For the village called The Lizard, see Lizard The Lizard is a peninsula in southern Cornwall, United Kingdom. The most southerly point of the British mainland is near Lizard Point at grid reference SW 701115. Lizard village known as The Lizard, is the most southerly on the British mainland, is in the civil parish of Landewednack, the most southerly parish; the valleys of the River Helford and Loe Pool form the northern boundary, with the rest of the peninsula surrounded by sea. The area measures about 14 by 14 miles; the Lizard is one of England's natural regions and has been designated as national character area 157 by Natural England. The peninsula is known for its geology and for its rare plants and lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park; the name "Lizard" is most a corruption of the Cornish name "Lys Ardh", meaning "high court". The Lizard peninsula's original name may have been the Celtic name "Predannack".
The Lizard's coast is hazardous to shipping and the seaways round the peninsula were known as the "Graveyard of Ships". The Lizard Lighthouse was built at Lizard Point in 1752 and the RNLI operates The Lizard lifeboat station. There is evidence of early habitation with several burial stones. Part of the peninsula is known as the Meneage. Helston, the nearest town to the Lizard peninsula, is said to have once headed the estuary of the River Cober, before it was cut off from the sea by Loe Bar in the 13th century, it is a matter of debate as to whether Helston was once a port, albeit no actual records still exist. Geomorphologists believe the bar was most formed by rising sea levels, after the last ice age, blocking the river and creating a barrier beach; the beach is formed of flint and the nearest source is found offshore under the drowned terraces of the former river that flowed between England and France, now under the English Channel. The medieval port of Helston was at Gweek from around 1260 onwards, on the Helford river which exported tin and copper.
Helston was believed to be around the Dowr Kohar. The name comes from the Cornish "hen lis" or "old court" and "ton" added to denote a Saxon manor, it was granted its charter by King John in 1201. It was here that tin ingots were weighed to determine the duty due to the Duke of Cornwall when a number of stannary towns were authorised by royal decree; the royal manor of Winnianton, held by King William I at the time of the Domesday Book, was the head manor of the hundred of Kerrier and the largest estate in Cornwall. It was assessed as having fifteen hides before 1066. At the time of Domesday there was land for sixty ploughs, but in the lord's land there were two ploughs and in the lands held by villeins twenty-four ploughs. There were forty-one freedmen, thirty-three smallholders and fourteen slaves. There was eight square leagues of pasture and half a square league of woodland; the livestock was three cattle and one hundred and twenty-eight sheep. 11 of the hides were held by the Count of Mortain and there is more arable and pasture and 13 more persons are recorded: Rinsey, Mawgan-in-Meneage and seventeen other lands are recorded under Winnianton.
Mullion has the 15th century church of St Mellanus, the Old Inn from the 16th century. The harbour was completed in 1895 and financed by Lord Robartes of Lanhydrock as a recompense to the fishermen for several disastrous pilchard seasons; the small church of St Peter in Coverack, built in 1885 for £500, has a serpentinite pulpit. The Great Western Railway operated a road motor service to The Lizard from Helston railway station. Commencing on 17 August 1903, it was the first successful British railway-run bus service and was provided as a cheaper alternative to a proposed light railway; the Solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 departed the UK mainland from the Lizard. The transatlantic record run of the unaccompanied one hand sailor Thomas Coville within less than 5 days in his sailboat Sodebo Ultim from New York, USA, to Europe landed here on 15 July 2017; the Lizard has been the site of many maritime disasters. It forms a natural obstacle to entry and exit of Falmouth and its deep estuary. At Lizard Point stands the Lizard Lighthouse.
In fact, the light was erected by Sir John Killigrew by his own expense: It was built at the cost of "20 nobles a year" for 30 years, but it caused an uproar over the following years, as King James I considered charging vessels to pass. This caused so many problems that the lighthouse was demolished, but was rebuilt in 1751 by order of Thomas Fonnereau and remains unchanged today. Further east lie The Manacles, near Porthoustock: 1 1⁄2 square miles of jagged rocks just beneath the waves. In 1721 the Royal Anne Galley, an oared frigate, was wrecked at Lizard Point. Of a crew of 185 only three survived. A 44 gun frigate, HMS Anson, was wrecked at Loe Bar in 1807. Although it wrecked close to shore, many lost their lives in the storm; this inspired Henry Trengrouse to invent the rocket f
St Just in Penwith
St Just is a town and civil parish in the Penwith district of Cornwall, United Kingdom. It lies along the B3306 road; the parish encompasses the town of St Just and the nearby settlements of Trewellard and Kelynack: it is bounded by the parishes of Morvah to the north-east and Madron to the east, St Buryan and Sennen to the south and by the sea in the west. The parish consists of 12 acres of water and 117 acres of foreshore; the town of St Just is the most westerly town in mainland Britain and is situated 8 miles west of Penzance along the A3071. St Just parish, which includes Pendeen and the surrounding area, has a population of 4690. An electoral ward exists: the population of this ward at the same census was 4,812. St Just lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. St Just is one of only two towns included within the Cornwall AONB; the identity of Saint Just is not known. Cornwall's long resistance to the edicts of Canterbury and Rome makes it most unlikely that the saint was Archbishop Justus of Canterbury, as some sources claim.
