A miller's knot is a binding knot used to secure the opening of a sack or bag. Large sacks contained grains. Several knots are known interchangeably by these three names; as noted above, several other distinct knots have been known as miller's, sack, or bag knots. These fit the short description "two crossing turns – ends tucked under"; the following 3 knots do not fit the simple "two crossing turns – ends tucked under" definition but are secure: A slipped constrictor knot where the ends are passed through the opposing slips for security is quite secure as a bag knot. Unslipped, it is more secure, but it may have to be cut at the bridge to open the bag. A slipped strangle knot where the ends are passed through the opposing slips for security is quite secure as a bag knot. A bottle sling around a swirled and folded neck of the bag is a solid and reliable bag knot; the fold provides the slight bulge a bottle sling needs for a secure hold. The bag may be hanged loaded by the ends of the Bottle sling tied together.
The common aspects of the most common bag knots are two crossing turns, both ends tucked under some turns near the crossing point. Two ends, two turns one can tuck under, gives a limited number of alternatives. All of these knots can be made in a slipped form by starting with a bight and/or by completing the final tuck with a bight instead of the end. To avoid ambiguity, versions of these knots that are not slipped are pictured below with the reference numbers found in The Ashley Book of Knots; this is to tie a Constrictor knot version of the miller's knot: Grip the neck of the bag with the left hand, Fix / immobilize one end of the rope tucked upwards over the left hand long finger and under the index finger Make two crossing turns around the neck of the bag. Detailed steps: Cross over the hand downwards and take one turn around the neck of the bag at the sack side of the hand Cross over the hand upwards as well as over the immobilized other end, Take a second turn around the neck of the bag at the opening side of the hand Cross over the immobilized other end of the rope cross back tucking under the crossing point of step 3.2.
To tie the other variants: If at the last step one chooses not to cross the immobilized other end and tuck only inwards under the part between the two turns, the knot will be an ABoK #11 or Clove hitch. If at the last step one chooses to cross the immobilized other end and tuck only under the part between the two turns, the knot will be a ABoK #1242 or a ground-line hitch pictured, it should be tightened by pulling the end first. It is called Spar hitch If at the last step one chooses to cross over the crossing point, tuck outwards under the first turn, the knot will be a ABoK #1241 pictured. If at the last step one chooses to cross over the crossing point, tuck inwards under the first turn, the knot will be a ABoK #1674 pictured. Shown in a slipped form at entry #1244, this variation is noted by Ashley as having better binding characteristics than the others. Tying other knots that may function well as a bag knot but are different from above descriptions: Strangle knot Grip the neck of the bag with the left hand, Fix / immobilize one end of the rope tucked upwards over the left hand long and under the index finger Make two parallel turns around the neck of the bag.
Detailed steps: Cross over the hand downwards and take one turn around the neck of the bag first at the sack side of the hand over the hand and behind the immobilized other end. Take another turn crossing over the immobilized other end, crossing downwards over the hand around the neck of the bag parallel to the first turn Cross over the immobilized other end of the rope cross back tucking under both turns. Bottle sling List of binding knots List of knots
True lover's knot
The term true lover's knot called true love knot is used for many distinct knots. The association of knots with the symbolism of love and affection dates back to antiquity; because of this, no single knot can be determined to be the true "true love knot". Modern western knotting literature has the name for these related knots deriving from stories or legends in which the knots symbolize the connection between a couple in love. Many examples feature sailors separated from their beloved. Ashley notes that it was once common for sailors' wedding rings, where gold wire was wrought to incorporate the "true lovers" knot such that resultant ring would comprise two tori: each flexible to move about the other. In practical terms, these knots are shown as consisting of two interlocked overhand knots made in two parallel ropes or cords; the variations are differentiated by the way in which the overhand knots interweave and in the final arrangement of the knot. To show if a young couple's love would last, each would take a small limb of a tree and tie a lovers knot.
If the knot held and grew for a year, their love would stay true. List of bend knots List of knots
The bottle sling is a knot which can be used to create a handle for a glass or ceramic container with a slippery narrow neck, as long as the neck widens near the top. While classed with binding knots, such as the reef knot and miller's knot, the bottle sling is able to perform a function for which most other binding knots are unsuited; the bottle sling's specific form allows it to grip a cylinder, assuming it has a slight flare or collar, lift it along its axis when the knot is loaded by all four strands. With appropriate size cord, most wine bottles can be reliably suspended with this knot; the bottle sling was described in detail by the Greek physician Heraklas in his first century monograph on surgical knots and slings. It was included under the name diplous karkhesios brokhos. Familiar with the knot, Heraklas provided three distinct tying methods. Knot expert Cyrus L. Day believed the bottle sling was not described again in print until Craigin's 1884 A Boy's Workshop, although Clifford Ashley noted it was illustrated in Johann Röding's 1795 Allgemeines Wörterbuch der Marine.
