Khrua In Khong
Khrua In Khong, one of the most celebrated Thai artists, was active in the 1850s and 1860s during the reign of King Rama IV. He was a painter under the patronage of King Rama IV. Khrua In Khong and King Rama IV developed their friendship when they were in the monkhood during the reign of King Rama III; the King was fond of him. Therefore, once he ascended the throne, he ordered Khrua In Khong to paint murals in numerous temples that he built or restored, his style had been influenced by Western painting, thus distinguishing it from other conventional Thai paintings. He is well known as the first artist to introduce linear perspective to Thai traditional art; the works of Khrua In Khong served under the king's desire to modernize Thailand in order to survive the Western colonialist aspiration. His best-known works are mural paintings in the ubosoth of Wat Borom Niwat. Khrua In Khong's birth date and origins are uncertain, he was born in Bang Chan, Phetchaburi province, Thailand in the reign of King Rama III.
He stayed as a monk for the rest of his life. His original name was “In” not “Khrua In Khong”, “Khrua” and “Khong” were a prefix and postfix words to specify his personal identity; the word “Khrua” refers to an elder monk or a person who has strict or moody character. It meant a teacher who specialized in difficult subjects, the word “Khong” quoting Saan Somdet “…he stayed in monkhood as a neophyte for too long. At first, I thought had mispronounced Khong for Khong, I now realize. Taking Hoi Khong for example, it means big snail. … Therefore and Khong are the same. "It was known that Khrua In Khong was not sociable. He was an introvert and always stayed alone by himself in order to avoid being interrupted by visitors during his work process, he went as far as leaving his kuti through the windows. There is no evidence of where Khrua In Khong practiced his drawing and painting skill. According to his sketchbook, he started drawing in a conventional Thai artistic style which puts much effort into an outline.
All shapes and forms have to be drawn properly carefully and precisely. When Siam started exchanging culture with Europe, Khrua In Khong absorbed and learned western style drawing despite never visiting the west once. Khrua In Khong and King Rama IV had a close relationship since they were both ordained in the era of King Rama III; when King Rama IV reigned, the friendship still remained. Khrua In Khong became a painter under the patronage of the king and was ordered to paint murals in temples that he built or restored, it was mentioned in the royal chronicles “…the king demanded the service of Phra Achan In in Painting murals depicting the royal chronicles of the Bangkok period.” Khrua In Khong's early work was not yet departed from Thai traditional artistic motifs. The murals in Ratchakoramanuson pavilion and Ratchaphongsanuson Pavilion at Wat Phra Kaew both reflect Thai conventional style; the subject is mainly about Buddha. Murals in Wat Mahasamanaram do not depict stories of Buddha, but still relate to Buddhism.
The murals in Wat Phra Ngam, Ayutthaya are the depictions of the life of Buddha. The most renowned works of Khrua In Khong are the depictions of Buddhist teachings in Wat Bowonniwet and Wat Borom Niwat which have the figures and buildings in western style; the murals represented Buddhist dharma in the form of allegories. It required a high mental capability to understand the context of the Dharma, for example, the pictures of water lotuses in a pond, horse-racing, a man pointing the way of virtue; the themes of the murals in Wat Bowonniwet and Wat Borom Niwat were not only related to Buddhism, but political subjects such as the murals that portray George Washington’s residence and the United States Congress. In the era of King Rama IV, Western colonialism flourished; the king was concerned with the threat of European countries and urged to modernize Siam in a western way - both technologically and culturally, hence the works of Khrua In Khong were serving his demand. Khrua In Khong, although having never visited Europe once, developed his style from conventional Thai painting to become more western-like by relying on western commercial prints, observations of westerners in Bangkok and his imagination.
Thai artistic tradition before the time of Khrua In Khong was unrealistic. The water waves were drawn as overlapping fish scales, the trees look artificial and the figures stood in unnatural poses. In contrast, Khrua In Khong preferred to paint realistic gestures; the scenario and figures became more natural and realistic like a western painting. Thai artistic motifs depended on the use of lines and flat color without using light and shade, the objects were the same size regardless of their relative distances making the figures and buildings only two dimensions not three dimensions like the western painting. Khrua In Khong was the first Thai artist to use the three-dimensional perspective technique. In the meantime, people began exchanging art with European countries. Color materials began to be imported from abroad, thus the painting in this period became more colorful. Khrua In Khong, still remained using low saturation, bright objects among dimmed gray and dark background colors. Khrua In Khong was famous for his use of monochromic colors that give harmonious satisfaction, unlike complementary colors.