Another possibility is the 6th- or 7th-century Saint Iestyn, said to be the son of a ruler of Dumnonia. In 1478 William of Worcester found that the church was believed to contain the bones of Justus of Trieste. Among the prehistoric antiquities nearby is a chambered tomb. St Just is one of the most ancient mining districts in Cornwall, remains of ancient pre-industrial and more modern mining activity have had a considerable impact on the nearby landscape; the parish church of St Just is a fine 15th-century building. In 1336 the church was dedicated by John Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter. There are two Methodist chapels. St Just is the home of Cape Cornwall School which serves Sennen, Pendeen, St Buryan and other places in the district. There are seven Cornish crosses in the parish. Other crosses are at Leswidden and Kenidjack; the ancient settlement has a strong mining history and was during the 19th century one of the most important mining districts in Cornwall both for copper and for tin. Mines within the area included Boscaswell Downs, Parknoweth, Wheal Owles, Wheal Boys, Levant and Geevor.
Geevor mine is now a tourist attraction. The boom in 19th-century mining saw a dramatic increase in the population of St Just, the 1861 census records the population figure as being 9,290, however like other areas in Cornwall the population declined with the collapse in the tin trade in the 19th century; the town suffered from the decision of the Great Western Railway to abandon its plans to make St Just the terminus of the London mainline to Cornwall. It was announced in July 2006 that the St Just mining district and the rest of the historic mining areas of Cornwall had become the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site; the nearby Cot Valley has a stream. The area has been mined, as was the area around St Just; the round boulders in the Cot Valley Cove here are of specific scientific interest. Nearby is Cape Cornwall. For the purposes of local government classification St Just is a town and elects a Mayor every 12 months from among the St Just Town Councillors; the St Just Town Council was created following the re-structuring of English Local Government in 1974, St Just having been an urban district council until then.
Principal local government functions are now undertaken by Cornwall Council. St Just was part of the Penzance Poor Law Union until 1894 when it was incorporated into the West Penwith Rural District. In 1897 St Just in Penwith parish formed the sole basis of St Just Urban District. In 1974 the urban district was included in Penwith District, until, abolished in 2009. St Just is home to the popular Lafrowda festival a seven-day community and arts celebration held in Mid July. A more ancient celebration associated with the town is St Just Feast, held every year to celebrate the dedication of the parish church in 13 July 1336. Feast celebrations were moved to the Sunday nearest to All Saints' Day in 1536 following an Act of Henry VIII which means it take place at the end of October / beginning of November. Feast itself is a two-day event with a church service and civic procession being held on Feast Sunday and a larger scale popular celebration being held on Feast Monday. A description of St Just Feast, from 1882, follows: "Rich and poor still at this season keep open house, all the young people from St.
Just who are in service for many miles around, if they can be spared, go home on the Saturday and stay until the Tuesday morning. A small fair is held in the streets on Monday evening, when the young men are expected to treat their sweethearts liberally, a great deal of "foolish money" that can be ill afforded is spent" St Just has a'Plen an Gwarry', locally pronounced'Plain an Gwarry'; these sites were used for open-air performance and instruction. St Just's Plen an Gwarry hosts productions of the Cornish Ordinalia mystery plays. St Just has a healthy artistic scene, including the painter Kurt Jackson who has made several television appearances. Co
Carnmenellis Hill gives its name to the area of west Cornwall in England, between Redruth and Penryn. The hill itself is situated three miles south of Redruth, it is one of five Marilyns in Cornwall. The natural region of Carnmenellis has been designated as national character area 155 by Natural England. Penmarth, a nearby village, is sometimes referred to locally as Carnmenellis; the term'Carnmenellis Granite' refers to the plateau of high ground in this area, one of five granite plutons in Cornwall that make up part of the Cornubian batholith. Carnmenellis was the name of a former ecclesiastical parish created in 1846 from part of Wendron parish; the parish included the area which became the parish of Pencoys. Today, most of the Carmenellis area is in Stithians civil parish; the summit of Carnmenellis Hill is located at OS grid reference:grid reference SW 695 364) and is 252 metres above sea level. A microwave transmitting and receiving tower on the summit is used for telephone and computer connections as well as other data and television and radio broadcasting links.
