California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
An interpunct known as an interpoint, middle dot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script. It appears in a variety of uses in some modern languages and is present in Unicode as code point U+00B7 · MIDDLE DOT; the multiplication dot or dot operator U+22C5 ⋅ DOT OPERATOR indicates multiplication and is optionally used instead of the styled × for multiplication of real numbers: a ⋅ b is equivalent to a × b or "a times b". The same sign is used in vector multiplication to discriminate between the scalar product and the vector cross product or exterior product; as a multiplication operator, it is encountered in symbols for compound units such as the newton-meter. The multiplication dot is a separate Unicode character, but is silently replaced by the interpunct or bullet, another similar glyph, intended for lists. Various dictionaries use the interpunct to indicate syllabification within a word with multiple syllables.
There is a separate Unicode character, U+2027 ‧ HYPHENATION POINT. In British typography, the space dot is an interpunct used as the formal decimal point, its use is advocated by laws and by academic circles such as the Cambridge University History Faculty Style Guide and is mandated by some UK-based academic journals such as The Lancet. When the British currency was decimalised in 1971, the official advice issued was to write decimal amounts with a raised point and to use a decimal point "on the line" only when typesetting constraints made it unavoidable; this usage, has been declining since the mid-1970s, as the importation of electronic typewriters and computers from the United States and Japan familiarised Britons with using full stops and made the space dot harder to typeset. The space dot may still be used in handwriting, however. In the early modern era, periods were sometimes written as interpuncts. In the Shavian alphabet, interpuncts replace capitalization as the marker of proper nouns.
The dot is placed at the beginning of a word. The punt volat is used in Catalan between two Ls in cases where each belongs to a separate syllable, for example cel·la, "cell"; this distinguishes such "geminate Ls", which are pronounced, from "double L", which are written without the flying point and are pronounced. In situations where the flying point is unavailable, periods or hyphens are used as substitutes, but this is tolerated rather than encouraged. Medieval Catalan used the symbol ⟨·⟩ as a marker for certain elisions, much like the modern apostrophe, hyphenations. There is no separate keyboard layout for Catalan: the flying point can be typed using ⇧ Shift+3 in the Spanish layout, it appears in Unicode as the letters ⟨Ŀ⟩ and ⟨ŀ⟩, but they are compatibility characters and are not used or recommended. The larger bullet may be seen but is discouraged on aesthetic grounds; the preferred Unicode representation is ⟨l·⟩. The interpunct is used in Chinese to mark divisions in transliterated foreign words names.
This is properly a full-width partition sign, although sometimes narrower forms are substituted for aesthetic reasons. In particular, the regular interpunct is more used as a computer input, although Chinese-language fonts render this as full width; when the Chinese text is romanized, the partition sign is replaced by a standard space or other appropriate punctuation. Thus, William Shakespeare is signified as 威廉·莎士比亞 or 威廉·莎士比亞, George W. Bush as 喬治·W·布殊 or 喬治·W·布什, the full name of the prophet Muhammad as 阿布·卡西木·穆罕默德·本·阿布杜拉·本·阿布杜勒-穆塔利卜·本·哈希姆. Titles and other translated words are not marked: Genghis Khan and Elizabeth II are 成吉思汗 and 伊利沙伯二世 or 伊麗莎白二世 without a partition sign; the partition sign is used to separate book and chapter titles when they are mentioned consecutively: book first and chapter. In Pe̍h-ōe-jī for Taiwanese Hokkien, middle dot is used as a workaround for dot above right diacritic because most early encoding systems did not support this diacritic; this is now encoded as U+0358 ͘ COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT.
Unicode did not support this diacritic until June 2004. Newer fonts support it natively, it was derived in the late 19th century from an older barred-o with curly tail as an adaptation to the typewriter. In Tibetan the interpunct ་, called ཙེག་, is used as a morpheme delimiter; the Ge'ez language uses an interpunct of two vertically aligned dots, like a colon, but with larger dots. An example is ገድለ፡ወለተ፡ጴጥሮስ. In Franco-Provençal, the interpunct is used in order to distinguish the following graphemes: ch·, versus ch, pronounced j·, versus j, pronounced g· before e, i, versus g before e, i, pronounced Ancient Greek did not have spacing or interpuncts but instead ran all the letters together. By Late Antiquity, various
The Carson River is a northwestern Nevada river that empties into the Carson Sink, an endorheic basin. The main stem of the river is 131 miles long although addition of the East Fork makes the total length 205 miles, traversing five counties: Alpine County in California and Douglas, Storey and Churchill Counties in Nevada, as well as the Consolidated Municipality of Carson City, Nevada; the river is named for Kit Carson, who guided John C. Frémont's expedition westward up the Carson Valley and across Carson Pass in winter, 1844. Archaeological finds place the eastern border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Reno/Carson River area the first humans to enter the area about 12,000 years ago. By the early 1800s, the Northern Paiute lived near the lower Carson River and the present Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, while the Washoe people inhabited the upper watershed region; the first European settlements in Nevada were the 1851 settlements at Mormon Station and at the mouth of Gold Canyon, both in the Carson River Watershed.