He used dark shades of blue and green along with light shades of blue and white and avoided contrasting colors. He painted the backgrou
Maha Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun has been the King of Thailand since 2016. He is the only son of King Bhumibol Queen Sirikit. In 1972, at the age of 20, he was made crown prince by his father. After his father's death on 13 October 2016, he was expected to accede to the throne of Thailand but asked for time to mourn before taking the throne, he accepted the throne on the night of 1 December 2016. His father was cremated on 26 October 2017, his coronation is planned to be held on 4 to 6 May 2019. The Thai government retroactively declared his reign to have begun on 13 October 2016, upon his father's death; as the tenth monarch of the Chakri dynasty, he is styled as Rama X. Aged 64 at that time, Vajiralongkorn became the oldest Thai monarch to ascend to the throne. Maha Vajiralongkorn was born on 28 July 1952 at 17:45 in the Amphorn Sathan Residential Hall of the Dusit Palace in Bangkok; when the crown prince was one year old, Somdet Phra Sangkharat Chao Kromma Luang Wachirayanawong, the 13th Supreme Patriarch of Thailand of the Rattanakosin Era, gave the child his first name at birth, "Vajiralongkorn Borommachakkrayadisonsantatiwong Thewetthamrongsuboriban Aphikhunuprakanmahittaladunladet Phumiphonnaretwarangkun Kittisirisombunsawangkhawat Borommakhattiyaratchakuman".
He is the second of the four children of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and Queen Sirikit. Vajiralongkorn began his education in 1956, when he entered kindergarten at the Chitralada School in Dusit Palace. After completing Mathayom 1, he was sent to be educated at independent schools in the United Kingdom, first at a prep school, King's Mead, Sussex, at Millfield School, in Somerset, where he completed his secondary education in July 1970. In August 1970, he attended a five-week military training course at The King's School, in Sydney, Australia. In 1972, the prince enrolled at Duntroon in Canberra, Australia, his education at Duntroon was divided into two parts, military training by the Australian Army and a bachelor's degree course under the auspices of the University of New South Wales. He graduated in 1976 as a newly commissioned lieutenant with a liberal arts degree. In 1982 he completed a second bachelor's degree in law with second-class honours at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. Vajiralongkorn was proclaimed crown prince on 28 December 1972 at 12:23 in the Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, making him the third crown prince of the Chakri dynasty.
An excerpt from the royal command to establish the title of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn, reads: As stated in the bliss or the royal statutes of the country, when a Royal Prince, destined to be heir to the throne is mature, the King shall graciously bestow the rank upon him of Somdet Phra Yupharat Mongkutratchakuman. At this present time, all people including citizens of nations all over the world shall accept and acclaim that His Royal Highness Prince Vajiralongkorn shall to succeed to the throne of the Kingdom; when His Royal Highness Prince is mature, at the time that he shall be established as heir to the throne, tradition and a royal tradition Kattii ceremony should be observed, consistent with the citizens and all leaders of the country of all sides. Therefore, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej hereby decrees for His Royal Highness Prince Vajiralongkorn to be His Royal Highness Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn in accordance with the name written in the Supannabhat as: Somdet Phra Boromma-orasathirat Chao Fa Maha Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun Sirikittayasombunsawangwat Worakhuttiyarajsantiwong Mahitalaphong Adulayadet Chakkrinaresyuppharajvisut Sayammakutratchakuman He had taken up his duties while serving in the Royal Thai Armed Forces, including frequent provincial tours and representing King Bhumibol at a wide variety of official functions and ceremonies before he ascended the throne.
