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Waterfall model

The waterfall model is a breakdown of project activities into linear sequential phases, where each phase depends on the deliverables of the previous one and corresponds to a specialisation of tasks. The approach is typical for certain areas of engineering design. In software development, it tends to be among the less iterative and flexible approaches, as progress flows in one direction through the phases of conception, analysis, construction, testing and maintenance; the waterfall development model originated in the construction industries. When first adopted for software development, there were no recognised alternatives for knowledge-based creative work; the first known presentation describing use of such phases in software engineering was held by Herbert D. Benington at the Symposium on Advanced Programming Methods for Digital Computers on 29 June 1956; this presentation was about the development of software for SAGE. In 1983 the paper was republished with a foreword by Benington explaining that the phases were on purpose organised according to the specialisation of tasks, pointing out that the process was not in fact performed in a strict top-down fashion, but depended on a prototype.

The first formal description of the waterfall model is cited as a 1970 article by Winston W. Royce, although Royce did not use the term waterfall in that article. Royce presented this model as an example of a non-working model; the earliest use of the term "waterfall" may have been in a 1976 paper by Thayer. In 1985, the United States Department of Defense captured this approach in DOD-STD-2167A, their standards for working with software development contractors, which stated that "the contractor shall implement a software development cycle that includes the following six phases: Preliminary Design, Detailed Design and Unit Testing and Testing". In Royce's original waterfall model, the following phases are followed in order: System and software requirements: captured in a product requirements document Analysis: resulting in models and business rules Design: resulting in the software architecture Coding: the development and integration of software Testing: the systematic discovery and debugging of defects Operations: the installation, migration and maintenance of complete systemsThus the waterfall model maintains that one should move to a phase only when its preceding phase is reviewed and verified.

Various modified waterfall models, can include slight or major variations on this process. These variations included returning to the previous cycle after flaws were found downstream, or returning all the way to the design phase if downstream phases deemed insufficient. Time spent early in the software production cycle can reduce costs at stages. For example, a problem found in the early stages is cheaper to fix than the same bug found on in the process. In common practice, waterfall methodologies result in a project schedule with 20–40% of the time invested for the first two phases, 30–40% of the time to coding, the rest dedicated to testing and implementation; the actual project organisation needs to be structured. Most medium and large projects will include a detailed set of procedures and controls, which regulate every process on the project. A further argument for the waterfall model is that it places emphasis on documentation as well as source code. In less designed and documented methodologies, knowledge is lost if team members leave before the project is completed, it may be difficult for a project to recover from the loss.

If a working design document is present, new team members or entirely new teams should be able to familiarise themselves by reading the documents. The waterfall model provides a structured approach, it is for this reason that the waterfall model is used as a beginning example of a development model in many software engineering texts and courses. It is argued that the waterfall model can be suited to projects where requirements and scope are fixed, the product itself is firm and stable, the technology is understood. Clients may not know what their requirements are before they see working software and so change their requirements, leading to redesign and retesting, increased costs. Designers may not be aware of future difficulties when designing a new software product or feature, in which case it is better to revise the design than persist in a design that does not account for any newly discovered constraints, requirements, or problems. Organisations may attempt to deal with a lack of concrete requirements from clients by employing systems analysts to examine existing manual systems and analyse what they do and how they might be replaced.

However, in practice, it is difficult to sustain a strict separation between systems analysis and programming. This is because implementing any non-trivial system will inevitably expose issues and edge cases that the systems analyst did not consider. In response to the p

The Clay People (album)

The Clay People is the third studio album by The Clay People, released on May 12, 1998 by Slipdisc Records. In his review for The Clay People, Greg Prato of allmusic praised the group embracing a more organic sound that would appeal to heavy metal enthusiasts. Aiding & Abetting gave the album a povitive review, saying "Clay People has infused the metal guts with something alive." Sonic Boom lambasted Kernon's production as being responsible for "turning an excellent Coldwave act into nothing more than a glorified Metal band" but praised Daniel Neet's vocal contributions. All lyrics are written by Daniel Neet, except "Spider's Bride" by Roger Fracé. M. S." by Mike Guzzardi. Adapted from The Clay People liner notes. Clay People Dan Dinsmore – drums, design Mike Guzzardi – electric guitar Brian McGarvey – electric guitar Daniel Neet – lead vocals D. Patrick Walshbass guitar, designProduction and design Wade Alin – programming Frank Chackler – executive producer Joe Gastwirtmastering Scott Gries – photography Neil Kernon – production, mixing Jana Leon – cover art, photography Dana Schneider – cover art, sculpture The Clay People at Discogs

