Eastern Michigan University
Eastern Michigan University is a public university in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Ypsilanti is 35 miles west of Detroit and eight miles east of Ann Arbor; the university was founded in 1849 as Michigan State Normal School. Today, the university is governed by an eight-member Board of Regents whose members are appointed by the governor of Michigan for eight-year terms; the school belongs to the Mid-American Conference and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Since 1991 EMU athletes have been known as "Eagles" and the school mascot, was adopted by the university three years later. EMU comprises seven colleges and schools: College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business, College of Education, College of Health and Human Services, College of Technology, an Honors College, a Graduate School; the university's site is composed of an academic and athletic campus spread across 800 acres, with over 120 buildings. EMU has a total enrollment of more than 23,000 students; the university opened its doors in 1853 as Michigan State Normal School.
Michigan State Normal School was the first in Michigan and the first normal school created outside the original 13 colonies. One hundred and twenty-two students started classes March 29, 1853. Adonijah Welch served as Michigan State Normal School's first principal. Michigan created; the normal schools were to train teachers for common schools, which were being established in new towns in the state. In 1899, the school became the Michigan State Normal College when it developed the first four-year curriculum for a normal college in the nation. Normal began the 20th century as Michigan's premier teacher-preparatory school and had become the first teacher-training school in the United States to have a four-year degree program; the school continued through World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, expanded further. With the additions of departments and the large educational enrollment after WWII, the school became Eastern Michigan College in 1956. In 1959 the school became a university, gaining the title Eastern Michigan University after establishing the Graduate School.
Between 1959 through 1980 the College of Education, College of Arts and Sciences, Graduate School, College of Business, College of Health and Human Services, College of Technology were established. In the early 1970s, international student exchange schemes were organized, including one with Coventry College of Education in Britain. In 2005, the Honors Program became the Eastern Michigan University Honors College. More extended programs were added, such as Continuing Education, the Centers for Corporate Training, the World College, numerous community-focused institutes. Today the university's total student population averages about 23,000, of whom 5,000 are graduate students. Most programs are undergraduate or master's level, although the university has doctoral programs in Educational Leadership and Psychology. EMU former-President Susan W. Martin, Ph. D. took office as EMU's twenty-second president on July 7, 2008, just after the university was fined a then-record $350,000 for not reporting to students the sexual assault and murder of a student in her residence hall room.
Under Michigan's 1964 state constitution, Eastern Michigan University is governed by an eight-member Board of Regents. The Regents are appointed by the governor, "with the advice and consent of the Senate", serve eight-year terms; the Regents, in turn, elect the president of the university Eastern Michigan University offers degrees and programs at the bachelor's, master's, specialist's and doctoral levels. There are more than 200 majors and minors at the undergraduate level, more than 170 graduate programs. EMU has six Academic Divisions and eight University Sites which include satellite campuses. Just like many other large universities EMU does offer online degrees; the University has seven Schools. Areas of study are divided by College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business, College of Education, College of Health and Human Services and College of Technology. Beyond this there are two other colleges: an Honors College, which oversees honors courses, the Graduate School; the Honors College and Graduate school handles courses that are honors and graduate program within the various colleges.
Eastern has offered graduate courses since 1939. The graduate school has close to 5,000 students enrolled in masters and doctoral programs and is house in Boone Hall; the two oldest colleges at the university are the College of Arts and Sciences and the College of Education. The largest college is the College of Sciences with 125 programs of study. Beyond this CAS oversees the most facilities such as Ford Gallery, Sherzer Hall, Kresge Environmental Education Center, the Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology Research Facility, Pease Auditorium. Eastern Michigan has had a long history of developing educators since its founding. EMU prides itself as the largest producer of educational personnel in the country since 1991. Eastern Michigan University's Department of Special Education is among the oldest special education program in the United States, started In 1923; the College of Business was established in 1964. The COB is the only college not on the main campus, it is housed in the Gary M. Owen building in downtown Ypsilanti.
