Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed with reference to human health. Many others, including restrictions on the alteration of the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water resources, may reflect efforts to protect aquatic ecosystems more broadly. Regulatory efforts may include identifying and categorizing water pollutants, dictating acceptable pollutant concentrations in water resources, limiting pollutant discharges from effluent sources. Regulatory areas include sewage treatment and disposal and agricultural waste water management, control of surface runoff from construction sites and urban environments; the Earth's hydrosphere is ubiquitous and complex. Within the water cycle, physical water moves without regard to political boundaries between the Earth's atmosphere and subsurface, through both natural and man-made channels.
Water quality laws must define the portion of this complex system subject to regulatory control. Regulatory jurisdictions may be coterminous with political boundaries. Other laws may apply only to a subset of waters within a political boundary, or to a special class of water. Cross-jurisdictional waters may be subject to cross-jurisdictional agreements. Within jurisdictions, complexities may arise where water flows between subsurface and surface, or saturates land without permanently inundating it. Water quality laws must identify the substances and energies which qualify as "water pollution" for purposes of further control. From a regulatory perspective, this requires defining the class of materials that qualify as pollutants, the activities that transform a material into a pollutant. For example, the United States Clean Water Act defines "pollution" broadly to include any and all "man-made or man-induced alteration of the chemical, physical and radiological integrity of water." However, the Act defines "pollutants" subject to its control more as "dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, filter backwash, garbage, sewage sludge, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive materials, wrecked or discarded equipment, sand, cellar dirt and industrial and agricultural waste discharged into water."
This definition begins to define both the classes or types of materials and energies that may constitute water pollution, indicates the moment at which otherwise useful materials may be transformed into pollution for regulatory purposes: when they are "discharged into water," defined elsewhere as "addition" of the material to regulated waters. Regulatory regimes may use definitions to reflect policy decisions, excluding certain classes of materials from the definition of water pollution that would otherwise be considered to constitute water pollution. For example, the CWA definition quoted above excludes sewage discharged from certain classes of vessels, meaning that a common and important class of water pollution is, by definition, not considered a pollutant for purposes of the United States' primary water quality law. Although thermal pollution is subject to regulation under the CWA, definitional questions have resulted in litigation, including whether water itself may qualify as a "pollutant".
The United States Supreme Court addressed these issues in Los Angeles County Flood Control District v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.. Water quality standards are legal standards or requirements governing water quality, that is, the concentrations of water pollutants in some regulated volume of water; such standards are expressed as levels of a specific water pollutants that are deemed acceptable in the water volume, are designed relative to the water's intended use - whether for human consumption, industrial or domestic use, recreation, or as aquatic habitat. Determining appropriate water quality standards requires up-to-date scientific data on the health or environmental effects of the pollutant under review, it may require periodic or continuous monitoring of water quality. Regulatory decisions on water quality standards may incorporate political considerations, such as the economic costs and benefits of compliance; as an example, the United States employs water quality standards as part of its regulation of surface water quality under the CWA.
The national Water Quality Standards Program begins with U. S. states designating intended uses for a surface water bodies, after which they develop science-based water quality criteria. The criteria include numeric pollutant concentration limits, narrative goals, narrative biological criteria. If the water body fails the existing WQS criteria, the state must develop a Total Maximum Daily Load for pollutants of concern. Human activity impacting water quality will be controlled via other regulatory means in order to achieve the TMDL targets. Effluent limitations are legal requirements governing the discharge of pollutants into surface waters; such standards set quanti
Formula Woman known as the Privilege Insurance Formula Woman Championship, was a female-only one make racing series started in 2004 in the UK. It was inspired by the lack of female drivers in other series and was created, amongst other reasons, to boost the female audience of the sport. All 16 drivers raced in the Mazda RX-8 over seven rounds around four British racing circuits. For the following year when support from Mazda ceased, the series consisted of Caterham Sevens, its last season was in 2007 before disappearing for good. Thousands of women applied to join the series with 16 people getting through to compete. A series of tests were employed to cut down the applicants over several days, including physical and practical examinations; the television coverage, by ITV, format of these days was similar to various reality television programs with the organisers announcing the people that have progressed to the entire group. Natasha Firman Lorraine Pinner Bev Tyler Juliette Thurston Emma Hayles Margo Gardner Pippa Cow Lauren Blighton Nicola Robison Judith Lyons Sarah Bennett-Baggs Amy Handford Victoria Hardy Max Thompson Catherine Gard Joanna Linton Karen Andrews Oulton Park, June 12 Round 1 Natasha Firman Margo Gardner Lauren Blighton Round 2 Natasha Firman Emma Hayles Lorraine PinnerKnockhill, June 27 Round 3 Margo Gardner Lauren Blighton Natasha Firman Round 4 Margo Gardner Emma Hayles Natasha FirmanCadwell Park, July 4 Round 5 Lorraine Pinner Lauren Blighton Emma HaylesBrands Hatch, July 25 Round 6 Lorraine Pinner Bev Tyler Natasha Firman Round 7 Lorraine Pinner Bev Tyler Natasha Firman W Series, an all-female racing series founded in 2018 "Circuit training".