On 6 November 1978, the prince was ordained as a monk at Wat Phra Sri Rattana Satsadaram, at age 26. As is traditional for royals, he stayed at Wat Bowonniwet Vihara for 15 days and under the monastic name "Vajiralongkornno". After completing his studies, Vajiralongkorn served as a career officer in the Royal Thai Army, he served as a staff officer in the Directorate of Army Intelligence and attended the Command and General Staff College in 1977. Vajiralongkorn trained for periods with the US, Australian armed services, studying unconventional warfare and advanced navigation, he is a qualified helicopter pilot. In 1978 he became head of the King's Own Bodyguard Battalion; that year he interrupted his military career to be ordained for a season as a Buddhist monk, as is customary for all Thai Buddhist men. Vajiralongkorn holds the ranks of Field Marshal in the Royal Thai Army, Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Thai Navy, Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force in the Royal Thai Air Force, he is qualified to pilot the Northrop F-5 and many other aircraft, F-16, the Boeing 737-400.
His military role in recent years has become ceremonial. As his father grew older, Vajiralongkorn took a more prominent part in royal ceremonial and public appearances, he opened the 2007 Southeast Asian Games, held in Nakhon Ratchasima. The event occurred one day after the 80th birthday of his father. Vajiralongkorn established "Crown Prince Hospitals" through funds donated by the public to serve as medical
Thammasat University massacre
The Thammasat University massacre was an attack by Thai state forces and far-right paramilitaries on student protesters on the campus of Thammasat University and the adjacent Sanam Luang Square in Bangkok, Thailand, on 6 October 1976. Prior to the massacre, four to five thousand students from various universities had demonstrated for more than a week against the return of former military dictator Thanom Kittikachorn to Thailand from Singapore. A day before the massacre, the Thai press reported on a play staged by student protesters the previous day, which featured the mock hanging of Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn. In response to this rumored outrage and police, as well as paramilitary forces surrounded the university. Just before dawn on 6 October, the attack on the student protesters continued until noon. To this day, the number of casualties remains in dispute between the Thai government and survivors of the massacre. According to the government, 46 died with 167 wounded and 3,000 arrested. Many survivors claim that the death toll was well over 100.
The 14 October 1973 uprising overthrew the unpopular regime of Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn, saw him flee Thailand together with Field Marshal Praphas Charusathien and Colonel Narong Kittikachorn, collectively known as the "three tyrants". Growing unrest and instability from 1973 to 1976, as well as the fear of communism from neighboring countries spreading to Thailand and threatening the interests of the monarchy and the military, convinced the latter to bring former leaders Thanom and Praphas back to Thailand to control the situation. In response to Praphas's return on 17 August, thousands of students demonstrated at Thammasat University for four days until a clash with Red Gaur and Nawaphon left four dead. On 19 September, Thanom returned to Thailand and headed straight from the airport to Wat Bowonniwet Vihara, where he was ordained as a monk in a private ceremony. Massive anti-Thanom protests broke out as the government faced an internal crisis after Prime Minister Seni Pramoj's attempt to tender his resignation was rejected by the Thai Parliament.
On 25 September, in Nakhon Pathom, west of Bangkok, two activists putting up anti-Thanom posters were beaten to death and hung from a wall, an outrage, soon established to be the work of Thai police. A dramatization of this hanging was staged by student protesters at Thammasat University on 4 October. Deliberately or the student at the end of the garrote bore a resemblance to Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn; the following day, as Seni struggled to put together his cabinet, the newspaper Dao Siam published a photograph of the mock hanging on its front page. With the tacit approval of King Bhumibol, announcers on army-controlled radio stations accused the student protesters of lèse-majesté and mobilized the king's paramilitary forces, the Village Scouts and Red Gaurs to "kill the communists". At dusk on 5 October, some 4,000 people from these paramilitary forces as well as military and police personnel gathered outside Thammasat University where student protesters had been protesting for weeks; this set the scene for the Thammasat University massacre the following day.` At dawn on 6 October, the military and the police as well as the three paramilitary forces blocked exits from the university and began shooting into the campus, using M-16s, pistols, grenade launchers, armor-piercing recoilless rifles.
Prevented from leaving the campus or sending wounded to the hospital, the students begged for a ceasefire. The attacks continued; the actors in the mock hanging had turned themselves in to Seni at the prime minister's office. When one student came out to surrender, he was killed. After a free-fire order was issued by the Bangkok police chief, the campus was stormed, with Border Patrol Police leading the attack. Students diving into the Chao Phraya River were shot at by naval vessels while others who surrendered, lying down on the ground, were picked up and beaten, many to death; some were hung from trees and beaten, others were set afire. Female students were raped and dead, by police and Red Gaurs; the massacre continued for several hours, was only halted at noon by a rainstorm. On the afternoon of 6 October after the massacre, the major factions of the military which formed the general staff agreed in principle to overthrow Seni, a plot that King Bhumibol was well aware of and approved, which in turn ensured the success of the coup-makers.