The COB is known for having the First Ethos Ethos Honor Society in the country. Eastern Michigan University established the College of Human Services in 1975; the university changed the name to the College of He
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Lansing is the capital of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is in Ingham County, although portions of the city extend west into Eaton County and north into Clinton County; the 2010 Census placed the city's population at 114,297, making it the fifth largest city in Michigan. The population of its Metropolitan Statistical Area was 464,036, while the larger Combined Statistical Area population, which includes Shiawassee County, was 534,684, it was named the new state capital of Michigan in 1847. The Lansing metropolitan area, colloquially referred to as "Mid-Michigan", is an important center for educational, governmental and industrial functions. Neighboring East Lansing is home to Michigan State University, a public research university with an enrollment of more than 50,000; the area features two medical schools, one veterinary school, two nursing schools, two law schools. It is the site of the Michigan State Capitol, the state Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, a federal court, the Library of Michigan and Historical Center, headquarters of four national insurance companies.
Lansing is the only U. S. state capital, not a county seat. The seat of government of Ingham County is Mason; the first recorded person of European descent to travel through the area, now Lansing was British fur trader Hugh Heward and his French-Canadian team on April 24, 1790 while canoeing the Grand River. The land, to become Lansing was surveyed as "Township 4 North Range 2 West" in February 1827 in what was dense forest, it was the last of the county's townships to be surveyed, the land was not offered for sale until October 1830. There would be no roads to this area for decades to come. In the winter of 1835 and early 1836, two brothers from New York plotted the area now known as REO Town just south of downtown Lansing and named it "Biddle City"; this land was underwater during the majority of the year. The brothers went back to Lansing, New York, to sell plots for the town that did not exist, they told the New Yorkers this new "city" had an area of 65 blocks, a church and a public and academic square.
16 men bought plots in the nonexistent city, upon reaching the area that year found they had been scammed. Many in the group too disappointed to stay ended up settling around what is now metropolitan Lansing; those who stayed renamed the area "Lansing Township" in honor of their home village in New York. The settlement of fewer than 20 people would remain dormant until the winter of 1847 when the state constitution required the capital be moved from Detroit to a more central and safer location in the state's interior; the United States had recaptured the city in 1813, but these events led to the dire need to have the center of government relocate from hostile British territory. There was concern with Detroit's strong influence over Michigan politics, being the state's largest city as well as the capital city. During the multi-day session to determine a new location for the state capital, many cities, including Ann Arbor and Jackson, lobbied hard to win this designation. Unable to publicly reach a consensus because of constant political wrangling, the Michigan House of Representatives chose the Township of Lansing out of frustration.
When announced, many present laughed that such an insignificant settlement was now Michigan's capital. Two months Governor William L. Greenly signed into law the act of the legislature making Lansing Township the state capital. With the announcement that Lansing Township had been made the capital, the small village transformed into the seat of state government; the legislature gave the settlement the temporary name of the "Town of Michigan". In April 1848, the legislature gave the settlement the name of "Lansing". Within months after it became the capital city, individual settlements began to develop along three key points along the Grand River in the township: "Lower Village/Town", where present-day Old Town stands, was the oldest of the three villages, it was home to the first house built in his family. Lower Town began to develop in 1847 with the completion of the Franklin Avenue covered bridge over the Grand River. "Upper Village/Town", where present-day REO Town stands at the confluence of the Grand River and the Red Cedar River.
It began to take off in 1847. This village's focal point was the Benton House, a 4-story hotel which opened in 1848, it was the first brick building in Lansing and was razed in 1900. "Middle Village/Town", where downtown Lansing now stands, was the last of the three villages to develop in 1848 with the completion of the Michigan Avenue bridge across the Grand River and the completion of the temporary capitol building which sat where Cooley Law School stands today on Capitol Avenue between Allegan and Washtenaw Streets, the relocation of the post office to the village in 1851. This area would grow to become larger than the other two villages down river. For a brief time the combined villages were referred to as "Michigan" but was named Lansing in 1848. In 1859, the settlement having grown to nearly 3,000 and encompassing about 7 square miles in area was incorporated as a city; the boundaries of the original city were Douglas Avenue to the north and Regent streets to the east, Mount Hope Avenue to the south, Jenison Avenue to the west
Monroe County, Michigan
Monroe County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 152,021; the largest city and county seat is Monroe. The county was established as the second county in the Michigan Territory in 1817 and was named for then-President James Monroe. Monroe County comprises the Monroe, MI Micropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI Combined Statistical Area, it is considered a northerly extension of the Toledo Metropolitan Area. Before the county's formation, the primary settlement was Frenchtown, settled in as early as 1784 along the banks of the River Raisin; the small plot of land was given to the early French settlers by the Potawatomi Native Americans, the area was claimed for New France. The settlement of Frenchtown and the slight northerly settlement of Sandy Creek drew in a total of about 100 inhabitants. During the War of 1812, the area was the site of the Battle of Frenchtown, the worst American defeat in the war and remains the deadliest conflict on Michigan soil.
