Biscuit is a term used for a variety of flour-based baked food products. The term is applied to two distinct products; this article covers the type of biscuit found in Africa and Europe, hard and unleavened. In North America, a biscuit is a soft, leavened quick bread, is covered in the article Biscuit. In Commonwealth nations and Ireland, a biscuit is a small baked product that would be called either a "cookie" or a "cracker" in the United States and most of English-speaking Canada. Biscuits in the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and Ireland are hard and may be savoury or sweet, such as chocolate biscuits, hobnobs, ginger nuts, rich tea and custard creams. In the Commonwealth Nations and Ireland, the term "cookie" refers to only one type of biscuit. In the United States and some parts of English Canada, a "biscuit" is a quick bread, somewhat similar to a scone, unsweetened. Leavening is, when using buttermilk, baking soda. Biscuits are referred to as either "baking powder biscuits" or "buttermilk biscuits" if buttermilk is used rather than milk as a liquid.
A Southern regional variation using the term "beaten biscuit" is closer to hardtack than soft dough biscuits. The modern-day difference in the English language regarding the word "biscuit" is provided by British cookery writer Elizabeth David in English Bread and Yeast Cookery, in the chapter "Yeast Buns and Small Tea Cakes" and section "Soft Biscuits", she writes, It is interesting that these soft biscuits are common to Scotland and Guernsey, that the term biscuit as applied to a soft product was retained in these places, in America, whereas in England it has died out. The Old French word bescuit is derived from the Latin words bis and coquere, and, means "twice-cooked"; this is because biscuits were cooked in a twofold process: first baked, dried out in a slow oven. This term was adapted into English in the 14th century during the Middle Ages, in the Middle English word bisquite, to represent a hard, twice-baked product; the Dutch language from around 1703 had adopted the word koekje to have a similar meaning for a similar hard, baked product.
The difference between the secondary Dutch word and that of Latin origin is that, whereas the koekje is a cake that rises during baking, the biscuit, which has no raising agent, in general does not, except for the expansion of heated air during baking. When continental Europeans began to emigrate to colonial North America, the two words and their "same but different" meanings began to clash; the words cookie or cracker became the words of choice to mean a baked product. Further confusion has been added by the adoption of the word biscuit for a small leavened bread popular in the United States. According to the American English dictionary Merriam-Webster, a cookie is a "small flat or raised cake". A biscuit is "any of various hard or crisp dry baked product" similar to the American English terms cracker or cookie, or "a small quick bread made from dough, rolled out and cut or dropped from a spoon". In a number of other European languages, terms derived from the latin bis coctus refer instead to yet another baked product, similar to the sponge cake.
In modern Italian usage, the term biscotto is used to refer to any type of hard twice-baked biscuit, not only to the cantuccini as in English-speaking countries. The need for nutritious, easy-to-store, easy-to-carry, long-lasting foods on long journeys, in particular at sea, was solved by taking live food along with a butcher/cook. However, this took up additional space on what were either horse-powered treks or small ships, reducing the time of travel before additional food was required; this resulted in early armies' adopting the style of hunter-foraging. The introduction of the baking of processed cereals including the creation of flour provided a more reliable source of food. Egyptian sailors carried a flat, brittle loaf of millet bread called dhourra cake while the Romans had a biscuit called buccellum. Roman cookbook Apicius describes: "a thick paste of fine wheat flour was boiled and spread out on a plate; when it had dried and hardened, it was cut up and fried until crisp served with honey and pepper."
Many early physicians believed. Hence, for both sustenance and avoidance of illness, a daily consumption of a biscuit was considered good for health. Hard biscuits soften. To solve this problem, early bakers attempted to create the hardest biscuit possible; because it is so hard and dry, if properly stored and transported, navies' hardtack will survive rough handling and high temperature. Baked hard, it can be kept without spoiling for years as long. For long voyages, hardtack was baked four times, rather than the more common two. To soften hardtack for eating, it was dunked in brine, coffee, or some other liquid or cooked into a skillet meal. At the time of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the daily allowance on board a Royal Navy ship was one pound of biscuit plus one gallon of beer. Samuel Pepys in 1667 first regularised naval victualling with varied and nutritious rations. Royal Navy hardtack during Queen Victoria's reign was made by machine at the Royal Clarence Victualling Yard at Gosport, stamped with the Queen's mark and the nu
Matzo, matzah, or matza is an unleavened flatbread, part of Jewish cuisine and forms an integral element of the Passover festival, during which chametz is forbidden. As the Torah recounts, God commanded the Jews to create this special unleavened bread. During Passover it is eaten as a flat, cracker-like bread or used in dishes as breadcrumbs and in the traditional matzo ball soup. Matzo, kosher for Passover is limited in Ashkenazi tradition to plain matzo made from flour and water; the flour may be whole grain or refined grain, but must be either wheat, barley, rye, or oat. Some Sephardic communities allow matzos containing eggs and fruit juice to be used throughout the holiday. Passover and non-Passover matzo may be soft or crisp, but only the crisp "cracker" type is available commercially in most locations. Soft matzo, if it were commercially available, would be a kosher flour tortilla. Non-Passover matzo may be made with onion, poppy seed, etc, it can be made from rice, maize and other non-traditional flours that can never be used for Passover matzo.
