The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family, they migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers; the term "Osage" is a French version of the tribe's name, which can be translated as "warlike". The Osage people refer to themselves in their indigenous Dhegihan Siouan language as Wazhazhe, or "Mid-waters". At the height of their power in the early 19th century, the Osage had become the dominant power in the region, feared by neighboring tribes; the tribe controlled the area between the Missouri and Red rivers, the Ozarks to the east and the foothills of the Wichita Mountains to the south. They depended on agriculture.
The 19th-century painter George Catlin described the Osage as "the tallest race of men in North America, either red or white skins. In the Ohio Valley, the Osage lived among speakers of the same Dhegihan language stock, such as the Kansa, Ponca and Quapaw. Researchers believe that the tribes became differentiated in languages and cultures after leaving the lower Ohio country; the Omaha and Ponca settled in what is now Nebraska, the Kansa in Kansas, the Quapaw in Arkansas. In the 19th century, the Osage were forced to remove from Kansas to Indian Territory, the majority of their descendants live in Oklahoma. In the early 20th century, oil was discovered on their land. Many Osage became wealthy through leasing fees generated by their headrights. However, during the 1920s, they suffered manipulation and numerous murders by whites eager to take over their wealth. In the 21st century, the federally recognized Osage Nation has ~20,000 enrolled members, 6,780 of whom reside in the tribe's jurisdictional area.
Members live outside the nation's tribal land in Oklahoma and in other states around the country, including Kansas. The Osage are descendants of cultures of indigenous peoples, in North America for thousands of years. Studies of their traditions and language show that they were part of a group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the Ohio River valley area, extending into present-day Kentucky. According to their own stories, they migrated west as a result of war with the Iroquois and/or to reach more game. Scholars are divided as to whether they think the Osage and other groups left before the Beaver Wars of the Iroquois; some believe that the Osage started migrating west as early as 1200 CE and are descendants of the Mississippian culture in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. They attribute their style of government to effects of the long years of war with invading Iroquois. After resettling west of the Mississippi River, the Osage were sometimes allied with the Illiniwek and sometimes competing with them, as that tribe was driven west of Illinois by warfare with the powerful Iroquois.
The Osage and other Dhegian-Siouan peoples reached their historic lands developing and splitting into the above tribes in the course of the migration to the Great Plains. By 1673, when they were recorded by the French, many of the Osage had settled near the Osage River in the western part of present-day Missouri, they were recorded in 1690 as having adopted the horse The desire to acquire more horses contributed to their trading with the French. They attacked and defeated indigenous Caddo tribes to establish dominance in the Plains region by 1750, with control "over half or more of Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas," which they maintained for nearly 150 years, they lived near the Missouri River. Together with the Kiowa and Apache, they dominated western Oklahoma, they lived near the Quapaw and Caddo in Arkansas. The Osage held high rank among the old hunting tribes of the Great Plains. From their traditional homes in the woodlands of present-day Missouri and Arkansas, the Osage would make semi-annual buffalo hunting forays into the Great Plains to the west.
They hunted deer and other wild game in the central and eastern parts of their domain. The women cultivated varieties of corn and other vegetables near their villages, which they processed for food, they harvested and processed nuts and wild berries. In their years of transition, the Osage had cultural practices that had elements of the cultures of both Woodland Native Americans and the Great Plains peoples; the villages of the Osage were important hubs in the Great Plains trading network served by Kaw people as intermediaries. In 1673 French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were among the first Europeans to encounter the Osage as they explored southward from present-day Canada in their expedition along the Mississippi River. Marquette and Joliet claimed all land in the Mississippi Valley for France. Marquette's 1673 map noted that the Kanza and Pawnee tribes controlled much of modern-day Kansas; the Osage called the Europeans I'n-Shta-Heh because of their facial hair. As experienced warriors, the Osage allied with the French, with whom they traded, against th
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803; the concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation; the term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the American Revolutionary War. Indian Territory came to refer to an unorganized territory whose general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834, was the successor to the remainder of the Missouri Territory after Missouri received statehood; the borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States.
The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an Indian Territory. Indian Territory known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. Therefore, it was not a traditional territory for the tribes settled upon it; the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. The territory was located in the Central United States. While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. Treaties with the tribes restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; the region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War.