The site of the battle is now part of the River Raisin National Battlefield Park. Monroe County was formed from the southern portion of Wayne County in 1817. At the time, the Michigan Territory, which had not yet received statehood, consisted of only Wayne County since Detroit was the only area with a population over 1,000 people; when the area became more populated, the southern portion of Wayne County was broken off to form Monroe County with the settlement of Frenchtown was platted with the name "Monroe". The settlement incorporated as a village in 1817 and became the county seat of Monroe County; the county and its county seat were named in honor of then-President James Monroe in anticipation for his upcoming visit to the area. Shortly after its formation, Monroe County's population was recorded at only 336 in the 1820 census; when the county was formed, it stretched for 60 miles inland, but the western half was split off to form Lenawee County in 1826. Monroe County's most famous resident, George Armstrong Custer, moved to Monroe as a child and lived with his half-sister and brother-in-law.
Although not born in Monroe, he attended school in Monroe and moved away to attend the United States Military Academy. He returned to Monroe in 1864 during the Civil War to marry Elizabeth Bacon, whom he met while living in Monroe. Much of Custer's family resided in Monroe, included Elizabeth Bacon, Henry Armstrong Reed, Boston Custer. Following their deaths in the Battle of the Little Bighorn and Boston were interred and memorialized in Monroe's historic Woodland Cemetery, as are many members of Bacon's family. Although dying in the same battle, George Custer was interred at West Point Cemetery, Elizabeth Bacon was buried next to him when she died many decades later. In 1910, then-President William Howard Taft and the widowed Elizabeth Bacon unveiled an equestrian statue of Custer that now rests at the corner of Elm Street and Monroe Street in the heart of downtown Monroe; when the city of Toledo was incorporated in 1833, it was part of Monroe County instead of the state of Ohio. The small strip of land surrounding the mouth of the Maumee River was under the jurisdiction of the Michigan Territory, because the borders drawn up for the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set a territorial boundary as the southernmost edge of Lake Michigan.
When Ohio became the first in the Northwest Territory to gain statehood in 1803, the state's northern border claimed this important area though the boundaries of the Michigan Territory when it was formally organized in 1805 included this area. From 1833–1836, Toledo belonged to Monroe County, this led to the heated Toledo War border dispute between the Michigan Territory and the state of Ohio for the area known as the Toledo Strip. In late 1836, President Andrew Jackson, who disliked the Michigan Territory's "boy governor" Stevens T. Mason, intervened on behalf of Ohio and gave the Toledo Strip to Ohio in exchange for Michigan getting the Upper Peninsula — then considered a wasteland — when it became a state on January 26, 1837. For the time that Toledo was part of Monroe County, it surpassed Monroe in terms of size and population. In 1915, Michigan Governor Woodbridge Nathan Ferris and Ohio Governor Frank B. Willis called a ceremonial truce to the border conflict when new state line markers were erected.
The new state line at the end of the Toledo War was established at the 41°44' north latitude line just north of the mouth of the Maumee River. This gave the river and the city of Toledo to the state of Ohio, but it created an unintended consequence for a specific area of Michigan; the state line cut through the smaller Ottawa River and inadvertently cut off a small section of Monroe County, creating an exclave known as the "Lost Peninsula". The few Michigan residents that live on the small peninsula must travel south into Lucas County, Ohio on a 10-minute drive before going north to get back to the rest of Michigan; the Lost Peninsula is administered by Erie Township and most of the peninsula contains a marina. Monroe County's boundary remained unchanged from 1837 to 1973 when one final unresolved dispute from the Toledo War was resolved — 136 years after the conflict. Ownership over the small, uninhabited Turtle Island in a remote portion of Lake Erie was disputed for decades after the island's lighthouse was shut down.