Gluten-free matzo-lookalike made from potato starch and other non-traditional flour is available and may be eaten on Passover, but does not fulfill the commandment of eating matzo for people with celiac disease who cannot eat Passover matzo, because matzo must be made from one of the five grains, all of which contain gluten, except for most types of oat matzo. Oat matzo may only be used by those who cannot have any other kind because it's not certain that oat is one of the five grains, so those who can have wheat matzo should do so. Matzo is mentioned in the Torah several times in relation to The Exodus from Egypt: That night, they are to eat the meat, roasted in the fire. From the evening of the fourteenth day of the first month until the evening of the twenty-first day, you are to eat matzo. You are not to eat any chametz with it, thus you will remember the day. For six days you are to eat matzo. There are numerous explanations behind the symbolism of matzo. One is historical: Passover is a commemoration of the exodus from Egypt.
The biblical narrative relates that the Israelites left Egypt in such haste they could not wait for their bread dough to rise. The other reason for eating matzo is symbolic: On the one hand, matzo symbolizes redemption and freedom, but it is lechem oni, "poor man's bread", thus it serves as a reminder to be humble, to not forget what life was like in servitude. Leaven symbolizes corruption and pride as leaven "puffs up". Eating the "bread of affliction" is both a lesson in humility and an act that enhances the appreciation of freedom. Another explanation is that matzo has been used to replace the pesach, or the traditional Passover offering, made before the destruction of the Temple. During the Seder the third time the matzo is eaten it is preceded with the Sephardic rite, "zekher l'korban pesach hane'ekhal al hasova"; this means "remembrance of the Passover offering, eaten while full". This last piece of the matzo eaten is called afikoman and many explain it as a symbol of salvation in the future.
The Passover Seder meal is full of symbols of salvation, the closing line, "Next year in Jerusalem," but the use of matzo is the oldest symbol of salvation in the Seder. At the Passover seder, simple matzo made of flour and water is mandatory. Sephardic tradition additionally permits the inclusion of eggs in the recipe; the flour must be ground from one of the five grains specified in Jewish law for Passover matzo: wheat, spelt, rye or oat. Per Ashkenazic tradition, matzo made with wine, fruit juice, garlic, etc. is not acceptable for use at any time during the Passover festival except by the elderly or unwell. Matzo dough is mixed and rolled out without an autolyse step as used for leavened breads. Most forms are pricked with a fork or a similar tool to keep the finished product from puffing up, the resulting flat piece of dough is cooked at high temperature until it develops dark spots set aside to cool and, if sufficiently thin, to harden to crispness. Dough is considered to begin the leavening process 18 minutes from the time.
The entire process of making matzo takes only a few minutes in efficient modern matzo bakeries. After baking, matzo may be ground into fine crumbs, known as matzo meal. Matzo meal can be used like flour during the week of Passover when flour can otherwise be used only to make matzo. There are two major forms of matzo. In many western countries the most common form is the hard form of matzo, cracker-like in appearance and taste and is used in all Ashkenazic and most Sephardic communities. Yemenites, Iraqi Jews traditionally made a form of soft matzo which looks like Greek pita or like a tortilla. Soft matzo is made only by hand, with shmurah flour. Flavored varieties of matzo are produced commercially, such as poppy seed- or onion-flavored. Oat and spelt matzo with kosher certification are produced. Oat matzo is suitable for those who cannot eat gluten. Whole wheat and organic matzo are available. Chocolate-covered matzo is a favorite among chil
Milton is a town in Norfolk County, United States and an affluent suburb of Boston. The population was 27,003 at the 2010 census. Milton is the birthplace of former U. S. President George H. W. Bush and architect Buckminster Fuller. In 2007, 2009, 2011, Money magazine listed Milton 7th, 5th, 2nd on its annual list of the "Best Places to Live" in the United States. Milton is located between the Blue Hills, it is bordered by Boston's Dorchester neighborhood and Mattapan neighborhood to the north and its Hyde Park neighborhood to the west, Quincy to the east and south, Randolph to the south and Canton to the west. Milton was settled in the 1630s as a part of Dorchester by Puritans from England. Richard Callicott, one of the first settlers, built a trading post near the Neponset River and negotiated the purchase of Milton from Sachem Cutshamekin. Many of the settlers arrived during the 1650s fleeing the aftermath of Oliver Cromwell’s deposition from power and the English Civil War. Referred to as "Unquity", the term used by the Neponset Tribe of the Massachusetts Indians meaning "Lower Falls,", translated into "Lower Mills" after the establishment of the Israel Stoughton Grist Mill in 1634.