That night, Admiral Sangad Chaloryu, the newly appointed supreme commander, announced that the military, under the name of the "National Administrative Reform Council" had seized power to "prevent a Vietnamese-backed communist plot" and to preserve the "Thai monarchy forever". The king appointed the anti-communist and royalist judge Thanin Kraivichien to lead a government, composed of those who were loyal to the king. Thanin and his cabinet restored the repressive climate which had existed before 1973. For forty years from 1932 when the absolute monarchy was abolished, until 1973 when military rule was overthrown in favor of democracy, military officers and civil servants held sway in Thai politics and dominated the government, with King Bhumibol serving as the ceremonial head of state in accordance with his role as a constitutional monarch established by the 1932 constitution; the Thai political system was known as a "bureaucratic polity", dominated by the military and civilian bureaucrats.
The massacre disproved the argument that the bureaucratic polity was on the retreat as the military came to play a central role once more in Thai politics, a situation that would continue through
A wat is a type of Buddhist temple and Hindu temple in Cambodia, East Shan State and Thailand. The word wat is borrowed from Sanskrit vāṭa, meaning'enclosure'. Speaking a wat is a Buddhist sacred precinct with vihara, a temple, an edifice housing a large image of Buddha and a facility for lessons. A site without a minimum of three resident bhikkhus cannot be described as a wat although the term is used more loosely for ruins of ancient temples; as a transitive or intransitive verb, wat means to take measurements. In Cambodia, a wat is any place of worship. "Wat" refers to a Buddhist place of worship, but the precise term is វត្តពុទ្ធសាសនា wat putthasasana. A Christian church can be referred as វិហារយេស៊ូ vihear Yesaou or "Jesus vihear". Angkor Wat អង្គរវត្ត means'city of temples'. In everyday language in Thailand, a "wat" is any place of a synagogue, thus a wat chin or san chao is a Chinese temple, wat khaek or thewasathan is a Hindu temple and bot khrit or wat farang is a Christian church, though Thai โบสถ์ may be used descriptively as with mosques.
According to Thai law, there are two types of Thai Buddhist temples: Wats are temples which have been endorsed by the state and have been granted wisungkhammasima, or the land for establishing central hall, by the king. These temples are divided into:Royal temples: established or patronised by the king or his family members. Public temples: established by private citizens. Despite the term "private", private temples are open to the public and are sites of public religious activities. Samnak song: are temples without state wisungkhamasima. A typical Buddhist wat consists of the following buildings: Bell tower Bot or ubosot or sim: the holiest prayer room called the "ordination hall" as it is where new monks take their vows. Architecturally it is similar to the vihara; the main difference is the eight cornerstones placed around the bot to ward off evil. The bot is more decorated than the wihan. Chedi or Chaedai, from Sanskrit: chaitya, temple or that: It is known as a stupa. Conical or bell-shaped buildings, but many Cambodian stupas are constructed in the style of temple shrine.
They contain relics of Buddha. The urns containing the ashes of the cremated dead are kept here and serve as memorials for those ancestors. Chantakhara: a room in which fire and water are kept. Drum tower Hong Song Nam: toilet. Ho trai: library where Buddhist texts are kept. Kappapiya Kudi utility and storage room. Kod, Kutti, Kuti or Kati: the living quarters of monks separated from the sacred buildings. Mondop: an open, square building with four arches and a pyramidal roof, used to worship religious texts or objects. Pond: is rectangular in shape and sometimes decorated with lotus flowers, the emblematic flower of Buddhism. In addition, some wats illustrate the figure of Buddha being sheltered by a seven headed naga, named Mucalinda, in the middle of the pond; the pond. Sala. A pavilion for relaxation and miscellaneous activities. In Cambodia, the sala serves as the Buddhist educational center in a wat, but not every wat has one, it can be found outside the wat proper. Oupadthan Sala or Sala Bonn or Sala Wat: a hall for people gathering together to make a donation or for ceremonies.
