The Comeragh Mountains are a glaciated mountain range situated in the south east of Ireland in County Waterford. They are located between the towns of Carrick-on-Suir and Clonmel on the County Tipperary border and the villages of Kilrossanty and Kilmacthomas in County Waterford; the twelve mountains which form the Comeragh Mountains are popular for mountain climbers and hikers. The highest peak is Fauscoum at 792 m. Facebook: Waterford's Mountains Twitter: Waterford's Mountains Comeragh Mountaineering Club De La Salle Scout Group Listing at mountainviews.ie Details of a song dedicated to the Comeragh Mountains Karan Casey's version of the song Media related to Comeragh Mountains at Wikimedia Commons
Dungarvan is a coastal town and harbour in County Waterford, on the south coast of Ireland. Prior to the merger of Waterford County Council with Waterford City Council in 2014, Dungarvan was the county town and administrative centre of County Waterford. Waterford City and County Council retains administrative offices in the town; the town's Irish name means "Garbhann's fort", referring to Saint Garbhann who founded a church there in the seventh century. The town lies on the N25 road, which connects Cork and Rosslare Europort. Dungarvan is situated at the mouth of the Colligan River, which divides the town into two parishes - that of Dungarvan to the west, that of Abbeyside to the east -, these being connected in three places by a causeway and single-span bridge built by the Dukes of Devonshire starting in 1801. Dungarvan was incorporated in the 15th century, was represented by two members in the Irish Parliament until the Act of Union in 1801, returned one member to the Westminster Parliament until 1885.
Unlike nearby Waterford and Duncannon, Dungarvan surrendered without a siege in the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The 1921 Burgery ambush, an incident in the Irish War of Independence, took place near the town. A castle, commissioned around the 12th-13th centuries by King John of England, stands by the harbour, but no trace of the walls John built remain. The remains of a woolly mammoth were discovered in the town in 1859 by postmaster and amateur antiquarian Edward Brenan. Just over 3% of the town's population, or 242 persons are daily Irish speakers, outside of the education system.. Education through the medium of Irish is available at pre-school and primary level in the town in the local Gaelscoil, Scoil Garbhán; the Irish Language Officer of Waterford City and County Council is based in Dungarvan. There are a range of activities and projects undertaken to strengthen the Irish language in the town. An Irish in Business award was established in 2009 to recognise businesses in Dungarvan and West Waterford who work to promote the Irish language.
The town is home to an office of Glór na nGael, a national body that promotes the Irish language in three areas, the language in the family, in Business and enterprise, community development. The Dungarvan office is responsible for Glór na nGael’s work across South Leinster and most of Munster. There is significant contact between the town and the nearby Gaeltacht area of An Rinn and An Sean Phobal which make up Gaeltacht na nDéise. Dungarvan has been identified as a potential Gaeltacht Service Town under the Gaeltacht Act 2012. Under the Gaeltacht Act 2012, Gaeltacht Service Towns are defined as those towns situated in or adjacent to Gaeltacht Language Planning Areas and which have a significant role in providing public services, recreational and commercial facilities for those areas. Under the act, a language plan for the town will be developed; the aim of the language plan will be to enhance the use of the Irish language in the town. Dungarvan is situated at the mouth of the Colligan River.
Dungarvan Harbour as such is formed by The The Causeway. A single-span bridge was built in the late 18th century by Lord Devonshire to link Dungarvan with Abbeyside and indeed Waterford via said causeway. Outside the harbour, a 3-kilometre sandbar, "The Cunnigar" defines the western limit of the 4-kilometre wide Dungarvan Bay; the Cunnigar encloses the estuary of the River Brickey which flows out to sea at Abbeyside without joining the Colligan. The two estuaries are separated by "The Point". A friary in Abbeyside, founded by Augustinians in the 13th century, is incorporated with the structure of a 20th-century Roman Catholic church. One of the most significant colleges in the town was founded by these Augustinians whose order survives and maintains an Augustinian church nearer to Main Street. In everyday local usage, "Dungarvan" is taken to refer to the western, more commercial half of the town, where the administrative buildings and shopping areas are situated, it is positioned on the R672 and R675 regional roads.