In 1662, "that part of the Town of Dorchester, situated on the south side of the Neponset River called'Unquatiquisset' was incorporated as an independent town and named Milton in honor of Milton Abbey, England.” Many early Puritan families of Milton became influential and important in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, such as: the Sumners, Hutchinsons, Tuckers and Babcocks. A powder mill established in 1674 may be the earliest in the colonies, taking advantage of the town's water power sites. Boston investors, seeing the potential of the town and its proximity to the city, provided the capital to develop 18th century Milton as an industrial site with an iron slitting mill and sawmills, the first chocolate factory in New England in 1764, converted from the old Stoughton Grist Mill. Laying of streetcar lines fueled the rapid expansion of residential development. Between 1870 and 1915, Milton grew into the community it is now: a streetcar suburb with some chocolates and market produce to remind residents of the past.
By 1929, many of the big estates were broken into subdivisions as the town's residential growth continued. The Suffolk Resolves were signed in Milton in 1774, were used as a model by the drafters of the Declaration of Independence in 1776; the Suffolk Resolves House, where the Resolves were passed, still stands and it is maintained as the headquarters of the Milton Historical Society. The house was moved to a new location at 1370 Canton Avenue in West Milton in order to save it from demolition at its previous location in "Milton Village" at Lower Mills, they were the "Suffolk Resolves" because Milton was part of Suffolk County until 1793, when Norfolk County split off, leaving only Boston and Chelsea in Suffolk County. Two royal governors of Massachusetts, Jonathan Belcher and Thomas Hutchinson, had houses in Milton; the Governor Belcher House dates from 1777, replacing the earlier home destroyed in fire in 1776, it is owned on Governor Belcher Lane in East Milton. Although Hutchinson's house was demolished in the 1940s, Governor Hutchinson's Field, owned by the Trustees of Reservations today is a wide expanse of greenery on Milton Hill, with a view of the Neponset River estuary and the skyscrapers of Boston six miles away.
Both Governor Belcher's house and Governor Hutchinson's field are on the National Register of Historic Places. The town was home to America's first piano factory. Revolutionary Milton is the setting of the opening of the 1940 bestselling historical novel Oliver Wiswell by Kenneth Roberts; the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory is located in the town, home of the nation's oldest continuously kept meteorological records. The Granite Railway passed from Quincy to the Neponset River in Milton, beginning in 1826, it is called the first commercial railroad in the United States, as it was the first chartered railway to evolve into a common carrier without an intervening closure. A centennial historic plaque from 1926 and an original switch frog and section of track from the railway can be found in the gardens on top of the Southeast Expressway as it passes under East Milton Square; the frog had been displayed at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. East Milton Square developed as a direct result of the Granite Railway.
Four sheds there were used to dress the granite stone prior to it being brought by rail to the wharf for transfer to boats. East Milton Square was termed the "Railway Village" and a train station was located there after 1871 when the Granite Railway became a passenger line of the Old Colony Railroad; the Blue Bell Tavern, a hotel, served as the headquarters of the Granite Railway and it was named the Russell House. It was located on the site of the current United States Post Office in East Milton Square. In 1801 Josiah Bent began a baking operation in Milton, selling "water crackers" or biscuits made of flour and water that would not deteriorate during long sea voyages from the port of Boston; the crackling sound occurred during baking, hence the name. This is, his company sold the original hardtack crackers used by troops during the American Civil War. The company, Bent's Cookie Factory, is still located in Milton and continues to sell these items to Civil War reenactors and others. Robert Bennet Forbes was a noted China Trade merchant, sea captain, philanthropist during the Irish Famine.