After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States. These re-written treaties included provisions for a territorial legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to; the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory; the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory. The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reserve, a British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that set aside land for use by the Native American people.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, land was ceded to the United States; the British administration reduced the land area of the Indian Reserve – the United States further reduced it after the American Revolutionary War – until it included only lands west of the Mississippi River. At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with British who were loyal to the British Empire, but they had a less-developed relationship with the Empire's colonists-turned-rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, they defeated the Indian Western Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and imposed the Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of present-day Indiana, the lands that include present-day Chicago and Detroit, to the United States federal government.
The period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, not an unorganized territory, as the areas were established by treaty. In 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase France's claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase. However, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to Congress; the 3rd article stated, in part: the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights and immunities of citizens of the United States. Which committed the US government to "the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission" of the territory as multiple states, "postponed its incorporation into the Union t
A facade is one exterior side of a building the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face". In architecture, the facade of a building is the most important aspect from a design standpoint, as it sets the tone for the rest of the building. From the engineering perspective of a building, the facade is of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical facades, many local zoning regulations or other laws restrict or forbid their alteration; the word comes from the French foreign loan word façade, which in turn comes from the Italian facciata, from faccia meaning face from post-classical Latin facia. The earliest usage recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is 1656, it was quite common in the Georgian period for existing houses in English towns to be given a fashionable new facade. For example, in the city of Bath, The Bunch of Grapes in Westgate Street appears to be a Georgian building, but the appearance is only skin deep and some of the interior rooms still have Jacobean plasterwork ceilings.
This new construction has happened in other places: in Santiago de Compostela the 3-metres-deep Casa do Cabido was built to match the architectural order of the square, the main Churrigueresque facade of the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, facing the Praza do Obradoiro, is encasing and concealing the older Portico of Glory. In modern highrise building, the exterior walls are suspended from the concrete floor slabs. Examples include precast concrete walls; the facade can at times be required to have a fire-resistance rating, for instance, if two buildings are close together, to lower the likelihood of fire spreading from one building to another. In general, the facade systems that are suspended or attached to the precast concrete slabs will be made from aluminium or stainless steel. In recent years more lavish materials such as titanium have sometimes been used, but due to their cost and susceptibility to panel edge staining these have not been popular. Whether rated or not, fire protection is always a design consideration.
The melting point of aluminium, 660 °C, is reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Firestops for such building joints can be qualified, too. Putting fire sprinkler systems on each floor has a profoundly positive effect on the fire safety of buildings with curtain walls; some building codes limit the percentage of window area in exterior walls. When the exterior wall is not rated, the perimeter slab edge becomes a junction where rated slabs are abutting an unrated wall. For rated walls, one may choose rated windows and fire doors, to maintain that wall's rating. On a film set and within most themed attractions, many of the buildings are only facades, which are far cheaper than actual buildings, not subject to building codes. In film sets, they are held up with supports from behind, sometimes have boxes for actors to step in and out of from the front if necessary for a scene. Within theme parks, they are decoration for the interior ride or attraction, based on a simple building design. Façades: Principles of Construction.
By Ulrich Knaack, Tillmann Klein, Marcel Bilow and Thomas Auer. Boston/Basel/Berlin: Birkhaüser-Verlag, 2007. ISBN 978-3-7643-7961-2 ISBN 978-3-7643-7962-9 Giving buildings an illusion of grandeur Facades of Casas Chorizo in Buenos Aires, Argentina Poole, Thomas. "Façade". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company; the article outlines the development of the facade in ecclesiastical architecture from the early Christian period to the Renaissance
Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building
The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States federal government complex located at 200 N. W. 5th Street in Downtown Oklahoma City, United States. It was the target of the Oklahoma City bombing on April 19, 1995, at 9:02 am, which killed 168 people, 19 of whom were children under the age of six. Half of the building collapsed seconds; the remains were imploded a month after the attack, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was built on the site. The building was designed by architect Wendell Locke of Locke and Associates and constructed by J. W. Bateson using reinforced concrete in 1977 at a cost of $14.5 million. The building, named for federal judge Alfred P. Murrah, an Oklahoma native, opened on March 2, 1977. By the 1990s, the building contained regional offices for the Social Security Administration, the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the United States Secret Service, the Department of Veterans Affairs vocational rehabilitation counseling center, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms.