It is maintained by BT. A number of Iron Age fortifications surround the hill, but little archaeological research has been done on the site. There is no public right of way across the summit, the surrounding land is private farmland, though about half of the fields are Open Access land
Mining in Cornwall and Devon
Mining in Cornwall and Devon, in the southwest of England, began in the early Bronze Age, around 2150 BC, ended with the closure of South Crofty tin mine in Cornwall in 1998. Tin, copper, were the most extracted metals; some tin mining continued. Tin and copper as well as a few other metals have been mined in Cornwall and Devon; as of 2007 there are no active metalliferous mines remaining. However, tin deposits still exist in Cornwall, there has been talk of reopening the South Crofty tin mine. In addition, work has begun on re-opening the Hemerdon tin mine in south-west Devon. In view of the economic importance of mines and quarries, geological studies have been conducted. Quarrying of the igneous and metamorphic rocks has been a significant industry. In the 20th century the extraction of kaolin was important economically; the intrusion of granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks gave rise to extensive metamorphism and mineralisation. As a result, Cornwall was one of the most important mining areas in Europe until the early 20th century.
It is thought. Over the years, many other metals have been mined in Cornwall. Alquifou is a lead ore found in Cornwall, used by potters to give pottery a green glaze. Cornwall and Devon provided most of the United Kingdom's tin and arsenic until the 20th century. Tin was found as alluvial deposits of cassiterite in the gravels of stream beds. Tin was mined underground. Tin lodes were found in outcroppings of cliffs. Tin is one of the earliest metals to have been exploited in Britain. Chalcolithic metal workers discovered that by putting a small proportion of tin in molten copper, the alloy bronze was produced; the alloy is harder than copper. The oldest production of tin-bronze is in Turkey about 3500 BC, but exploitation of the tin resources in Britain is believed to have started before 2000 BC, with a thriving tin trade developing with the civilisations of the Mediterranean; the strategic importance of tin in forging bronze weapons brought the south west of Britain into the Mediterranean economy at an early date.
Tin was used in the production of pewter. Mining in Cornwall has existed from the early Bronze Age Britain around 2150 BC. Cornwall was traditionally thought to have been visited by Phoenician metal traders from the eastern Mediterranean, but this view changed during the 20th century, Timothy Champion observed in 2001 that "The direct archaeological evidence for the presence of Phoenician or Carthaginian traders as far north as Britain is non-existent". Britain is one of the places proposed for the Cassiterides, "Tin Islands", first mentioned by Herodotus; the tin content of the bronze from the Nebra Sky Disc dating from 1600 BCE, was found to be from Cornwall. It is that alluvial deposits in the gravels of streams were exploited, but underground mining took root. Shallow cuttings were used to extract ore; as demand for bronze grew in the Middle East, the accessible local supplies of tin ore were exhausted and searches for new supplies were made over all the known world, including Britain. Control of the tin trade seems to have been in Phoenician hands, they kept their sources secret.
The Greeks understood that tin came from the Cassiterides, the "tin islands", of which the geographical identity is debated. By 500 BC Hecataeus knew of islands beyond Gaul. Pytheas of Massalia travelled to Britain in about 325 BC where he found a flourishing tin trade, according to the report of his voyage. Posidonius referred to the tin trade with Britain around 90 BC but Strabo in about 18 AD did not list tin as one of Britain's exports; this is to be because Rome was obtaining its tin from Spain at the time. William Camden, in his Britannia of 1607, identified the Cassiterides with the Scilly Isles and first gave currency to the belief that the Phoenicians traded to Britain. However, there is no evidence of tin mining on the Scilly Isles apart from minor exploratory excavations. Timothy Champion found it that the trade of the Phoenicians with Britain was indirect and under the control of the Veneti of Brittany. Champion, discussing Diodorus Siculus's comments on the tin trade, states that "Diodorus never says that the Phoenicians sailed to Cornwall.