The town is separated from the open ocean by a eastward-facing bay. At its mouth, the bay is about two miles wide, with Dungarvan lying about four miles from the mouth. A meandering navigation channel marked by red/green buoys leads into Dungarvan from the ocean. For most vessels this channel is not navigable at low tide. At high tide, cruising yachts and larger vessels must be careful to remain in the buoyed channel. There is a well-maintained concrete slipway in Dungarvan town, suitable for launching vessels up to eight metres in length. However, larger vessels should only use it up to three hours either side of high tide. Moorings are made available to visiting yachts by Dungarvan Harbour Sailing Club free of charge; the nearest airport with scheduled services is Cork Airport, 80 km away. Dungarvan is served by several routes; the main bus stop is located at Davitt's Quay. Other stops can be found at Sexton Street and The Spring; the Cork to London Eurolines coach provides a daily overnight cross channel service each way whereas Bus Éireann Expressway route 40 runs hourly in each direction providing a link to Cork and Rosslare Europort.
The company's route 362 provides a commuter link to Waterford. Several Local Link bus services terminate in the town; the main route is that to Tallow via Lismore with four services a day each way Mondays to Saturdays inclusive. Connections for Fermoy can be made at Ta
Lismore, County Waterford
Lismore is a historic town in County Waterford, in the province of Munster, Ireland. Lismore is located in the west of County Waterford, where the N72 road crosses the River Blackwater at the foot of the Knockmealdown Mountains, the mountain range which divides the counties of Tipperary and Waterford; as of the 2016 census, Lismore had a population of 1,374 of which 86% was white Irish, less than 1% white Irish traveller, 9% other white ethnicities, less than 1% black, less than 1% Asian, with 3% not stating their ethnicity. In terms of religion the town is 81% Catholic, 8% other stated religion, 8% with no religion, 3% not stated. Since December 2015 significant improvements to the frequency of the Local Link bus service are in effect. A bus shelter has been provided in the town. There are now four services a day each way Mondays to Saturdays inclusive to Dungarvan via Cappoquin including a commuter service. Connections to Waterford and Rosslare Europort can be made at Dungarvan. In the other direction there are four services to and from Tallow where connections can be made for Fermoy.
On Saturdays a local bus company operate a service to Cork. On Sundays Bus Éireann route 366 links Lismore to Waterford; this route only comprises a single journey in one direction. Lismore had a rail station on the now dismantled Waterford to Mallow line and was served by the Cork to Rosslare boat train; the line and station closed in 1967. Founded by Saint Mochuda, died 637 known as Saint Carthage, first abbot of Lismore; the town is renowned for the scholarship of Lismore Abbey. The imposing Lismore Castle, situated on the site of the old monastery since medieval times, lies on a steep hill overlooking the town and the Blackwater valley, it can trace an eight-hundred-year-old history linking the varied historic relations between England and Ireland. Built following the arrival of Henry II's son, Prince John, in the twelfth century, the castle was a bishop's palace up to the sixteenth century. Subsequently owned by Sir Walter Raleigh until his demise, it was sold to Richard Boyle, controversial First Earl of Cork, described by historian R. F. Foster, in his Modern Ireland, as an "epitome of Elizabethan adventurer-colonist in Ireland".
In 1627 the castle was the birthplace of the First Earl's most famous son, Robert Boyle, known as the "Father of Modern Chemistry". Boyle was chased off his lands in Ireland during the Irish Rebellion of 1641, following which his sons recovered the family estates after suppression of the rebellion; the castle remained in the possession of the Boyle family until it passed to the English Dukes of Devonshire in 1753 when the daughter of the 4th Earl of Cork, Lady Charlotte Boyle, married the Marquess of Hartington, who succeeded as, in 1755, The 4th Duke of Devonshire, a future Prime Minister of Great Britain and First Lord of the Treasury. The Book of Lismore, a compilation of medieval Irish manuscripts relating the lives of Irish saints, notably St Brigid, St Patrick, St Columba contains Acallam na Senórach, a most important Middle Irish narrative dating to the 12th century, pertaining to the Fenian Cycle; the Book of Lismore and the Lismore Crozier, were discovered together in 1814 behind a blocked-up doorway in Lismore Castle.