It contained recruiting offices for the US Military. It housed 550 employees, it housed America's Kids, a children's day care center. In October 1983, members of the white supremacist group The Covenant, The Sword, the Arm of the Lord, including founder James Ellison and Richard Snell plotted to park "a van or trailer in front of the Federal Building and blow it up with rockets detonated by a timer." While the CSA was building a rocket launcher to attack the building, the ordnance accidentally detonated in one of the member's hands. The CSA called off the planned attack. Convicted of murder in an unrelated case, Richard Snell was executed on April 19, 1995, the same day the bombing of the federal building was carried out, after Associate Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas declined to hear further appeal. Snell spent his last day watching news coverage of the bombing and laughing to himself. At 9:02 a.m. local time on April 19, 1995, a Ryder rental truck, containing 7,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and diesel fuel was detonated in front of the building, destroying a third of it and causing severe damage to several other buildings located nearby.
As a result, 168 people were killed, including 19 children, over 800 others were injured. It remains the deadliest domestic terrorist attack, with the most property damage, on American soil. Timothy McVeigh, a US Army veteran, was found guilty of the attack in a jury trial and sentenced to death, he was executed in 2001. A co-conspirator, Terry Nichols, is serving multiple life sentences in a federal prison. Third and fourth subjects, Michael Fortier and his wife, assisted in the plot, they testified against both McVeigh and Nichols in exchange for a 12-year prison term for Michael and immunity for Lori. Michael was released into the witness protection program in January 2006. McVeigh said that he bombed the building on the second anniversary of the Waco siege in 1993 to retaliate for U. S. government actions there and at the siege at Ruby Ridge. Before his execution, he said that he did not know a day care center was in the building and that, had he known, "It might have given me pause to switch targets."
The FBI said that he scouted the interior of the building in December 1994 and knew of the day care center before the bombing. Many works of art were in the building; the Oklahoma City National Memorial displays art. Lost works are as follows: Sky Ribbons: An Oklahoma Tribute, Fiber sculpture by Gerhardt Knodel Columbines at Cascade Canyon, Photograph by Albert D. Edgar Winter Scene, Photography by Curt Clyne Morning Mist, Photograph by David Halpern Charon's Sentinels, Photograph by David Halpern Soaring Currents and rayon textile by Karen Chapnick Monolith, Porcelain sculpture by Frank Simons Through the Looking Glass, Wool Textile by Anna Burgress Palm Tree Coil, Bronze sculpture by Jerry McMillan. An untitled acrylic sculpture by Fred Eversley was damaged, but survived the blast. Rescue and recovery efforts were concluded at 11:50 pm on May 1, with the bodies of all but three victims recovered. For safety reasons, the remains were to be demolished shortly afterward. However, McVeigh's attorney, Stephen Jones, called for a motion to delay the demolition until the defense team could examine the site in preparation for the trial.
More than a month after the bombing, at 7:01 am on May 23, the remains were demolished. The final three bodies, those of two credit union employees and a customer, were recovered. For several days after the remains' demolition, trucks hauled 800 tons of debris a day away from the site; some of it was used as evidence in the conspirators' trials, incorporated into parts of memorials, donated to local schools, sold to raise funds for relief efforts. Several remnants of the building stand on the site of the Oklahoma City National Memorial; the plaza has been incorporated into the memorial. The east wall is intact, as well as portions of the south wall; the underground parking garage survived the blast and is used today, but is guarded and closed to the public. The General Services Administration sought to replace the facility; the building site is a transition zone between the Central Business District and the North Downtown neighborhood. The new 185,000 square foot building was designed by Ross Barney Architects of Chicago, with Carol Ross Barney as the lead designer.
Constructed on a two city block site, one block north
Charles La Trobe
Charles Joseph La Trobe, CB was appointed in 1839 superintendent of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales and, after the establishment in 1851 of the colony of Victoria, he became its first lieutenant-governor. La Trobe was a strong supporter of religious and educational institutions. During his time as superintendent and lieutenant-governor he oversaw the establishment of the Botanical Gardens, provided leadership and support to the formation of entities such as the Mechanic's Institute, the Royal Melbourne Hospital, the Royal Philharmonic, the Melbourne Cricket Ground and the University of Melbourne. La Trobe was the nephew of British architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe. Charles La Trobe was born in London, the son of Christian Ignatius Latrobe, a leader of the Moravian Church, from a family of French Huguenot descent, whose mother was a member of the Moravian Church born in the United States, he was educated in England and spent time in Switzerland and was active in mountaineering. La Trobe wrote several travel books describing his experiences: The Alpenstock: Or Sketches of Swiss Scenery and Manners and The Pedestrian: A Summer's Ramble in the Tyrol.