Nic Petan

Nicolas Petan is a Canadian professional ice hockey centre playing for the Toronto Marlies in the American Hockey League as a prospect to the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League. Petan was selected by the Winnipeg Jets in the second round, 43rd overall, of the 2013 NHL Entry Draft; as a youth, Petan played in the 2007 and 2008 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournaments with a minor ice hockey team from North Vancouver. Petan, who played in the Western Hockey League beginning in the 2010–11 season with the Portland Winterhawks, was rewarded for his outstanding performance in the 2012–13 season by being named to the 2013 WHL West First All-Star Team. Petan led the WHL with 74 assists, shared the overall points title with Brendan Leipsic, finishing with 120 points in 68 games. Petan scored 9 goals with 19 was +13 with 16 penalty minutes; the Winterhawks reached the 2013 Memorial Cup championship game, losing 6–4 to the Halifax Mooseheads. Petan scored nine assists and was +1 in five Memorial Cup games.

In the 2013–14 season, Petan had 35 goals and led the WHL with 78 assists, finishing +47 with 69 penalty minutes. Portland finished first in the U. S. Division and reached the WHL Finals for the fourth straight year; the Winterhawks lost to the Edmonton Oil Kings. Petan scored 7 goals with 21 was +7, with 38 penalty minutes in 21 playoff games. In December 2013, Petan signed a entry-level contact with the Winnipeg Jets. In 2014–15, Petan returned to the Winterhawks for his final year of junior eligibility and finished with 89 points in the regular season and another 28 points in the playoffs. After finishing major junior hockey, Petan jumped to the NHL, starting the 2015–16 season with the Winnipeg Jets, he scored a goal in his NHL debut for the Jets on October 8, 2015, against Tuukka Rask of the Boston Bruins. On November 19, 2015, he was reassigned to the Jets' American Hockey League affiliate, the Manitoba Moose. On March 17, 2016, the Jets recalled Petan. Petan made the Jets' opening night roster for the 2017–18 season, but was reassigned to the Moose after playing in six games.

He scored at a point-per-game pace with Manitoba, registering 37 assists in 52 games. He was recalled to the Jets on two occasions finishing with 2 goals in 15 games. On August 1, 2018, following the completion of his entry-level contract earlier in the off-season, Petan was signed as a restricted free agent to a one-year, two-way extension with the Jets. Petan, now waiver eligible, began the 2018–19 season with the Jets, he played sparingly for the Central Division-contending Jets, appearing in just 13 games approaching the trade deadline before he was traded to the Toronto Maple Leafs in exchange for Pär Lindholm on February 25, 2019. On March 21, Petan signed a two year contract extension with the Leafs. At the 2012 Ivan Hlinka Memorial Tournament, Petan helped. During the 2013–14 season, he represented the WHL in the Subway Series played for Canada's under-20 team at the 2014 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships, he was invited back to represent Canada at the 2015 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships, where he was instrumental in Canada's gold medal win, including scoring a hat-trick against Slovakia in the semi-final.

Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Harunur Rashid Khan Monno

Harunur Rashid Khan Monno was a Bangladeshi industrialist and politician. He served as the chairman of Monno Group of Industries, he was elected a minister of the Government of Bangladesh. He was an adviser to Bangladesh National Party Chairperson Khaleda Zia. While Monno was a student of chartered accountancy, he joined Adamjee Haji Dawood's company in the accounts department, his first assignment was to print export register copies for the Adamjee conglomerate company. Within two years, he established a press company of his own, he established Monno Group of Industries, which included Monno Ceramics, Monno Jutex Industries, Monno Fabrics and Monno Attire Limited. He received lifetime achievement award at the 16th Bangladesh Business Awards. Monno served as a Jatiya Sangsad member from the Manikganj-2 constituency during 1991–1996 and Manikganj-3 during 2001–2006. In 2001, he was selected a cabinet member without portfolio during the Khaleda Zia's administration, he lost the minister status in May 2003 when Zia was under pressure from foreign donors, to downsize her cabinet.