The island was long still disputed by Ohio. On February 22, 1973, an agreement was met, state lines were redrawn for the last time to cut through the tiny island , which divided the island between Mo
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Ypsilanti shortened to Ypsi, is a city in Washtenaw County in the U. S. state of Michigan best known as the home of Eastern Michigan University. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 21,018; the city is bounded to the north by Superior Township and on the west and east by Ypsilanti Township. Ypsilanti is located about 18 miles west of the Detroit city limits; the geographic grid center of Ypsilanti is the intersection of the Huron River and Michigan Avenue, the latter of which connects downtown Detroit, with Chicago and through Ypsilanti is concurrent with U. S. Route 12 Business and M-17. A trading post established in 1809 by Gabriel Godfroy, a French-Canadian fur trader from Montreal, a permanent settlement was established on the east side of the Huron River in 1823 by Major Thomas Woodruff, it was incorporated into the Territory of Michigan as the village Woodruff's Grove. A separate community a short distance away on the west side of the river was established in 1825 under the name "Ypsilanti", after Demetrios Ypsilantis, a hero in the Greek War of Independence.
Woodruff's Grove changed its name to Ypsilanti in 1829, the year its namesake won the war for the Greek Independence at the Battle of Petra, with the two communities merging. A bust of Demetrios Ypsilantis by Greek sculptor Christopher Nastos stands between a Greek and a US flag at the base of the landmark Ypsilanti Water Tower. Ypsilanti has played an important role in the automobile industry. From 1920 to 1922, Apex Motors produced the "ACE" car, it was in Ypsilanti that Preston Tucker designed and built the prototypes for his Tucker'48. Tucker's story was related in the film Tucker: The Man and His Dream, directed by Francis Ford Coppola. In 1945, Henry J. Kaiser and Joseph W. Frazer bought the nearby Willow Run B-24 Liberator bomber plant from Ford Motor Company, started to make Kaiser and Frazer model cars in 1947; the last Kaiser car made in Ypsilanti rolled off the assembly line in 1953, when the company merged with Willys-Overland and moved production to Toledo, Ohio. General Motors purchased the Kaiser Frazer plant, converted it into its Hydramatic Division, beginning production in November 1953.
The GM Powertrain Division ceased production at this facility in 2010. Ypsilanti is the location of the last Hudson automobile dealership. Today, the former dealership is the site of the Ypsilanti Automotive Heritage Collection; the museum is the home to an original Fabulous Hudson Hornet race car, which inspired the character Doc Hudson in the 2006 Pixar animated film Cars. In the early 1970s, along with neighboring city of Ann Arbor, the citizens reduced the penalty for the use and sale of marijuana to $5; when Ypsilanti prosecuted a man possessing 100 pounds of cannabis under state law, the defense argued he should have been charged under Ypsilanti's ordinance. The trial judge declared the ordinance's requirement that Ypsilanti prosecute only under city law unenforceable. An appeal court upheld the trial judge's ruling. Ypsilanti City Council, using its power of codification, deleted the ordinance. In 1979, Faz Husain was elected to the Ypsilanti city council, the first Muslim and the first native of India to win elected office in Michigan.
In the 1990s Ypsilanti became the first city in Michigan to pass a living wage ordinance. On July 23, 2007, Governor Jennifer Granholm announced that Ypsilanti, along with the cities of Caro and Clio, was chosen by the Michigan State Housing Development Authority to take part in the Blueprints for Michigan's Downtowns program; the award provides for an economic development consultant to assist Ypsilanti in developing a growth and job creation strategy for the downtown area. 1809 – Trading post established by French-Canadian Gabriel Godfroy from Montreal 1823 – Village of Woodruff's Grove platted 1825 – April 21, Plat recorded under the name Ypsilanti 1827 – Ypsilanti Township organized 1832 – June 19, Woodruff's Grove re-organized and incorporated as the Village of Ypsilanti 1849 – Eastern Michigan University founded as Michigan State Normal School 1858 – February 4, the Village of Ypsilanti reincorporated as a city 1890 – Michigan's first interurban, the Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti Street Railway, begins service 1890 – The Ypsilanti Water Tower is completed 1929 – Miller Motors Hudson opens, it becomes the last Hudson dealership in the world 1931 – McKenny Union opens as the first student union on the campus of a teachers' college.