In 1832 he visited the United States along with Count Albert Pourtales, in 1834 travelled from New Orleans to Mexico with Washington Irving. He wrote The Rambler in North America and The Rambler in Mexico. On 16 September 1835 he married Sophie de Montmollin in Switzerland, their first child, Agnes Louisa de La Trobe, was born on 2 April 1837 in Switzerland. In 1837 La Trobe was entrusted with a government commission in the West Indies and reported on the future education of the emancipated slaves. On the 4th of February 1839 he was appointed superintendent of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales though he had little managerial and administrative experience. La Trobe sailed into Sydney on 26 July 1839, with his wife and 2-year-old daughter, for training on procedures; the La Trobes went on to Melbourne on 1 October. La Trobe bought 12½ acres of land on the fringe of the city, now called Jolimont, at auction at the upset price of £20 an acre. Governor Gipps was disturbed. La Trobe, convinced him that he had acted innocently.
On the land he erected his home, preserved and is called LaTrobe's Cottage, which he had transported in sections from London. Melbourne had a population of around 3,000 at the time and was expanding. La Trobe commenced works to improve sanitation and streets; as Port Phillip District was a dependency of New South Wales at the time, all land sales, building plans and officer appointments had to be approved by Governor of New South Wales George Gipps, with whom La Trobe had a good personal and working relationship. A Separation Association had been formed in 1840 wanting Port Phillip District to become a separate colony. In 1841 La Trobe wrote to Gipps, asking him to visit Melbourne to form his own opinion on the separation question. La Trobe did not campaign for separation, content that Earl Grey had included separation in the reorganisation plan for the colonies. La Trobe acted as lieutenant-governor of Van Diemen's Land for four months in 1846-47. By 1851, Port Phillip district had gained separation from New South Wales, becoming the colony of Victoria, La Trobe was lieutenant-governor for three years - a position he held until 1854.
Soon after separation gold was discovered at several locations in Victoria and La Trobe had to deal with the mass exodus of the population of Melbourne to the gold fields. He was referred to as "Charley Joe", by extension, any government officials or policemen were called "joes". La Trobe, who had suffered self-doubt and criticisms due to his inexperience, had submitted his resignation in December 1852 but had to wait until a replacement, Charles Hotham, could take his place. Towards the end of his governorship, La Trobe's wife Sophie became ill and returned to Europe with their four children. Sophia died on 30 January 1854. On his return to Europe after his term, La Trobe in 1855 married Sophie's sister, Rose Isabelle de Meuron, a marriage, illegal in English law as incestuous at the time; the couple had two daughters in Switzerland and moved to England in 1861. He did not get any further British government appointments, his eyesight was deteriorating, he was blind for the last years of his life.
He died in 1875. La Trobe is linked to the discovery of a minor piece of evidence suggesting early European exploration of Australia. In 1847, at Limeburners' Point near Geelong, Charles La Trobe, a keen amateur geologist, was examining the shells from a lime kiln when a worker showed him a set of five keys that he claimed to have found, subsequently named the Geelong Keys. La Trobe concluded that, based on their appearance, the keys were dropped onto the beach around 100 to 150 years beforehand. In 1977, Kenneth McIntyre hypothesized they were dropped by Portuguese sailors under the command of Cristóvão de Mendonça. Since the keys have long been lost their exact origin cannot be verified. However, research by Geologists Edmund Gill and P. F. B. Alsop showed the deposit they were found in was 2330–2800 years old, making La Trobe's dating impossible. Much of Melbourne's substantial inner-ring parks and gardens can be attributed to La Trobe's foresight in reserving this land. Melbourne and Victoria are dotted with things named in honour of La Trobe
Henry Leavitt Ellsworth
Henry Leavitt Ellsworth was a Yale-educated attorney who became the first Commissioner of the U. S. Patent Office, where he encouraged innovation by inventors Samuel F. B. Morse and Samuel Colt. Ellsworth served as the second president of the Aetna Insurance Company, was a major donor to Yale College, a commissioner to Indian tribes on the western frontier, the founder of what became the United States Department of Agriculture. Ellsworth was born in Windsor, son of Founding Father and Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth and Abigail Wolcott. Ellsworth graduated from Yale University in 1810, studied law at Tapping Reeve's Litchfield Law School in 1811. On June 22, 1813, he married Nancy Allen Goodrich with whom Ellsworth had three children, including son Henry W. Ellsworth. In life, he had two subsequent wives, Marietta Mariana Bartlett and Catherine Smith. Ellsworth was named in part for the Leavitts of Suffield, Connecticut. After studying law under Judge Gould in Litchfield, Connecticut, he settled first at Windsor and at Hartford, where he remained for a decade.