In fact, he says quite the opposite: the production of Cornish tin was in the hands of the natives of Cornwall, its transport to the Mediterranean was organised by local merchants, by sea and over land through France, well outside Phoenician control." In his Bibliotheca historica, written in the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus described ancient tin mining in Britain. "They that inhabit the British promontory of Belerion by reason of their converse with strangers are more civilised and courteous to strangers than the rest are. These are the people that prepare the tin, which with a great deal of care and labour, they dig out of the ground, that being done the metal is mixed with some veins of earth out of which they melt the metal and refine it, they cast it into regular blocks and carry it to a certain island near at hand called Ictis for at low tide, all being dry between there and the island, tin in large quantities is brought over in carts." Pliny, whose text has survived in eroded condition, quotes Timaeus
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty is an area of countryside in England, Wales or Northern Ireland, designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value. Areas are designated in recognition of their national importance, by the relevant public body: Natural England, Natural Resources Wales, or the Northern Ireland Environment Agency. In place of AONB, Scotland uses the similar national scenic area designation. Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty enjoy levels of protection from development similar to those of UK national parks, but unlike with national parks the responsible bodies do not have their own planning powers, they differ from national parks in their more limited opportunities for extensive outdoor recreation. The idea for what would become the AONB designation was first put forward by John Dower in his 1945 Report to the Government on National Parks in England and Wales. Dower suggested there was need for protection of certain beautiful landscapes which were unsuitable as national parks owing to their small size and lack of wildness.
Dower's recommendation for the designation of these "other amenity areas" was embodied in the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 as the AONB designation. The purpose of an AONB designation is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the designated landscape by placing it under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. There two secondary aims: meeting the need for quiet enjoyment of the countryside and having regard for the interests of those who live and work there. To achieve these aims, AONBs rely on practical countryside management; as they have the same landscape quality, AONBs may be compared to the national parks of England and Wales. National parks are well known to many inhabitants of the UK. However, the National Association of AONBs is working to increase awareness of AONBs in local communities, in 2014 negotiated to have the boundaries of AONBs in England shown on Google Maps. There are 46 AONBs in Britain; the first AONB was designated in 1956 in South Wales.
The most confirmed is the Tamar Valley AONB in 1995, although the existing Clwydian Range AONB was extended in 2012 to form the Clwydian Range and Dee Valley AONB, the Strangford Lough and Lecale Coast AONBs were merged and redesignated as a single AONB in 2010. AONBs vary in terms of size and use of land, whether they are or wholly open to the public; the smallest AONB is the Isles of Scilly, 16 km2, the largest is the Cotswolds, 2,038 km2. The AONBs of England and Wales together cover around 18% of the countryside in the two countries; the AONBs of Northern Ireland together cover about 70% of Northern Ireland's coastline. AONBs in England and Wales were created under the same legislation as the national parks, the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. Unlike AONBs, national parks have special legal powers to prevent unsympathetic development. AONBs in general remain the responsibility of their local authorities by means of special committees which include members appointed by the minister and by parishes, only limited statutory duties were imposed on local authorities within an AONB by the original 1949 Act.
However, further regulation and protection of AONBs in England and Wales was added by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, under which new designations are now made, the Government has in the National Planning Policy Framework stated that AONBs and national parks have equal status when it comes to planning decisions on landscape issues. Two of the AONBs, which extend into a large number of local authority areas, have their own statutory bodies, known as conservation boards. All English and Welsh AONBs have other staff; as required by the CRoW Act, each AONB has a management plan that sets out the characteristics and special qualities of the landscape and how they will be conserved and enhanced. The AONBs are collectively represented by the National Association for AONBs, an independent organization acting on behalf of AONBs and their partners. AONBs in Northern Ireland was designated under the Amenity Lands Act 1965. There are growing concerns among environmental and countryside groups that AONB status is under threat from development.
The Campaign to Protect Rural England said in July 2006 that many AONBs were under greater threat than before. Three particular sites were cited: the Dorset AONB threatened by a road plan, the threat of a football stadium in the Sussex Downs AONB, larger than any other, a £1 billion plan by Imperial College London to build thousands of houses and offices on hundreds of acres of AONB land on the Kent Downs at Wye. In September 2007 government approval was given for the development of a new football ground for Brighton and Hove Albion within the boundaries of the Sussex Downs AONB, after a fierce fight by conservationists; the subsequent development, known as Falmer Stadium, was opened in July 2011. The Weymouth Relief Road in Dorset was constructed between 2008 and 2011, after environmental groups lost a High Court challenge to prevent its construction. Writing in 2006, Professor Adrian Phillips listed threats facing AONBs, he wrote that the apparent big threats were uncertainty over future support for lan
Penwith is an area of Cornwall, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is the name of a former local government district, whose council was based in Penzance; the area is named after one of the ancient administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning'headland' and wydh meaning'at the end'. Natural England have designated the peninsula as national character area 156 and named it West Penwith, it is known as the Land's End Peninsula. The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on granite bedrock that has led to the formation of a rugged coastline with many fine beaches; the contact between the granite and the adjoining sedimentary rock is most seen forming the cliffs at Land's End, the most westerly point in the district and this geology has resulted in the mining that has made Cornwall famous. Tin and copper have been mined in the area since pre-Roman times and the landscape is dotted with ruined mine buildings. Inland, the peninsula is granite with a thin top soil.