Today, the castle continues in the private ownership of the Dukes of Devonshire who open the gardens and parts of the grounds for public access via a changing programme of local arts and education events. The Book of Lismore is on display at Chatsworth House in Derbyshire, Great Britain, the Lismore Crozier is in the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin; the medieval Lismore Cathedral, dedicated to St Carthage, variously damaged and repaired over the centuries, is notable for its architecture and the stained glass window by the English pre Raphaelite artist, Edward Burne-Jones. A plaque has been erected in the town to commemorate the regular visits made to Lismore by Fred Astaire following an association developed by his sister, Adele Astaire, married to Lord Charles Arthur Francis Cavendish, son of The 9th Duke of Devonshire. A notable resident born in the town who has described her early life in Lismore, is the internationally renowned travel writer and world touring cyclist, Dervla Murphy.
Another notable resident was George O'Brien, award-winning Irish memoirist and academic, raised by his paternal grandmother in Lismore, described in his memoir The Village of Longing: An Irish Boyhood in the Fifties. See Annals of Inisfallen. AI701.1 Kl. Repose of Cúánna of Les Mór. AI707.1 Kl. Conodur of Les Mór rested. AI730.1 Kl. Repose of Colmán grandson of Lítán, abbot of Les Mór. AI752.3 Repose of Mac Uige, abbot of Les Mór. AI760.1 Kl. Tríchmech, abbot of Les Mór, Abnér, abbot of Imlech Ibuir. AI763.1 Kl. Repose of Rónán, bishop of Les Mór. AI768.1 Kl. Aedan, abbot of Les Mór, rested. AI774.2 Suairlech, abbot of Les Mór. AI778.2 Repose of Airdmesach of Les Mór. AI783.3 Repose of Suairlech Ua Tipraiti in Les Mór. AI794.4 Violation of the Rule of Les Mór in the reign of Aedán Derg. AI814.1 Kl. Repose of Aedán moccu Raichlich, abbot of Les Mór. AI814.2 The abbacy of Les Mór to Flann, son of Fairchellach. AI818.2 The shrine of Mo
A house is a building that functions as a home. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, concrete or other materials containing plumbing and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A house may have a separate dining room; some large houses in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock may share part of the house with humans; the social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming house, unconnected individuals.
Some houses only have a dwelling space for similar-sized group. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A house may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat; the English word house derives directly from the Old English hus meaning "dwelling, home, house," which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic husan, of unknown origin. The house itself gave rise to the letter'B' through an early Proto-Semitic hieroglyphic symbol depicting a house; the symbol was called "bayt", "bet" or "beth" in various related languages, became beta, the Greek letter, before it was used by the Romans. Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Feng shui a Chinese method of moving houses according to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house, although no actual effect has been demonstrated.
Feng shui can mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces. The number of floors or levels making up the house can affect the square footage of a home. Many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several small rooms for other various reasons; these may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may feature rooms such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, other'non-essential' facilities. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock share part of the house with human beings.
Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A typical "foursquare house" occurred in the early history of the US where they were built, with a staircase in the center of the house, surrounded by four rooms, connected to other sections of the home. Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, however it can be traced back to the simplest form of shelters. Roman architect Vitruvius' theories have claimed the first form of architecture as a frame of timber branches finished in mud known as the primitive hut. Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today; as far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands. This idea's crystallization might be dated to the first three-quarters of the 17th century, when the Dutch Netherlands amassed the unprecedented and unrivalled accumulation of capital, emptied their purses into domestic space.
In the Middle Ages, the Manor Houses facilitated different events. Furthermore, the houses accommodated numerous people, including family, employees and their guests, their lifestyles were communal, as areas such as the Great Hall enforced the custom of dining and meetings and the Solar intended for shared sleeping beds. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Italian Renaissance Palazzo consisted of plentiful rooms of connectivity. Unlike the qualities and uses of the Manor Houses, most rooms of the palazzo contained no purpose, yet were given several doors; these doors adjoined rooms in which Robin Evans describes as a "matrix of discrete but interconnected chambers." The layout allowed occupants to walk room to room from one door to another, thus breaking the boundaries of privacy. "Once inside it is necessary to pass from one room to the next to the next to traverse the building. Where passages and staircases are used, as they are, they nearly always connect just one space to another and never serve as general distributors of movement.