In the 1850s and 1860s, the river was used as the route of the Carson Trail, a branch of the California Trail that allowed access to the California gold fields, as well as by the Pony Express. Gold was discovered along the river in the Silver Mountain Mining District in 1860; the 1868 Virginia and Truckee Railroad transported ore to the quartz reduction mines along the river. Virginia City, along the lower watershed, was home in 1859 to the world's greatest silver rush, the Comstock Lode; the Carson Valley provided forage for the silver miners and their livestock. The Comstock mining boom critically impacted the watershed and its water quality by causing deforested slopes, mine tailings, steep raw riverbanks above channels cut into the valley floor in many places. In the early 20th century, the Newlands Reclamation Act was passed to bring irrigation water into the region for agriculture; the Lahontan Dam, completed in 1914, was constructed as part of the Newlands Irrigation Project. The Truckee-Carson Irrigation District was formed in 1918 as part of the project to divert water from the Truckee River to the Carson Valley for agricultural use.
In 1989, the East Fork Carson River was designated a "Wild and Scenic River" by the State of California from Hangman's Bridge just east of Markleeville, California to the CA/NV border, prohibiting any further consideration of impoundment. The 205 miles Carson River watershed encompasses 3,966 square miles and includes two major forks in the Sierra Nevada in its upper watershed region; the 74-mile-long East Fork rises on the north slopes of Sonora Peak (itself just north of Sonora Pass at about 10,400 feet in southern Alpine County, southeast of Markleeville in the Carson-Iceberg Wilderness. The 40-mile-long West Fork rises in the Sierras near Carson Pass and Lost Lakes at 9,000 feet elevation and flows northeast into Nevada, joining the East Fork about 1 mile southeast of Genoa; the Carson River flows north 18 miles to the end of the upper watershed at Mexican Dam just southeast of Carson City. In the middle watershed the river runs northeast from Carson City across Lyon County, past Dayton.
The middle watershed ends in eastern Churchill County at the Lahontan Dam. Here river flows are augmented by water from the Truckee River and stored in the Lake Lahontan reservoir. Downstream from the dam much of the water is used for irrigation in the vicinity of Fallon, with limited flows continuing northeast into the Carson Sink. Clear Creek, which begins at about 8,780 feet on Snow Valley Peak west of Carson City, is the only perennial tributary of the Carson River mainstem, is protected by the Nature Conservancy; the Carson River basin, from New Empire to Stillwater and the Carson Sink, was designated as National Priority Listed due to historic mining activity site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act in August, 1990. This is Nevada's only NPL site and is being jointly managed by NDEP and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 9, Region IX, in San Francisco. Millions of pounds of mercury were imported and used in 250 Comstock mills to recover gold and silver.
An estimated 14,000,000 pounds of mercury was lost to the environment during that process. Arsenic and Lead, which were common constituents of the mined ore, were concentrated by the milling process and were released to the environment. Therefore, the Contaminants of Concern at the site are Mercury and Lead. Mercury and Lead are known or suspected carcinogens and/or detrimental to human health in some other way, they do, need a route into the human body. Direct contact with soils and subsequent ingestion and/or eating fish and waterfowl taken from the CRMS area, which may have ingested CoC's, provide the most route into the body. Small children have highest risk due to developing bodies and their propensity for ingesting soil while at play; the EPA and other scientists studied residents of contaminated areas and found no direct evidence of increased metals in blood and urine samples. They did find elevated levels in certain waterfowl; some of the highest levels in the nation. Human health, if impacted, would be impacted over years of small amounts of exposure and could be hard to detect.