Sala Baley or Sala Putthikakseksa: means'Pali school' or'Buddhist educational school', is the place to teach Buddhist Dharma and other subjects in both Pali and Khmer languages. Sala Baley is divided into three levels, they are: Buddhist elementary school. Beside Buddhist Dharma, Buddhist university includes subjects such as philosophy, information technology and other foreign languages; these schools may be constructed outside the wat and laypersons are permitted to study there. Sala Chhann, Sala Bat, or Ho Chan: cafeteria for monks. Sala Chhatean, Sala Klang Yan or Sala Rong Tham: is smaller than other halls and can be built outside the wat along the roads or in the center of villages, it is used to celebrate Buddhist events as well as for relaxation. Sala Kan Parian or Ho Chaek: study hall, In the past this hall was restric
Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara, né Charoen Khachawat and dharma name Suvaḍḍhano, was the 19th Supreme Patriarch of Thailand. He was appointed to the position in 1989 by King Bhumibol Adulyadej, he turned 100 in October 2013, died the same month. Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara, the 19th monk since the reign of Rama I to hold the title of Supreme Buddhist Patriarch of Thailand, was born on 3 October 1913 in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand; as a child he was interested in monastic life. He completed the equivalent of the 5th grade at a temple school near his home, was ordained as a Buddhist novice at the age of 14. Instruction in Pali and other fundamentals of Buddhist education were not available in his home province, so Somdet Nyanasamvara traveled to a temple at Nakhon Pathom, 70 km away, where he spent two years studying Pali and Buddhist philosophy, he moved to Wat Bovoranives in Bangkok, an important temple in the emergent Dhammayutt Order reform movement, where he completed his basic studies and completed the highest level of Pali studies available.
In 1933, Somdet Nyanasamvara returned to his old temple in Kanchanaburi to be ordained as a full-fledged monk. After passing the better part of a year there, he again traveled to Wat Bovoranives, where he was re-ordained into the Dhammayutt Order, under the supervision of the 13th Thai Supreme Patriarch. During this period in Thailand, it was not uncommon for monks to seek re-ordination under the Dhammayutt Order if their initial ordination had been through a Mahanikaya lineage. Following his full ordination, Somdet Nyanasamvara rose through the ranks of the Thai Sangha; as Thai ecclesiastic titles take the form of additions or alterations to monastic names, this necessitated a variety of changes of name and title during the next several years. In 1956, at the age of 43 and under the titular name Phra Dhammavarabhorn, he was appointed guardian and advisor to King Rama IX during his royal ordination. Five years Somdet Nyanasamvara was named abbot of Wat Bovoranives. In 1972, he was given the title the same basic title that he bears today.
This was a special monastic title. The granting of this title placed Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara in the top tier of the Thai monastic establishment, set the stage for his being named Supreme Buddhist Patriarch of Thailand in 1989 by the king of Thailand. During his more than seventy years as a monk and novice, Somdet Nyanasamvara has held a variety of posts in the Thai ecclesiastic hierarchy. In these roles, he has always been concerned with promoting both religious and secular, he has assisted in the founding and construction of numerous schools, as well as sponsoring campaigns to build schools and hospitals in rural communities. As abbot of Wat Bovoranives, he oversaw the renovation and expansion of this famed century-old monastery. Long interested in the meditation techniques of the Thai forest monks, Somdet Nyanasamvara has helped make his temple residence a center for meditation study and instruction in Bangkok, himself delivering lectures on meditation and Buddhist teachings on two Uposatha days each month.
Somdet Nyanasamvara has been active in teaching to both non-Thais and the international Thai emigrant community. His recorded sermons and teachings are distributed among Thais living outside Thailand in areas where there is not access to temples or Theravada monks. Non-Thais have been encouraged to study Buddhism. A number of Somdet Nyanasamvara's books and talks have been translated into English, he has been involved in sponsoring the establishment of temples and monasteries outside Thailand. Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara’s tenure has been exposed to more criticism and controversy than that of any preceding Thai Sangharaja. A number of Thai monks – among them some prominent and popular religious leaders – became embroiled in scandal, with allegations ranging from sexual misconduct to corrupt fundraising schemes and involvement in organized crime. Changes in Thai society wrought by modernization began to impose on the traditional and conservative Sangha as well – including calls for greater rolls for laypeople and younger monks in religious affairs, organized efforts both in Thailand and abroad to re-create the lost Theravada bhikkhuni ordination.