Monno was married to Huron Nahar. Together they had two daughters -- Feroza Mahmud Parvin. Afroza is serving as the Managing Director of Monno Group of Industries and an adviser to Khaleda Zia. Feroza is married to journalist and businessman Mahmudur Rahman

Dance Works Rotterdam/André Gingras

Dance Works Rotterdam/André Gingras is one of the oldest dance companies in the Netherlands, founded in 1975 as Werkcentrum Dans. The company was founded by choreographer Käthy Gosschalk as Werkcentrum Dans. At that time, the company was a centre for dance education and workshops. In 1988 Gosschalk changed the name to De Rotterdamse Dansgroep. Gosschalk directed the company for 25 years, working with several acclaimed Dutch and international dancers and choreographers. Ton Simons was appointed artistic director in 1999. Under his leadership, the organization adopted a more international image, becoming Dance Works Rotterdam in 2001. Simons' work was characterized by pure dance language. Since this time, the company toured abroad in the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Romania and Indonesia. Beginning in March 2010, Dance Works Rotterdam entered a new artistic phase with the appointment of André Gingras as artistic director. Under the artistic leadership of Gingras, Dance Works Rotterdam/André Gingras put contemporary dance in a social context, using energetic, raw dance to explore moral dilemmas, emphasising collaboration and dialogue with other organisations and artists beyond the boundaries of contemporary dance.

The company has played an important part in the development of dance as a valuable component of contemporary culture. Many renowned Dutch dance artists started their career with the company, including Anouk van Dijk, Hans Tuerlings and Ed Wubbe. Throughout its rich history, the company has danced works by major international choreographers such as Merce Cunningham, Jacopo Godani, Bill T. Jones, Amanda Miller and Stephen Petronio; the latest coproduction which exemplifies the new artistic direction of the company, is with Canadian choreographer Dave St. Pierre. In this new phase, Dance Works Rotterdam/André Gingras remains at the forefront of choreographic developments through Gingras' repertory and dynamic new collaborations with internationally renowned artists. Works by or under the artistic direction of André Gingras: The Sweet Art of Bruising Obscenitas Anatomica#1 LIBIDO - co production with Dave St-Pierre IDORU Les Commerçants The Autopsy Project trans.form Hypertopia The Lindenmeyer System zeropoint The Sweet Flesh Room CYP17 Official website - Condolences on André Gingras' public Facebook page


Mungkid is the capital of Magelang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The town center is located in the village of Sawitan. All government offices or agencies of Magelang regency are located here, including the offices owned by private parties. Mungkid town was founded on March 22, 1984 to replace the city of Magelang as the capital town of Magelang regency; each March 22 is celebrated by the citizens of Magelang regency as Mungkid's anniversary. Many people consider this town as an administrative alternative city; the major Buddhist temple of Borobudur is about 4 km from the center of Mungkid. After Independence in Indonesia, the city of Magelang was declared as the capital town of Magelang regency; however in 1950, Magelang was declared to be a separate municipality and was given the right to manage its own affairs. It was therefore decided to relocate the capital of Magelang regency. Besides providing independence to Magalang to manage its own affairs, other considerations pointed to the advantages of locating the capital of the regency elsewhere.

It was felt that the establishment of a separate administrative capital might help to stimulate the growth and development of the region. Four alternatives were considered as the site the relocated district capital: Mungkid, Muntilan and Mertoyudan. Mertoyudan districts and Mungkid districts in the town center of Sawitan were selected as the capital city of Magelang regency with the name of Mungkid.. The inauguration of Mungkid as the capital took place on March 22, 1984 attended by Central Java Governor HM Ismail. Momentum is. At this time, better known in Magelang regency of the Mungkid Town anniversary of the Day of Magelang regency due date and the month is still not known the year 1801 is set to day of Magelang regency. Ambartawang Blondho Bojong Bumireja Gondhang Mendut Mungkid Ngrajek Pabèlan Pagersari Paremana Pragawati Rambeanak Sawitan Senden Treka