1959 – Eastern Michigan becomes a university 1960 – Tom Monaghan founds Domino's Pizza as DomiNick's Pizza at 507 W. Cross St, Ypsilanti. 1967 – Ypsilanti resident John Norman Collins is suspected of being the perpetrator of the Michigan murders, a series of murders of coeds at the University of Michigan and Eastern Michigan University. He was of only one of the murders. 1990 – Eastern Michigan University achieves its highest student enrollment of 26,000 1998 – The Michigan Firehouse Museum is established preserving a firehouse built in 1898. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.52 square miles, of which 4.33 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles is water. The Huron River flows through the Charter Township of Ypsilanti. Ypsilanti is located at 42.24°N 83.62°W / 42.24. Suburban development between Ypsilanti and Ann Arbor, via Washtenaw Avenue and P
The Toledo War known as the Michigan–Ohio War, was an bloodless boundary dispute between the U. S. state of Ohio and the adjoining territory of Michigan. Poor geographical understanding of the Great Lakes helped produce conflicting state and federal legislation between 1787 and 1805, varying interpretations of the laws led the governments of Ohio and Michigan to both claim jurisdiction over a 468-square-mile region along the border, now known as the Toledo Strip; the situation came to a head when Michigan petitioned for statehood in 1835 and sought to include the disputed territory within its boundaries. Both sides passed legislation attempting to force the other side's capitulation, while Ohio's Governor Robert Lucas and Michigan's 24-year-old "Boy Governor" Stevens T. Mason helped institute criminal penalties for citizens submitting to the other's authority. Both states deployed militias on opposite sides of the Maumee River near Toledo, but besides mutual taunting, there was little interaction between the two forces.
The single military confrontation of the "war" ended with a report of shots being fired into the air, incurring no casualties. During the summer of 1836, Congress proposed a compromise whereby Michigan gave up its claim to the strip in exchange for its statehood and about three-quarters of the Upper Peninsula; the compromise was considered a poor outcome for Michigan. Voters in a state convention in September soundly rejected the proposal, but in December, the Michigan government, facing a dire financial crisis and pressure from Congress and President Andrew Jackson, called another convention which accepted the compromise that resolved the Toledo War. In 1787, the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance, which created the Northwest Territory in what is now the upper Midwestern United States; the Ordinance specified that the territory was to be divided into "not less than three nor more than five" future states. It was determined that the north-south boundary for three of these states was to be "an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan".
At the time, the actual location of this extreme was unknown. The most regarded map of the time, the "Mitchell Map", placed it at a latitude near the mouth of the Detroit River; this meant that the entire shoreline of Lake Erie west of Pennsylvania would have belonged to the state, to become Ohio. When Congress passed the Enabling Act of 1802, which authorized Ohio to begin the process of becoming a U. S. state, the language defining Ohio's northern boundary differed from that used in the Northwest Ordinance: the border was to be "an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east... until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid". Because the territorial boundary line between the U. S. and British North America ran through the middle of Lake Erie and up the Detroit River, combined with the prevailing belief regarding the location of the southern tip of Lake Michigan, the framers of the 1802 Ohio Constitution believed it was the intent of Congress that Ohio's northern boundary should be north of the mouth of the Maumee River, even of the Detroit River.
Ohio would thus be granted access to most or all of the Lake Erie shoreline west of Pennsylvania, any other new states carved out of the Northwest Territory would have access to the Great Lakes only via Lakes Michigan and Superior. During the Ohio Constitutional Convention in 1802, the delegates received reports from a fur trapper that Lake Michigan extended farther south than had been believed. Thus, it was possible that an east-west line extending east from Lake Michigan's southern tip might intersect Lake Erie somewhere east of Maumee Bay, or worse, might not intersect the lake at all. Addressing this contingency, the Ohio delegates included a provision in the draft Ohio constitution that if the trapper's report about Lake Michigan's position was correct, the state boundary line would be angled northeast so as to intersect Lake Erie at the "most northerly cape of the Miami Bay." This provision would guarantee that most of the Maumee River watershed and all of the southern shore of Lake Erie west of Pennsylvania would fall in Ohio.
The draft constitution with this proviso was accepted by the United States Congress, but before Ohio's admission to the Union in February 1803, the proposed constitution was referred to a Congressional committee. The committee's report stated that the clause defining the northern boundary depended on "a fact not yet ascertained", the members "thought it unnecessary to take it, at the time, into consideration."When Congress created the Michigan Territory in 1805, it used the Northwest Ordinance's language to define the territory's southern boundary, which therefore differed from that in Ohio's state constitution. This difference, its potential ramifications went unnoticed at the time, but it established the legal basis for the conflict that would erupt 30 years later; the location of the border was contested throughout the early 19th century. Residents of the Port of Miami—which would become Toledo—urged the Ohi