This combined with Cornwall's exposed position and the prevailing weather systems from the Atlantic Ocean means that, with the exception of the high moor areas, much of the area is a semi-bare plateau standing around 130 m above sea level. This is most evident on the north coast between St Just and Zennor where the remains of the ancient seabed of the Pliocene era are visible, its highest point is Watch Croft. There are several deep valleys cut into this plateau such as Lamorna on the south coast, where sufficient shelter from the weather is gained for trees to establish and grow; the shelter of these valleys and the mild climate gives Penwith a flora not seen anywhere else in the UK. Penzance's Morrab Gardens is able to grow bananas. Penwith contains an artificial lake, Drift Reservoir, located appromimately 3 miles west of Penzance. In addition to Penwith's status as a Heritage coastline, west Penwith, an area of 90 square kilometres, is considered an Environmentally Sensitive Area. Penwith lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. The principal towns in Penwith are Penzance, the port town and seat of local government, St Ives, one of the county's most popular seaside resorts; the district is rural, contains many villages, principal amongst them being Botallack, Carbis Bay, Drift, Gwithian, Lamorna, Levant, Long Rock, Madron, Morvah, Nancledra, Paul, Pendeen, Sancreed, Sennen, St Buryan, St Erth, St Hilary, St Just in Penwith, St Levan and Zennor. For a full list of settlements in Penwith see List of places in PenwithAs a small peninsula at the tip of a larger peninsula, the district is somewhat isolated from the rest of the UK. Two major transport routes terminate in the district, the A30 road and the Great Western Main Line railway; the St Ives Bay Line provides local transport between St Ives, the main line at St Erth. A ferry to the Isles of Scilly, 28 miles west-south-west of the district, is based in Penzance. Penwith contains a great concentration of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Celtic British archaeological remains.
The most significant of them are described in a field guide first published in 1954. Tewdwr Mawr ruled over the area from Carnsew in the mid-6th century before returning to his patrimony in Cornouaille in Brittany around 577. Penwith's population has remained broadly static for the last one hundred and fifty years. Penwith is believed to be the last part of Cornwall where Cornish was spoken as a community language. Dolly Pentreath, known as the last recorded speaker came from Paul in Penwith. A year following the death of Dolly Pentreath in 1777 Daines Barrington received a letter, written in Cornish and accompanied by an English translation, from a fisherman in Mousehole named William Bodinar stating that he knew of five people who could speak Cornish in that village alone. Barrington speaks of a John Nancarrow from Marazion, a native speaker and survived into the 1790s. Chesten Marchant, d. 1676, a woman from Gwithian, is believed to have been the last monoglot Cornish speaker. Canon Doble's Cornish Saints Series included saints from this area: nine of these were reissued in 1960.
Penwith had a population of 65,000 in the mid-2007 estimates. 96.4% of Penwith residents were born in the UK. 72% of people in the district gave Christianity as their religion, whilst nearly 18% of people stated that they are non-religious, compared to 15 percent nationally. Penwith has the 6th highest rate of divorce of any district in England and Wales at 13.4% of the over 16 population, correspondingly has one of the lowest percentages of married couple households. Penwith district has one of the lowest levels of home ownership in the country and is ranked 4th for those without central heating; the district has one of the lowest rates of second car ownership and is ranked 300 out of 376 districts in England and Wales. The district has some of the highest indicators of bad health in the country and is ranked 28th and 41st for those described as having long term illness and general poor health respectively. Penwith has one of the highest unemployment rates of any district, ranked 51st out of 376 districts, one of the lowest rates of degree level education at 16%, compared to the national average of 20%.
Penwith is ranked as the district having the 28th largest retired population in England and Wales. Penwith is an area of extreme economic deprivation, it is ranked as the 25th most deprived district in Engl