Thus, despite the precise architectural containment offe
Philp Hogan is an Irish Fine Gael politician who has served as European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development since November 2014. He served Minister for the Environment and Local Government from 2011 to 2014 and Minister of State at the Department of Finance from 1994 to 1995, he served as a Teachta Dála for the Carlow–Kilkenny constituency from 1989 to 2014. Hogan was born in Kilkenny in 1960, he grew up on a farm in the south-east of Ireland. He was educated locally in St. Joseph's College, in St. Kieran's College, Kilkenny. Afterwards, he attended University College Cork, where he graduated with a degree in Economics and Geography, he received a Higher Diploma in Education from the same university. After completing his university studies, he returned to Kilkenny to manage his family farm. During that time period, he founded an insurance and real estate business in Urlingford, Kilkenny in the 1980s. Hogan first became involved in politics at a young age, when he became a local County Councillor on Kilkenny County Council, at the age of 22.
He would retain that seat in the 1985 Local Elections. Around the time of his 25th birthday he was elected Chairman of Kilkenny County Council, he was the country’s youngest council chairman. He would serve in this role on two separate occasions, first between 1985–1986 and between 1989–1990. In addition to his local political activities, Hogan was an active member of the South-Eastern Health Board between 1991 and 1999. From there, Hogan decided to contest the 1987 general election in an unsuccessful bid. Soon after, Hogan was subsequently elected to Seanad Éireann as a Senator for the Industrial and Commercial Panel, serving between 1987 and 1989. After serving as a Senator in Seanad Éireann for two years, Hogan was subsequently elected to the lower house for the Carlow–Kilkenny constituency in the 1989 general election. During his first few years in the Dáil, he was appointed to a number of key positions in opposition, serving in his first few years as the Opposition Spokesperson for the Food Industry, Consumer Affairs, subsequently Regional Affairs & European Development.
During his first few years, Hogan worked with the Fine Gael leader at the time, John Bruton. When Fine Gael formed the'rainbow coalition' government in 1994, Hogan was offered the opportunity to serve as Minister of State at the Department of Finance with special responsibility for the Office of Public Works. Hogan served as Minister of State at the Department of Finance with special responsibility for the Office of Public Works between December 1994 and February 1995. However, he subsequently tendered his resignation when a staff member accidentally sent out budget details to a journalist before it was announced in the Dáil. At the time, opposition parties described Hogan as ‘the fall guy’ for the budget leaks. Hogan was quoted as saying. My only concern in all of this is to ensure that the integrity of the government is maintained." Following his resignation, Hogan returned to a backbench position in the government. Despite the controversy surrounding the incident, Hogan was promoted as Chairman of the Fine Gael parliamentary party at the age of 35, a position he held until 2001.
As Chairman, Hogan had the opportunity to develop the organisational roots of Fine Gael and strengthened the network between councillors and sub-groups within the Fine Gael party. In the run-up to the 2002 general election, Hogan was appointed Director of Organisation in Fine Gael. Upon the resignation of Michael Noonan as party leader of Fine Gael after the party's poor results in that election, Hogan opted to contest the subsequent election for the new Fine Gael leader. While he conceded the contest to Enda Kenny, he was appointed as Opposition Spokesperson for Enterprise and Employment and became a key member of the Fine Gael parliamentary party as it started the rebuilding process. Hogan was again appointed as Director of Organisation for the 2007 general election. Soon after, he became the Opposition Spokesperson for Fine Gael on Environment and Local government for the next 4 years. In the lead up to the 2011 General Election, Hogan was appointed by Fine Gael Leader Enda Kenny as National Director of Elections for Fine Gael.
Following the 2011 general election, the most successful in the history of Fine Gael, in which it and Labour formed the largest coalition government in the state's history, Hogan was appointed by the Taoiseach as Minister for the Environment and Local Government. Hogan was responsible for several pieces of legislation to reform local government and introduce gender quotas so as to increase the representation of women in Irish political life. Hogan introduced the Local Governments Bill, which aimed to streamline local governance, abolishing 80 town councils with the overall number of councils operating in Ireland going from 114 to 31; the reforms were enacted as the Local Government Reform Act 2014 and were planned to come into effect in 2014, to coincide with the next scheduled local elections. In addition to local government reform, Hogan introduced reform within the political party framework; as part of a series of reforms, he introduced measures to support female participation in politics.