A few simple measures can decrease soil ingestion rates, like washing hands and dusting and vacuuming regularly. Take care with the amount of fish and waterfowl that are taken and eaten from the Carson River, Lake Lahontan, Indian Lakes and Little
The Truckee River is a river in the U. S. states of Nevada. The river is 121 miles long; the Truckee is the sole outlet of Lake Tahoe and drains part of the high Sierra Nevada, emptying into Pyramid Lake in the Great Basin. Its waters are an important source of irrigation along its valley and adjacent valleys; when John C. Frémont and Kit Carson ascended the Truckee River on January 16, 1844 they called it the Salmon Trout River, after the huge Lahontan cutthroat trout that ran up the river from Pyramid Lake to spawn. However, the river was named after a Paiute chief known as Truckee who in 1844 guided an emigrant party from the headwaters of the Humboldt River to California via the Truckee River, Donner Lake, Donner Pass. Appreciative of their Indian guide's services; the chief's real name might not have been Truckee, but Tru-ki-zo, which could have become distorted as "Truckee". There are numerous other theories about his name; the Truckee River's source is the outlet of Lake Tahoe, at the dam on the northwest side of the lake near Tahoe City, California.
It flows northeast through the mountains to Truckee, California turns to the east and flows into Nevada, through Reno and Sparks and along the northern end of the Carson Range. At Fernley it turns north, it empties into the southern end of Pyramid Lake, a remnant of prehistoric Lake Lahontan, in northern Washoe County in the Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation. The Truckee River's endorheic drainage basin is about 3,060 square miles, of which about 2,300 square miles are in Nevada; the Middle Watershed is regarded as the 15 miles of river and its tributaries from Tahoe City in Placer County, through the Town of Truckee in Nevada County, to the state line between Sierra and Washoe counties. The major tributaries to the Truckee River in California from the Lake Tahoe outlet and heading downstream include: Bear Creek, Squaw Creek, Cabin Creek, Pole Creek, Donner Creek, Trout Creek, Martis Creek, Prosser Creek, the Little Truckee River, Gray Creek, Bronco Creek. Major lakes and reservoirs in the California part of the watershed include Lake Tahoe, Donner Lake, Independence Lake, Webber Lake, Boca Reservoir, Stampede Reservoir, Prosser Creek Reservoir, Martis Creek Reservoir.
In the Lower Watershed, Steamboat Creek, which drains Washoe Lake, is the major tributary to the Truckee River. Like many other rivers in the western United States, the Truckee's flow is regulated with most river flow allocated through a system of water rights, set in 2015 by the Truckee River Operating Agreement; this system over-allocates available water during low flow periods. Disputes occur among those asserting rights to the water. In the early 20th century, the Newlands Reclamation Act instituted a diversion that removed river flows from the Truckee River watershed and transferred them to the Carson River watershed; the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District supervises the diversion of one-third of the river flow at the Derby Dam to the Lahontan Valley to irrigate alfalfa and pastures. Truckee River water is supplied to the resort communities surrounding Lake Tahoe, the greater metropolitan area of Reno and Sparks, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Reservation; the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses some of the water to induce spawning of the endangered fish cui-ui and to provide drought relief.
Beaver were re-introduced to the Truckee River watershed and Tahoe Basin by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U. S. Forest Service between 1934 and 1949 in order to prevent stream degradation and to promote wetland restoration; that beaver were once native to the area is supported by the fact that the Washo have a word for beaver, c'imhélhel and the northern Paiute of Walker Lake, Honey Lake and Pyramid Lake have a word for beaver su-i'-tu-ti-kut'-teh. When Stephen Powers visited the northern Paiute to collect Indian materials for the Smithsonian Institution in preparation for the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, he reported that the northern Paiute wrapped their hair in strips of beaver fur, made medicine from parts of beaver and that their creation legend included beaver. In addition, fur trapper Stephen Hall Meek "set his traps on the Truckee River in 1833", which suggests that he saw beaver or beaver sign. Supporting this line of evidence, Tappe records in 1941 an eyewitness who said beaver were plentiful on eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada on the upper part of the Carson River and its tributaries in Alpine County until 1892 when they fell victim to heavy trapping.