In 1811, when he was 19 years old and a freshly minted Yale graduate, Ellsworth undertook the first of several western trips during his lifetime. Ellsworth traveled by horseback to the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Ohio to investigate family lands in the region. Ellsworth's father Oliver Ellsworth had purchased over 41,000 acres in the Western Reserve, including most of present-day Cleveland, joining with other prominent Connecticut men snapping up over three million acres sold by the state of Connecticut. Ellsworth wrote a small, uneven book about his experiences entitled A Tour to New Connecticut in 1811. Ellsworth's mission was straightening out irregularities in land sales by the family agent, it was an arduous trip. Along the way Ellsworth made note of attractive vistas, rowdy drunks, solicitous innkeepers and his disappointment in places of which he had heard, like Erie; the journey's rigors were relieved by a meeting with his old friend Margaret Dwight, daughter of Yale president Timothy Dwight IV, visiting family in present-day Warren, Ohio.
"Here too", wrote Ellsworth, "I met with my good old friend Margaret Dwight, we sat down and passed a few hours in social chat." Dwight wrote her own account of her Western Reserve trip, A Journey to Ohio in 1810. Over twenty years in 1832, Ellsworth traveled west again, this time as U. S. Commissioner of Indian Tribes in Arkansas and Oklahoma. President Andrew Jackson appointed Ellsworth one of three commissioners to "study the country, to mark the boundaries, to pacify the warring Indians and, in general to establish order and justice" after Congress's passage of the 1830 Indian Removal Act. Ellsworth travelled to Fort Gibson to investigate the situation. Along the way, Ellsworth made stops in Cincinnati and Louisville traveled on to St. Louis, where he met with explorer William Clark and saw the captured Native American leader Black Hawk, chief of the Sauk and Fox tribe. Leavitt's mission was a complicated one: he was charged with trying to mediate between the conflicting claims of several Indian tribes, who were being forced into an ever-smaller area, in competition with newer immigrants and the interests of the Chouteau family, the powerful St. Louis magnates of the Midwestern fur trade.
Ellsworth was accompanied on the expedition by three companions: author Washington Irving, who recorded his impressions in A Tour on the Prairies. Washington Irving wrote of Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, "this worthy leader of our little band": "He was a native of one of the towns of Connecticut, a man in whom a course of legal practice and political life had not been able to vitiate an innate simplicity and benevolence of heart; the greater part of his days had been passed in the bosom of his family and the society of deacons and statesmen, on the peaceful banks of the Connecticut. In 1835, Ellsworth was elected mayor of Hartford, but had served only a month when he was appointed the first Commissioner of the U. S. Patent Office, an office he held for ten years, from 1835 until 1845, his twin brother William W. Ellsworth was Governor of Connecticut from 1838 to 1842, served as a U. S. Congressman from Connecticut as well. William Wolcott Ellsworth was married to the daughter of Noah Webster, the publisher of the eponymous dictionaries.
When he arrived at the Patent Office, Ellsworth found one third of the floor-space in his office occupied by over 60 models of inventions. He found that no list of patent applicants had been drawn up, a deficiency he soon corrected. Acting as Patent Commissioner, Ellsworth made a decision that profoundly affected the future of Hartford and Connecticut; the young Samuel Colt w
Tarrytown, New York
Tarrytown is a village in the town of Greenburgh in Westchester County, New York, United States. It is located on the eastern bank of the Hudson River, about 25 miles north of midtown Manhattan in New York City, is served by a stop on the Metro-North Hudson Line. To the north of Tarrytown is the village of Sleepy Hollow, to the south the village of Irvington and to the east unincorporated parts of Greenburgh; the Tappan Zee Bridge crosses the Hudson at Tarrytown, carrying the New York State Thruway to South Nyack, Rockland County and points in Upstate New York. The population was 11,277 at the 2010 census; the Native American Weckquaesgeek tribe, who were related to the Wappinger Confederacy and further related to the Mohicans, lived in the area prior to European settlement. They fished the Hudson River for shad and other shellfish, their principal settlement was at what is now the foot of Church Street near the Hudson River shore, between the current location of Losee Park and the Tappan Zee Bridge, at a place they called Alipconk, or the "Place of Elms".