The Scotsman. August 11, 2007. Retrieved August 13, 2016
Harriet Ann Boyd Hawes was a pioneering American archaeologist and relief worker. She is best known as the discoverer and first director of Gournia, one of the first archaeological excavations to uncover a Minoan settlement and palace on the Aegean island of Crete. Harriet Ann Boyd was born in Massachusetts, her mother died when she was a child, so Harriet was raised by her father alongside her four older brothers. She was first introduced to the study of Classics by her brother, Alex. After attending the Prospect Hill School in Greenfield, she went on to graduate from Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts in 1892 with a degree in Classics. After working as a teacher for four years, she followed her passion for Greece and its ancient culture, pursuing further studies in Classics at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, Greece, she had intended on pursuing studies in England but she decided to go Greece based both on the brother of the archaeologist, Louis Dyer, having heard Amelia Edwards speak while a student at Smith.
During her stay in Greece she served as a volunteer nurse in Thessaly during the Greco-Turkish War. She asked her professors to be allowed to participate in the school's archaeological fieldwork, but instead was encouraged to become an academic librarian. Hawes was awarded the Agnes Hoppin Memorial Fellowship in 1899. Frustrated by lack of support, she took the remainder of her fellowship and went on her own in search of archaeological remains on the island of Crete; this was a courageous decision, as Crete was only just emerging from the war and was far from safe. Here she visited the excavation of Knossos led by British archaeologist Arthur Evans, who suggested she explore the region of Kavousi. Hawes soon became well known for her expertise in the field of archaeology, for four months in the spring of 1900 she led an excavation at Kavousi, during which she discovered settlements and cemeteries of Late Minoan IIIC, Early Iron Age, Early Archaic date at the sites of Vronda and Kastro. During that same campaign she dug a test trench at the site of Azoria, the most important Ancient Greek site in the region, evidently an early city.
Azoria is now under renewed excavation as part of a major five-year project. The same year, Hawes returned to the United States, she accepted a position at Smith College teaching Greek Archaeology and modern Greek in late 1900, subsequently received her M. A. from Smith in 1901. She taught at Smith until 1905, interspersing her time there with frequent trips abroad for archaeological excursions. Between 1901 and 1904, while on leave of absence from Smith, Harriet Boyd Hawes returned to Crete, where she discovered and excavated the Minoan town at Gournia. Hawes was the first woman to direct a major field project in Greece, her crew consisting of over 100 workers, she was the first archaeologist to discover and excavate an Early Bronze Age Minoan town site. She was assisted by her classmate from Smith College. In 1902, she described her discovery during a lecture tour of the United States and was the first woman to speak before the Archaeological Institute of America; the report of her findings, titled Vasiliki and Other Prehistoric Sites on the Isthmus of Hierapetra, was published in 1908 by the American Exploration Society.