More the Bottle Sling has been nationally recognized by the Boy Scouts of America as the symbol of Outdoor Skills by scout camps throughout the country. As the name suggests, the primary use for this knot is to suspend bottles and other items with similar shapes; the space at the center of the knot is dropped over the top of similar object. Pulling on all four ends emerging from the knot tightens it against the neck of the bottle. Looping the running ends through the bight and tying them together will make a sling that grips and can be used to lift the bottle; this provides a convenient method of lowering a beverage bottle from a boat into the water to chill. As mentioned above, the knot is believed to have been used medically in ancient Greece for applying traction in the reduction of fractures and dislocations; however it is not known to have any current medical application. The knot is said to have been used as an improvised emergency bridle when rope was the only material at hand, its use is described with the central parts of the knot acting as a bit, one of the knot's outer bights passing over the top of the animal's muzzle, the other passing under the jaw to form the noseband.
The closed loop end of the knot would be placed over the animal's head and behind the ears, as a crownpiece, the two free ends coming off under the chin used as reins. It was intended only for temporary use; however at least one author has disputed this as "nonsense" and suggests its only proper equestrian use is in a doubled form, in this context known as a hackamore knot, to secure the fiador to the bosal in some hackamore designs. Not surprisingly—given three were known to the ancient Greeks—there are many methods to tie the bottle sling. Swedish physiologist and knot researcher Hjalmar Öhrvall listed eight in his 1916 book Om Knutar. One method for tying the bottle sling is similar to the loop-and-weave method used to tie the jury mast knot and the trumpet knot; the knot is begun by making a bight in a piece of rope and folding the bight back on itself to make two separated loops that are mirror images of each other. Lay one loop on top of the other so that they overlap and create a cat's eye shaped hole above a triangular shaped hole between the two loops.
Make a bird's beak with your index and thumb and weave them down through the loop, up through the cat's eye and down through the bottom loop, bunching the coils of rope against your fingers. Pinch the section of rope, the bottom of the triangle and flip the coils over the pinched section; the flip may take a little practice, but the pinched section should become a short bight hanging off a circular shaped knot. Bottle cage List of binding knots List of knots Brief video of one tying method Bottle sling discussed in relation to an alternative knot
The boa knot is a modern binding knot invented by weaver Peter Collingwood in 1996. His intention was to develop a knot that would hold well when the constricted object was cut close to the winds of the knot; the boa knot is related to the double constrictor knot. It combines qualities of these other two knots; the boa knot is hard to untie so dont do it often. The knotted part needs to lie over a convex surface to hold. Start with making two loops instead of one loop. Hard to move around; the boa knot is best used for securing objects in cylindrical loads. Http://notableknotindex.webs.com/boaconstrictor.html http://www.asiteaboutnothing.net/cr_constrictor.html
Triple fisherman's knot
The triple fisherman's knot is a bend knot, used to join two ends of rope together. It is an extension of the double fisherman's knot and is recommended for tying slippery, stiff ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and aramid cored ropes. Tying the triple fisherman's knot is nearly identical to the double fisherman's, except for a third wrap before passing the end through each half of the knot. Testing has shown that a failure mode exists at high loads with the double fisherman's knot in ropes using Spectra and Technora cores; the sheath of the rope separates at the knot, the high-lubricity core slips through the double fisherman's knot. Although the increase in ultimate strength is small, the triple fisherman's knot does not exhibit this behavior; this has led to the recommendation to use the triple fisherman's knot to avoid this particular failure mechanism. The triple fisherman's knot should not be confused with the "triple-T fisherman's knot", more akin to a one-sided overhand bend and has different properties than the triple fisherman's knot.
List of bend knots List of knots
Hunter's bend is a knot used to join two lines. It consists of interlocking overhand knots, can jam under moderate strain, it is topologically similar to the Zeppelin bend. When assessed against other bends In stress tests using paracord, it was found to be "not as strong as the blood knot, similar to the reverse figure of eight and stronger than the fisherman's bend, sheet bend or reef knot". In October 1978, an article in The Times presented it as a newly invented knot credited to Dr. Edward Hunter, he had used it for years to tie broken shoelaces before discovering its originality through a friend in the 1970s. When it appeared on the front page, it led to much publicity for the knot and to the formation of the International Guild of Knot Tyers, it was pointed out by Amory Bloch Lovins that the knot had been presented in Knots for Mountaineering by Phil D. Smith in the 1950s; the tying of the bend was described as a modification to the alpine butterfly bend. Smith had devised the knot in 1943 while working on the San Francisco waterfront and had called it a "rigger's bend".