The first European settlers of Tarrytown were Dutch farmers, fur trappers, fishermen. Records show that the first Dutch residence in Tarrytown was built in 1645. Tarrytown sits within the lands of the former Dutch Colony of New Netherland which became English territory in 1674 with the signing of the Treaty of Westminster; the name may come from the Dutch tarwe, meaning "wheat". In 1780, in a famous Revolutionary War incident, Major John André was arrested as a spy in Tarrytown, which exposed the plans of his associate Benedict Arnold. André, a British army officer, was traveling south through the village on the Albany Post Road when he was stopped and searched by three local militiamen; when suspicious papers were found in his boot, he was arrested as a spy convicted, hanged. A circumstantial account of André's capture by militiamen David Williams, John Paulding, Isaac Van Wart was written in 1903 by the owner and publisher of the Tarrytown Argus, Marcius D. Raymond; the writer Washington Irving described Tarrytown in "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow".
Irving began his story, "In the bosom of one of those spacious coves which indent the eastern shore of the Hudson, at that broad expansion of the river denominated by the ancient Dutch navigators of the Tappan Zee, where they always prudently shortened sail and implored the protection of St. Nicholas when they crossed, there lies a small market town or rural port which by some is called Greenburgh, but, more and properly known by the name of Tarry Town." The Underground Railroad ran through Tarrytown prior to the end of the U. S. Civil War. Tarrytown became a favorite residence for many rich New Yorkers, including John D. Rockefeller, who first moved to Tarrytown in 1893. Kykuit, Rockefeller's elaborate mansion, was completed in 1906. In 1914, Kykuit became the site of numerous labor protests by radical anarchists, which protests were broken up by police in a series of violent clashes. Kykuit was the intended target of at least two bombing attacks planned by anarchists associated with the radical journalists Alexander Berkman and Luigi Galleani.
On November 19, 1915, a powerful dynamite bomb was discovered at Cedar Cliff, the Tarrytown estate of John D. Archbold, President of the Standard Oil Company. Police theorized the bomb was planted by anarchists and Industrial Workers of the World radicals as a protest against the execution of IWW member Joe Hill in Salt Lake City; the bomb was discovered by a gardener, John Walquist, who found four sticks of dynamite, weighing a pound each, half hidden in a rut in a driveway 50 feet from the front entrance of the residence. The dynamite sticks were bound together by a length of wire, fitted with percussion caps, wrapped with a piece of paper matching the color of the driveway, a path used by Archbold when going to or from his home by automobile; the bomb was defused by police. The Christ Episcopal Church, First Baptist Church of Tarrytown, Foster Memorial AME Zion Church, Washington Irving High School, North Grove Street Historic District, Patriot's Park, Tarrytown Music Hall are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Lyndhurst and Sunnyside are listed as National Historic Landmarks. The General Motors car manufacturing plant North Tarrytown Assembly was located in North Tarrytown until 1996. Today's Metro-North Railroad's Hudson Line runs through the abandoned property. Sleepy Hollow Mayor Philip Zegarelli, in March 2007, met with Tarrytown Mayor Drew Fixell and district superintendent Howard Smith to discuss forming a blue-ribbon panel that would explore the pros and cons of an intermunicipal agreement; the two villages have shared a school district for 55 years. The villages shared some services, as well, to lower their expenses, but the greatest reductions in school and property taxes, would come from merging the two villages. However, each village has its own assessment roll. Zegarelli, who led an unsuccessful attempt in the mid-1970s to disaffiliate Sleepy Hollow from the town of Mount Pleasant, continues to advocate for secession – Sleepy Hollow from Mount Pleasant and Tarrytown from Greenburgh – as another way to save money.
"If the idea is to save money, why have two levels of government?" he asked. The town of Mount Pleasant blocked Sleepy Hollow's effort to secede because it did not want to lose tax revenue from General Motors, Zegarelli said. In 2014, Tarrytown was ranked second in the list of the top 10 places to live in New York, according to the national online real estate brokerage Movoto. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 5.7 square miles (15 k