He built a Greek Revival mansion in 1833 at 215 Adams Street o
A cracker is a flat, dry baked food made with flour. In UK English, crackers are sometimes called savoury biscuits or biscuits. Flavorings or seasonings, such as salt, seeds or cheese, may be added to the dough or sprinkled on top before baking. Crackers are branded as a nutritious and convenient way to consume a staple food or cereal grain. Crackers can be eaten on their own, but can accompany other food items as or with appetizers - such as cheese or meat slices. Bland or mild crackers are sometimes used as a palate cleanser in food product testing or flavor testing, between samples. Crackers may be crumbled and added to soup; the modern cracker is somewhat similar to nautical ship's biscuits, military hardtack and sacramental bread. Other early versions of the cracker can be found in ancient flatbreads, such as lavash, matzo, flatbrød, crisp bread. Asian analogues include papadum and senbei; the holes in crackers are called "docking" holes. The holes are poked in the dough with something pointed, such as a fork, to stop overly large air pockets from forming in the cracker while baking.
Crackers come in many shapes and sizes - round, triangular, or irregular. In American English, the name "cracker" refers to savory and/or salty flat biscuits, whereas the term "cookie", or "biscuit" in UK English, while similar to a cracker in appearance and texture, means it is sweet. Crackers are generally made differently: crackers are made by layering dough, while cookies, besides the addition of sugar use a chemical leavening agent, may contain eggs, in other ways are made more like a cake. Crackers sometimes have cheese or spices as ingredients, or chicken stock. Saltines and oyster crackers are used in or served with soup. Additional types of crackers include cream crackers and water biscuits. Cheese crackers are prepared using cheese as a main ingredient. Commercial examples include Cheese Nips and Goldfish. Graham crackers and digestive biscuits are treated more like cookies than crackers, although they were both invented for their supposed health benefits, graham crackers are sweet. Mock apple pie is made using Ritz crackers.
Cracker brands include Bremner Wafers, Captain's Wafers, Cheese Nips, Club Crackers, Handi-Snacks, In a Biskit, Town House crackers, Ritz Crackers, Stoned Wheat Thins, Triscuit, TUC and Wheat Thins, among others. Such crackers are sometimes spread with pâté, or mousse. Website of Bent's Cookie Factory in Milton, MA, purveyors of "water crackers" and hardtack during the American Civil War Make your own cheddar crackers Make your own thin wheat crackers
Herring as food
Herring are forage fish in the wild belonging to the family Clupeidae, but they are an important food for humans. Herring move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast; the most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found in shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognized. Herrings played a pivotal role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe, early in the twentieth century, their study was fundamental to the evolution of fisheries science; these oily fish have a long history as an important food fish, are salted, smoked, or pickled. Herring are high in the long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, they are a source of vitamin D. Water pollution influences the amount of herring. For example, large Baltic herring exceeds recommended limits with respect to PCB and dioxin, although some sources point out that cancer-reducing effect of omega-3 fatty acids is statistically stronger than the cancer-causing effect of PCBs and dioxins.
The contaminant levels depend on the age of the fish. Baltic herrings larger than 17 cm may be eaten twice a month, while herrings smaller than 17 cm can be eaten freely. Mercury in fish influences the amount of fish that women who are pregnant or planning to be pregnant within the next one or two years may safely eat. Herring has been a staple food source since at least 3000 B. C. There are numerous ways the fish is served and many regional recipes: eaten raw, pickled, or cured by other techniques. A typical Dutch delicacy is Hollandse Nieuwe, raw herring from the catches around the end of spring and the beginning of summer; this is eaten with raw onion. Hollandse nieuwe is only available in spring; this is celebrated in festivals such as the Vlaardingen Herring Festival and Vlaggetjesdag in Scheveningen. The new herring are enzyme-preserved for the remainder of the year; the herring is said to be eaten "raw" because it has not been cooked, although it has been subjected to a degree of curing. The first barrel of Hollandse Nieuwe is traditionally sold at auction for charity.
Young herring are called whitebait and are eaten whole as a delicacy. In Sweden, Baltic herring is fermented to make surströmming. Pickled herrings are part of Scandinavian, Dutch, Polish, Eastern Slavic and Jewish cuisine. Most cured herrings uses a two-step process; the herrings are cured with salt to extract water. The second stage involves removing the salt and adding flavorings a vinegar, sugar solution to which ingredients like peppercorn, bay leaves and raw onions are added. Other flavors can be added, such as sherry and dill; the tradition is strong in Scandinavia, The Netherlands and Germany. In the Philippines, dried herring is popularly eaten during breakfast, along with garlic rice and eggs. A kipper is a split and cold smoked herring, a bloater is a whole gutted and cold smoked herring and a buckling is a whole herring, gutted apart from roe or milt and hot smoked. All are staples of British cuisine. According to George Orwell in The Road to Wigan Pier, the Emperor Charles V erected a statue to the inventor of bloaters.