Although not documented in the original 1944 print of The Ashley Book of Knots, it was added in 1979 as entry #1425A. Zeppelin bendList of bend knotsList of knots Alternative steps to tie a Hunter's Bend
A knot is an intentional complication in cordage which may be useful or decorative. Practical knots may be classified as hitches, splices, or knots. A hitch fastens a rope to another object. A knot in the strictest sense serves as a stopper or knob at the end of a rope to keep that end from slipping through a grommet or eye. Knots have excited interest since ancient times for their practical uses, as well as their topological intricacy, studied in the area of mathematics known as knot theory. There is a large variety of each with properties that make it suitable for a range of tasks; some knots are used to attach the rope to other objects such as another rope, ring, or stake. Some knots are used to constrict objects. Decorative knots bind to themselves to produce attractive patterns. While some people can look at diagrams or photos and tie the illustrated knots, others learn best by watching how a knot is tied. Knot tying skills are transmitted by sailors, climbers, cavers, rescue professionals, fishermen and surgeons.
The International Guild of Knot Tyers is an organization dedicated to the promotion of knot tying. Truckers in need of securing a load may use a trucker's hitch, gaining mechanical advantage. Knots can save spelunkers from being buried under rock. Many knots can be used as makeshift tools, for example, the bowline can be used as a rescue loop, the munter hitch can be used for belaying; the diamond hitch was used to tie packages on to donkeys and mules. In hazardous environments such as mountains, knots are important. In the event of someone falling into a ravine or a similar terrain feature, with the correct equipment and knowledge of knots a rappel system can be set up to lower a rescuer down to a casualty and set up a hauling system to allow a third individual to pull both the rescuer and the casualty out of the ravine. Further application of knots includes developing a high line, similar to a zip line, which can be used to move supplies, injured people, or the untrained across rivers, crevices, or ravines.
Note the systems mentioned require carabiners and the use of multiple appropriate knots. These knots include the bowline, double figure eight, munter hitch, munter mule, prusik and clove hitch, thus any individual who goes into a mountainous environment should have basic knowledge of knots and knot systems to increase safety and the ability to undertake activities such as rappelling. Knots can be applied in combination to produce complex objects such as netting. In ropework, the frayed end of a rope is held together by a type of knot called a whipping knot. Many types of textiles use knots to repair damage. Macramé, one kind of textile, is generated through the use of knotting, instead of knits, weaves or felting. Macramé can produce self-supporting three-dimensional textile structures, as well as flat work, is used ornamentally or decoratively. Knots weaken the rope; when knotted rope is strained to its breaking point, it always fails at the knot or close to it, unless it is defective or damaged elsewhere.
The bending and chafing forces that hold a knot in place unevenly stress rope fibers and lead to a reduction in strength. The exact mechanisms that cause the weakening and failure are complex and are the subject of continued study. Relative knot strength called knot efficiency, is the breaking strength of a knotted rope in proportion to the breaking strength of the rope without the knot. Determining a precise value for a particular knot is difficult because many factors can affect a knot efficiency test: the type of fiber, the style of rope, the size of rope, whether it is wet or dry, how the knot is dressed before loading, how it is loaded, whether the knot is loaded, so on; the efficiency of common knots ranges between 40—80% of the rope's original strength. In most situations forming loops and bends with conventional knots is far more practical than using rope splices though the latter can maintain nearly the rope's full strength. Prudent users allow for a large safety margin in the strength of rope chosen for a task due to the weakening effects of knots, damage, shock loading, etc.
The working load limit of a rope is specified with a significant safety factor, up to 15:1 for critical applications. For life-threatening applications, other factors come into play. If the rope does not break, a knot may still fail to hold. Knots that hold firm under a variety of adverse conditions are said to be more secure than those that do not. Repeated, dynamic loads will cause every knot to fail; the main ways knots fail to hold are: The load creates tension that pulls the rope back through the knot in the direction of the load. If this continues far enough, the working end fails; this behavior can worsen when the knot is strained and let slack, dragged over rough terrain, or struck against hard objects such as masts and flagpoles. With secure knots, slippage may occur when the knot is first put under real tension; this can be mitigated by leaving plenty of rope at the working end outside of the knot, by dressing the knot cleanly and tightening it as much as possible before loading. Sometimes, the use of a stopper knot or better, a backup knot can prevent the working end from passing through the knot.
Life-critical applications require backup knots to maximize safety. To capsize (or spil