She excavated many more Bronze and Iron Age settlements in the Aegean and became a recognized authority on the area. In 1910, Smith College bestowed on her an honorary doctorate. Between 1920 and her retirement in 1936, she lectured at Wellesley College on pre-Christian art. Boyd Hawes became involved in wartime nursing efforts after her graduation from Smith College, she cared for injured and dying soldiers in the Greco-Turkish War, Spanish–American War, World War I. Her work during World War I included bringing supplies to Corfu for wounded soldiers in the Serbian Army, helping the wounded in France, founding the Smith College Relief Unit in France. Boyd Hawes was director of the latter for three years, during which time she worked as a nurse's aide at the YMCA. After her return home, Boyd Hawes continued her support for the war effort by giving fund-raising lectures on behalf of the Smith College Relief Unit. During one trip to Crete, she met Charles Henry Hawes, an English anthropologist and archaeologist who became the associate-director of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
They were married on March 3, 1906, nine months their son, Alexander Boyd Hawes, was born. When their daughter Mary Nesbit Hawes followed in August 1910, Charles was teaching at Dartmouth College and the family was living in Hanover, New Hampshire. In 1920, the family moved to Cambridge and Harriet joined the faculty at Wellesley College. Hawes always remained committed to archaeological work as well as to her family; when Charles retired in 1936, the couple moved to Washington D. C. where Harriet remained after her husband died. She died there on March 31, 1945, aged 73. Harriet is either interred in Cedar Hill Cemetery in Suitland, Maryland or in Forest Hills Cemetery in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, her childhood home in Chester Square is featured on the Boston Women's Heritage Trail. In 1992, her daughter, Mary Allsebrook, published Born to Rebel: the Life of Harriet Boyd Hawes; the book was edited by Harriet Boyd Hawes' granddaughter. Gournia and other prehistoric sites on the isthmus of Hierapetra, Crete.
By Harriet Boyd Hawes, Blanche E. Williams, Richard B. Seager, Edith H. Hall. (Philadelphia, The American exploration
Gotfried Coenraad Ernst "Frits" van Daalen was an Indo Lieutenant General of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army who served in the Dutch East Indies. He was the appointed Governor of Aceh from 1905 until 1908. Van Daalen was named after his Dutch father Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen a famous, decorated KNIL officer and veteran of the Aceh War, discharged from service as a consequence of a scandal where he publicly offended the Governor-General of the colony; as a young officer in the rank of Lieutenant and Captain Van Daalen was awarded several prestigious military distinctions for proven bravery. He first became Knight of the Military William Order in 1890, was awarded the Honorary Sabre by the Dutch monarch in 1897, followed by becoming an Officer of the Military Willem Order in 1898. Although notorious due to his controversial approach during the final phases of the protracted Aceh War and his consequent conflicts with both Van Heutsz and Snouck Hurgronje, he was appointed Governor of Aceh between 1905 and 1908.
He was promoted to the highest rank of Luitenant-generaal in 1909 and became Commander of the KNIL in 1910, before retiring and repatriating in 1914. Van Daalen's "Gajo-, Alas-, Batak Campaign" of the Aceh War in 1904 is remembered for his hard crack down of the last Acehnese and Batak pockets of resistance. Van Daalen's force included 10 European officers, 13 European non-commissioned officers and 208 Javanese and Ambonese military police officers; the battle at Koetö Réh stood out, as the rebels refused to surrender and the death toll of 561 fighters included 189 women and 59 children. The Dutch press reported on the death toll and published images of the brutal warfare in Aceh shocking Dutch public opinion. Heavy critique from the Dutch House of Representatives called for an investigation into the alleged atrocities and damaged the KNIL's overall prestige. In the heated debate Van Daalen himself was compared to the Iron Duke of Alba, a notoriously harsh and cruel ruler from Dutch national history.
Although absolved from any crimes, Van Daalen's reputation remained stained and all his subsequent promotions were therefore contentious. Online biography
Indipex 2011 was organized by India Post, Government of India in collaboration with the Philatelic Congress of India under the patronage of the Federation Internationale de Philatelie and the auspices of the Federation of Inter-Asian Philately. The World Philatelic Exhibition was held at Halls No. 8, 9, 10 and 11 of the Pragati Maidan Exhibition Complex, New Delhi, India from 12 to 18 February 2011. The first International stamp exhibition in India was held in 1954 to commemorate 100 years of postage stamp in India. Second International Stamp Exhibition Indipex-73 was held in New Delhi in 1973. Next was an Asian International Stamp Exhibition Asiana-77 held in Bangalore in 1977. In 1980 World Stamp Exhibition INDIA-80 was held in New Delhi, it was First exhibition held in India organized by India Post, Government of India in collaboration with the Philatelic Congress of India under the patronage of the Federation Internationale de Philatelie. In 1989 next International exhibition named INDIA-89 was organised in New Delhi.