Smoked herring is a traditional meal on the Danish island in the Baltic Bornholm. This is the case in Sweden where one can get hard fried/smoked "Strömming" named "Sotare" in places like Skansen, Stockholm. In Scotland, herrings are traditionally filleted, coated in seasoned pin-head oatmeal, fried in a pan with butter or oil; this dish is served with "crushed", boiled potatoes. In Sweden, herring soup is a traditional dish. In Southeast Alaska, western hemlock boughs are cut and placed in the ocean before the herring arrive to spawn; the fertilized herring eggs stick to the boughs, are collected. After being boiled the eggs are removed from the bough. Herring eggs collected in this way are eaten plain or in herring egg salad; this method of collection is part of Tlingit tradition. List of smoked foods Skåne Market Sardines as food Anchovies as food Nutrition Facts for Herring In praise of the humble herring The Independent, 1 September 2005. En route: Scandinavia.
A saltine or soda cracker is a thin square cracker made from white flour and baking soda, with most varieties sprinkled with coarse salt. It has perforations over its surface, as well as a distinctively crisp texture; some familiar brand names of saltine crackers in North America are Christie's Premium Plus, Nabisco's Premium, Sunshine Biscuits' Krispy, Keebler's Zesta, Noel's Saltín. Unsalted tops as well as whole grain saltines can be found. Saltines are eaten as a light snack with cheese, butter, or peanut butter, they may be dipped or crumbled in stews, soups or crumbled into salads. They are sold in boxes containing two to four stacks of crackers, each wrapped in a sleeve of waxed paper or plastic. In restaurants, they are found in small wrapped packets of two crackers, which accompany soup or salad. Cracker meal, a type of coarse to semi-fine flour made of crushed saltine crackers, may be used as toppings for dishes; as a home remedy, saltines are consumed by many people in order to ease nausea and to settle an upset stomach.
Saltine crackers have been included in military field rations in the United States. For some children in the eastern United States, Saltines are a traditional Christmas Eve treat. Soda crackers were described in "The Young Housekeeper" by Alcott in 1838. In 1876, F. L. Sommer & Company of St. Joseph, Missouri started using baking soda to leaven its wafer thin cracker. Called the Premium Soda Cracker and "Saltines" because of the baking salt component, the invention became popular and Sommer's business quadrupled within four years; that company merged with other companies to form American Biscuit Company in 1890 and after further mergers became part of Nabisco in 1898. In the early 20th century, various companies in the United States began selling soda crackers in Puerto Rico and referred to them as "Export Soda". Rovira Biscuit Corp. of Puerto Rico started selling their soda crackers with the same name. The term "Export Soda" became a generic term in Puerto Rico for these crackers. In 1975 Keebler Co. was refused a trademark for the term because it was "merely descriptive".
In the United States, Nabisco lost trademark protection after the term "saltine" began to be used generically to refer to similar crackers. The name "saltine" had been placed in the Merriam Webster Dictionary in 1907 with a definition of "a thin crisp cracker sprinkled with salt”. In Australia, Arnott's Biscuits Holdings still holds a trademark on the name "Saltine", they were made in the United Kingdom by Huntley and Palmers, in Australia and New Zealand under the brand name Arnott's Salada. Saltines have been compared to hardtack, a simple unleavened cracker or biscuit made from flour and sometimes salt. However, unlike hardtack, saltines include yeast as one of their ingredients. Soda crackers are a leavened bread, allowed to rise for twenty to thirty hours. After the rise, alkaline soda is added to neutralize the excessive acidity produced by the action of the yeast; the dough is allowed to rest for three to four more hours, to relax the gluten, before being rolled in layers and baked. Flat saltine crackers have perforations on their surfaces.
During baking, the outer layer of dough hardens first. The perforations connect the top surface to the bottom surface to prevent the cracker from pillowing as a result of these evolved gasses. Cream cracker Genericized trademark Hardtack List of crackers Matzo Saltine cracker challenge Water biscuit Nabisco's Premium line of cracker products Recipe for traditional soda crackers
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s