill the still human criminal trio he becomes disgusted and mistakenly abandons the Punisher minutes later.

This leaves Frank to be attacked and infected by a squad of zombies, causing him to at first be "killed". Frank turns Ash's ally, the Scarlet Witch into one. Punisher appears in Marvel Zombies: Evil Evolution, where he appears zombified along with other zombies attacking the Marvel Apes. In the alternative universe Marvel Mangaverse continuity, Sosumi Brown is Tokyo's Punisher, who fights the crime family of Skang Kee Ho; that family uses an Oni named Oni Yew to try to stop her, but her sister, Hashi Brown, finds out about her secret. In the process, she obtains a cursed weapon which she uses to save her sister. In the alternative-future universe of MC2, the Punisher is still active, but has moved to South America to deal with the level of drug runners there, he returns to New York after hearing of a gang war between Black Tarantula and a Maggia don called Silverback, whom he had once crippled, but now has cybernetic implants. He dies in a final confrontation with Silverback. In the possible future timeline depicted in the "Old Man Logan" storyline, Punisher shows up to help fight the villains during the days the villains rose to power.

He shot Electro before he was stabbed in the chest during a sneak attack from Kraven t

Bad Kreuznach (district)

Bad Kreuznach is a district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Rhein-Hunsrück, Mainz-Bingen, Alzey-Worms, Donnersbergkreis and Birkenfeld; the region is full of medieval castles along the Nahe River. Best known is the Kyrburg of Kirn, sitting in state above the river. In 1815 the district of Kreuznach was established by the Prussian government. In 1932 it was merged with the district of Meisenheim; the name of the district changed from Kreuznach to Bad Kreuznach in 1969. The district is located in the hilly country between the mountain chains of the Hunsrück in the north and the North Palatine Uplands in the south; the main axis of the district is the Nahe River, which enters the territory in the west, runs through Kirn, Bad Sobernheim and Bad Kreuznach, leaves to the northeast. The region formed by this district and the adjoining Birkenfeld district is known as the Naheland; the banks of the lower Nahe are used for vineyards. Away from the stream there are sparsely populated forests crisscrossed by the narrow affluents of the Nahe River.

Official website Naheland tourist website www. - local community with more than 1.800 links to homepages of Bad Kreuznach A flickr-group with fotos of Bad Kreuznach