To commemorate 50 years of India's Independence in 1997 International Exhibition was named Indepex-97 and was held in New Delhi. Both of the exhibitions were organized by India Post, Government of India in collaboration with the Philatelic Congress of India under the patronage of the Federation Internationale de Philatelie. In the year 2000 Asian International Stamp Exhibition was held in Calcutta. Now this Indipex 2011 is IX Indian international Stamp Exhibition; the Grand Prix awards went to the following exhibits:The International Grand Prix went to Paulo Rodolpho Comelli for'Brazilian Mail to Foreign Destinations'. The Grand Prix D’Honneur went to Martha Villarroel de Peredo for'Bolivia 19th Century - Study Of The Condors'. Official Website Indipex 2011 Coverage
In US insurance policies, an additional insured is a person or organization that enjoys the benefits of being insured under an insurance policy, in addition to whoever purchased the insurance policy. The term applies within liability insurance and property insurance, but is an element of other policies as well. Most it applies where the original named insured needs to provide insurance coverage to additional parties so that they enjoy protection from a new risk that arises out of the original named insured's conduct or operations. An additional insured gains this status by means of an endorsement added to the policy which either identifies the additional party by name or by a general description contained in a "blanket additional insured endorsement."For instance, in vehicle insurance a typical Personal Auto Policy will cover not only the original named insured that purchased the auto policy, but will cover additional persons while they are driving the auto with permission of the named insured.
This is a simple type of blanket additional insurance arrangement, because it does not identify the additional insured by name, but by a "blanket" general description that will automatically apply to many persons. In liability insurance, all directors and employees of a named insured company will enjoy the status of being an insured, so long as they are acting in their capacity of carrying out the business of the named insured company; these persons enjoy insured status. If they deviate to pursue their own affairs, they lose this extension of coverage; this extension of coverage to people with a constant and close relationship to the named insured company is accomplished via the "Who Is An Insured" section of the liability policy. In other cases, the original named insured wishes to extend coverage to others who would not come within these standard categories. To extend coverage further, Additional Insured Endorsements are added to the policy; the usual reasons for including other parties as additional insureds is due to the close relationship or legal requirements between the original named insured and the additional insured.
In most cases it is beneficial for a party to be covered as an additional insured on the policies of other parties because this will reduce the loss history of the additional insured and lower its premiums. The losses will be posted against the policies of the party providing the additional insurance and their premiums will rise accordingly. A larger and more powerful business will require that smaller entities have the larger business named as an additional insured. For example, a landlord in a commercial building will require that a tenant have the landlord named as an additional insured on the tenant's insurance policies. In this manner, if there is an accident or loss on the tenant's premises the landlord will enjoy the benefits of the tenant's insurance coverage. General contractors require subcontractors to name the general and the owner on the subcontractor's policies. In this way, if the general contractor or owner are sued due to accidents arising out of the work of the subcontractor, the subcontractor's insurance will protect the general contractor and owner.
The costs associated with the risk are returned to the party most able to control the risk of loss, the subcontractor. Manufacturers of products wish to cover the sellers of the products as additional insureds under the manufacturer's liability policies; this helps induce the seller to promote the sale of the products, because the seller knows that any product liability lawsuit against the seller will be covered by the manufacturer's liability insurance. The cost of adding an additional insured to a property or liability insurance policy is low, as compared to the costs of the original premium; the underwriting departments of insurance companies, rightly or wrongly view the additional risk associated with additional insureds as marginal. Additional insurance coverage and endorsements are the subject of frequent disagreements, misunderstandings, litigation; the disagreements are about whether the additional insurance coverage should cover "independent negligence" by the additional insured, or should only cover liabilities caused by the named insured's acts.
Additional insured clauses are worded in broad terms, such as "any person or organization whom you are required to add as an additional insured on this policy under a written contract... that person is only an additional insured with respect to liability arising out of'your work' for that additional insured." The clauses include conditional limitations, such as limiting coverage to claims arising during the "ongoing operations" of the named insured, unless contracts require otherwise. And, they contain assertions that they will be excess to other insurance policies; these can conflict with opposite provisions in other policies, leading to mutual repugnance of the Other Insurance clauses. Thus disputes arise based on the relative responsibility of an insured in causing an incident, the relative liabilities of their respective insurers; these disputes are further complicated by the fact that some of the original contracting parties may have contractually agreed to indemnify other parties. These indemnifications, in turn, can be liabilities to be covered by the policies pursuant to "insured contract" coverage.
Courts in different states decide these disputes differently, depending on the unique facts of each case and the law of that particular state. Following the general rule that