James "Grizzly" Adams' reports trapping beaver in the lower Carson River around 1860, "In the evening we caught a fine lot of salmon-trout, using grasshoppers for bait, in the night killed half a dozen beavers, which were tame." Recent novel physical evidence of beaver's historic presence in the Sierra Nevada, was the discovery of beaver dams dating to the 1850s in Red Clover Creek in the Feather River watershed. The presence of beaver dams has been shown to either increase the number of fish, their size, or both, in a study of brook and brown trout in nearby Sagehen Creek, which flows into the Little Truckee River at an altitude of 5,800 feet and is a stream typical of the eastern slope of the northern Sierra Nevada. Not only have aspen and cottonwood survived ongoing beaver colonization but a recent study of ten Tahoe streams utilizing aerial multispectral videography, including Trout Creek and Cold Creek, has shown that deciduous and thin herbaceous vegetation has increased near beaver dams, whereas coniferous tre
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States. Lying at 6,225 ft, it straddles the state line between Nevada, west of Carson City. Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake in North America, at 122,160,280 acre⋅ft trails only the five Great Lakes as the largest by volume in the United States, its depth is 1,645 ft, making it the second deepest in the United States after Crater Lake in Oregon. The lake was formed about two million years ago as part of the Lake Tahoe Basin, with the modern extent being shaped during the ice ages, it is known for the panorama of surrounding mountains on all sides. The area surrounding the lake is referred to as Lake Tahoe, or Tahoe. More than 75% of the lake's watershed is national forest land, comprising the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit of the United States Forest Service. Lake Tahoe is a major tourist attraction in both California, it is home to winter sports, summer outdoor recreation, scenery enjoyed throughout the year. Snow and ski resorts are a significant part of the area's reputation.
The Nevada side offers large casinos, with highways providing year-round access to the entire area. Lake Tahoe is the second deepest lake in the U. S. with a maximum depth of 1,645 feet, trailing Oregon's Crater Lake at 1,949 ft. Tahoe is the 16th deepest lake in the world, the fifth deepest in average depth, it is about 22 mi long and 12 mi wide and has 72 mi of shoreline and a surface area of 191 square miles. The lake is so large. At lake level the opposing shorelines are below the horizon at its widest parts. Visibility may vary somewhat with atmospheric refraction. Fata Morgana may be responsible for Tahoe Tessie sightings. Two-thirds of the shoreline is in California; the south shore is dominated by the lake's largest city, South Lake Tahoe, which adjoins the town of Stateline, while Tahoe City, California, is located on the lake's northwest shore. Although highways run within sight of the lake shore for much of Tahoe's perimeter, many important parts of the shoreline lie within state parks or are protected by the United States Forest Service.
The Lake Tahoe Watershed of 505 sq mi includes the land area that drains to the lake and the Lake Tahoe drainage divide traverses the same general area as the Tahoe Rim Trail. Lake Tahoe is fed by 63 tributaries; these drain an area about the same size as the lake and produce half its water, with the balance entering as rain or snow falling directly on it. The Truckee River is the lake's only outlet, flowing northeast through Reno, into Pyramid Lake which has no outlet, it accounts for one third of the water that leaves the lake, the rest evaporating from the lake's vast surface. The flow of the Truckee River and the height of the lake are controlled by the Lake Tahoe Dam at the outlet; the natural rim is with a spillway at the dam controlling overflow. The maximum legal limit, to which the lake can be allowed to rise in order to store water, is at 6,229.1 ft. Around New Year 1996/1997 a Pineapple Express atmospheric river melted snow and caused the lake and river to overflow, inundating Reno and surrounding areas.
The Lake Tahoe Basin was formed by vertical motion faulting. Uplifted blocks created the Carson Range on the main Sierra Nevada crest on the west. Down-dropping and block tilting created the Lake Tahoe Basin in between; this kind of faulting is characteristic of the geology of the adjoining Great Basin to the east. Lake Tahoe is the youngest of several extensional basins of the Walker Lane deformation zone that accommodates nearly 0.47 in per year of dextral shear between the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley Block and North America. Three principal faults form the Lake Tahoe basin: the West Tahoe Fault, aligned between Meyers and Tahoe City, and, the local segment of the Sierra Nevada Fault, extending on shore north and south of these localities; the West Tahoe Fault appears to be the most active and hazardous fault in the basin. A study in Fallen Leaf Lake, just south of Lake Tahoe, used seafloor mapping techniques to image evidence for paleoearthquakes on the West Tahoe and revealed the last earthquake occurred between 4,100 and 4,500 years ago.