Because of the convoluted governing structure of the Thai Sangha and the Patriarch’s health problems, it is difficult to determine what, if any, role that Somdet Nyanasamvara has played in formulating a response to these challenges. The course held by the Council of Elders has not strayed during his tenure.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. It is used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church, mosque or synagogue is not used in English; these include Hinduism and Jainism among religions with many modern followers, as well as other ancient religions such as Ancient Egyptian religion. The form and function of temples is thus variable, though they are considered by believers to be in some sense the "house" of one or more deities. Offerings of some sort are made to the deity, other rituals enacted, a special group of clergy maintain, operate the temple; the degree to which the whole population of believers can access the building varies significantly. Temples have a main building and a larger precinct, which may contain many other buildings, or may be a dome shaped structure, much like an igloo; the word comes from Ancient Rome, where a templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur.
It has the same root as the word "template", a plan in preparation of the building, marked out on the ground by the augur. Templa became associated with the dwelling places of a god or gods. Despite the specific set of meanings associated with the word, it has now become used to describe a house of worship for any number of religions and is used for time periods prior to the Romans; the temple-building tradition of Mesopotamia derived from the cults of gods and deities in the Mesopotamian religion. It spanned several civilizations; the most common temple architecture of Mesopotamia is the structure of sun-baked bricks called a Ziggurat, having the form of a terraced step pyramid with a flat upper terrace where the shrine or temple stood. Ancient Egyptian temples were meant as places for the deities to reside on earth. Indeed, the term the Egyptians most used to describe the temple building, ḥwt-nṯr, means "mansion of a god". A god's presence in the temple linked the human and divine realms and allowed humans to interact with the god through ritual.
These rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature. They were therefore a key part of the maintenance of maat, the ideal order of nature and of human society in Egyptian belief. Maintaining maat was the entire purpose of Egyptian religion, thus it was the purpose of a temple as well. Ancient Egyptian temples were of economic significance to Egyptian society; the temples stored and redistributed grain and came to own large portions of the nation's arable land. In addition, many of these Egyptian temples utilized the Tripartite Floor Plan in order to draw visitors to the center room. Though today we call most Greek religious buildings "temples," the ancient Greeks would have referred to a temenos, or sacred precinct, its sacredness connected with a holy grove, was more important than the building itself, as it contained the open air altar on which the sacrifices were made. The building which housed the cult statue in its naos was a rather simple structure, but by the middle of the 6th century BCE had become elaborate.
Greek temple architecture had a profound influence on ancient architectural traditions. The rituals that located and sited Roman temples were performed by an augur through the observation of the flight of birds or other natural phenomenon. Roman temples faced east or toward the rising sun, but the specifics of the orientation are not known today. In ancient Rome only the native deities of Roman mythology had a templum; the Romans referred to a holy place of a pagan religion as fanum. Medieval Latin writers sometimes used the word templum reserved for temples of the ancient Roman religion. In some cases it is hard to determine whether a temple was an outdoor shrine. For temple buildings of the Vikings, the Old Norse term hof is used. A Zoroastrian temple may be called a Dar-e-mehr and a Atashkadeh. A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians. Zoroastrians revere fire in any form, their temples contains an eternal flame, with Atash Behram as the highest grade of all, as it combines 16 different types of fire gathered in elaborate rituals.
In the Zoroastrian religion, together with clean water, are agents of ritual purity. Clean, white "ash for the purification ceremonies is regarded as the basis of ritual life," which, "are the rites proper to the tending of a domestic fire, for the temple fire is that of the hearth fire raised to a new solemnity". Hindu temples are known by many different names, varying on region and language, including Alayam, Mandira, Gudi, Koil, Kovil, Déul, Devasthana, Deva Mandiraya and Devalaya. A Hindu temple is the seat and dwelling of Hindu gods, it is a structure designed to bring human gods together according to Hindu faith. Inside its Garbhagriha innermost sanctum, a Hindu temple contains a Hindu god's image. Hindu temples are magnificent with a rich history. There is evidence of use of sacred ground as far back as the Bronze Age and during the Indus Valley Civilization. Outside of the Indian subcontinent (India