Subsequent studies revealed submarine landslides in Fallen Leaf Lake and Lake Tahoe that are thought to have been triggered by earthquakes on the West Tahoe fault and the timing of these events suggests a recurrence interval of 3,000–4,000 years. Some of the highest peaks of the Lake Tahoe Basin that formed during the process of Lake Tahoe creation are Freel Peak at 10,891 feet, Monument Peak at 10,067 feet, Pyramid Peak at 9,984 feet, Mount Tallac at 9,735 feet; the north shore boasts three peaks at 10,000+ feet: Mount Rose at 10,785 feet, Houghton and Relay peaks. Mt. Rose is a popular hiking and backcountry skiing destination. Eruptions from the extinct volcano Mount Pluto formed a volcanic
The Washoe are a Great Basin tribe of Native Americans, living near Lake Tahoe at the border between California and Nevada. The name "Washoe" is derived from the autonym waashiw meaning "people from here" in the Washo language. Washoe people have lived in the Great Basin and the eastern Sierra Nevada mountains for at least the last 6,000 years. Prior to contact with Europeans, the territory of the Washoe people was bounded by the southern shore of Honey Lake in the north, the west fork of the Walker River in the south, the Sierra Nevada crest in the west, the first range east of the Sierra Nevada in the east; the Washoe would spend the summer in the Sierra Nevada at Lake Tahoe. Washoe people are the only Great Basin tribe whose language is not Numic, so they are believed to have inhabited the region prior to neighboring tribes; the Kings Beach Complex that emerged about 500 CE around Lake Tahoe and the northern Sierra Nevadas are regarded as early Washoe culture. The Martis complex may have overlapped with the Kings Beach culture, Martis pit houses gave way to conical bark slab houses of historic Washoe culture.
The Washoe people and the neighboring Northern Paiute people were culturally and linguistically different, they sometimes came into conflict and were enslaved by them. Washoe people may have made contact with Spanish explorers in the early 19th century, but the Washoe did not sustain contact with people of European culture until the 1848 California Gold Rush. Washoe resistance to incursions on their lands proved futile, the last armed conflict with the Washoes and non-Indians was the Potato War of 1857, when starving Washoes were killed for gathering potatoes from a European-American farm near Honey Lake in California. Loss of the valley hunting grounds to farms and the piñon pine groves to feed Virginia City's demand for lumber and charcoal drove most Washoe to dependency on jobs on white ranches and farms and in cities; the areas where they settled became known as Indian colonies. Piñon pine nuts gathered in the fall provided much of the food eaten in the winter. Roots, seeds and game provided much of the food eaten during the rest of the year.
The Washoe people were deeply knowledgeable about their land and where resources were plentiful. This included an understanding of the seasonal cycles of both animals. Wašiw people were dependent on fishing at Lake Tahoe and the surrounding streams. Fishing was a huge part of Wašiw life; the Pine Nut Dance and girls' puberty rites remain important ceremonies. The Wašiw people once relied on medicine men and their innate knowledge of medicinal plants and ceremonies. Much of this knowledge and activity has been lost due to contact with the Western world; the Washoe language has been regarded as a language isolate, However, it is sometimes tentatively regarded as part of the controversial Hokan language family. The language is written in the Latin script; the Wašiw language is now considered a moribund language as only a handful of fluent elder speakers use the language. There has been a recent revival of the culture within the Tribe. "Wašiw Wagayay Maŋal" was the first attempt by the Wašiw people to renew their language for the future generations.
The tribe relies on the tribal Cultural Resource Department to provide language classes to the community. However, there has been a pedagogical shift within the tribe, the youth have become the focal point of language and culture programs, because they are the future. Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Susanville Indian Rancheria Washoe Tribe of Nevada and CaliforniaUnder the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the colonies in the Carson Valley area of Nevada and California gained federal recognition as the Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California; the colony in Reno, which had a substantial Paiute and Shoshoni population, gained separate recognition as the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony. There is evidence; the Susanville Rancheria includes Washoe members, as well as Northern Paiute, Northeastern Maidu and Atsugewi members. Dangberg, Grace. 1968. Washo Tales: Three Original Washo Indian Legends. Nevada State Museum Occasional Paper Number 1. Carson City, Nevada. D'Azevedo, Warren L.. "Washoe" in Great Basin, Warren L. d'Azevedo, ed. pp. 466–498.
Volume 11 in Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004578-9/0160045754. Nevers, Jo Ann. 1976. Wa She Shu: A Washo Tribal History. Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada: University of Utah Printing Service. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Barett, Samuel Alfred; the Washo Indians. Pub. by order of the Trustees. Retrieved 24 August 2012. Washo Bibliography, from California Indian Library Collections Project Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California, official website Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, official website Susanville Indian Rancheria, official website A Guide to the Washo research notes, 98-17. Special Collections, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Reno; these papers represent the research carried out by Anita Spring during her anthropological summer field studies in 1965