The Electoral Bill 2011 would see parties lose half of their central exchequer funding unless the minority sex among their candidates accounts for 30 per cent of the entire national ticket at the next general election. The reform was brought in alongside additional amendments to party political funding mechanisms. In advance of the 2016 General Election, Hoga
County Waterford is a county in Ireland. It is part of the South-East Region, it is named after the city of Waterford. Waterford City and County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county at large, including the city, was 116,176 according to the 2016 census. The county is based on the historic Gaelic territory of the Déise, anglicised'Decies' or'Dessia'. There is an Irish-speaking area, Gaeltacht na nDéise, in the south-west of the county. County Waterford has the Knockmealdown Mountains and the Comeragh Mountains; the highest point in the county is Knockmealdown, at 794m. It has many rivers, including Ireland's third longest river, the River Suir. There are over 30 beaches along Waterford's volcanic coast line. A large stretch of this coastline, known as the Copper Coast has been designated as a UNESCO Geopark, a place of great geological importance; the area around Ring is an Irish-speaking area. Waterford City is the county seat, prior to the merger of the 2 Waterford authorities in June 2014 Dungarvan was the county seat for Waterford County Council.
There are eight historic baronies in the county: Coshmore and Coshbride, Decies-within-Drum, Decies-without-Drum, Glenahiry, Middle Third and Waterford City. Abbeyside, Aglish, Annestown, An Rinn, Ardmore Ballinacourty, Ballinamult, Ballybeg, Ballyduff Lower, Ballyduff Upper, Ballygunner, Ballymacarbry, Ballynaneashagh, Ballytruckle, Bunmahon, Butlerstown Cappoquin, Carriglea, Clashmore, Clonea-Power, Clonea Strand, Coolnasmear, Crooke Dungarvan, Dunmore East Dunhill Faha, Fenor, Fews, Fourmilewater Glencairn, Grange Helvick Head Kilbrien, Kill, Kilmacthomas, Kilmeaden, Kilwatermoy, Knockanore Lemybrien, Lismore Mahon Bridge, Mine Head, Mothel, Mount Congreve, Mount Mellaray Newtown Old Parish Passage East, Portlaw Rathgormack Sliabh gCua, Stradbally Tallow, Touraneena, Tycor Waterford, Whiting Bay, Woodstown Villierstown County Waterford is colloquially known as "The Déise", pronounced "day-shih" or, in Irish, /dʲe:ʃʲɪ/; some time between the 4th and 8th centuries, a tribe of native Gaelic people called the Déisi were driven from southern county Meath/north Kildare and settling there.
The ancient principality of the Déise is today coterminous with the current Roman Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore thus including part of south County Tipperary. The westernmost of the baronies are "Decies within Drum" and "Decies without Drum", separated by the Drum-Fineen hills. There are many megalithic tombs and ogham stones in the county; the Viking influence can still be seen with Reginald's Tower, one of the first buildings to use a brick and mortar construction method in Ireland. Woodstown, a settlement dating to the 9th century was discovered 5.5 kilometres west of Waterford city. It was the largest settlement outside Scandinavia and the only large-scale 9th-century Viking settlement discovered to date in Western Europe. Other architectural features are products of the Anglo-Norman invasion of its effects; as of 1 June 2014, Waterford City and County Council is the local government authority for Waterford. The authority was formed following the merger of Waterford City Council and Waterford County Council.
The merger occurred following the Local Government Reform Act 2014. Each local authority ranks as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 South-East Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 31 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; the local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and real-estate development, the collection of automobile taxation, local roads and social housing. The county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of two constituencies: Waterford and Tipperary South. Together they return 7 deputies to the Dáil; the Electoral Act 2009 defines the Waterford constituency as "The county of Waterford, except the part thereof, comprised in the constituency of Tipperary South. Gaeltacht na nDéise is a Gaeltacht area in Co. Waterford consisting of the parish of An Rinn and An Sean Phobal. Gaeltacht na nDéise is located 10 km from the town of Dungarvan, has a population of 1,784 people and encompasses a geographical area of 62 km2.
According to the Comprehensive Linguistic Study of the use of Irish in the Gaeltacht, the percentage of daily Irish speakers in Gaeltacht na nDéise was 46.04%. High Sheriff of County Waterford Lord Lieutenant of Waterford List of abbeys and priories in the Republic of Ireland Saint Declan Limerick–Rosslare railway line Waterford City and County Council website – Official Waterford Tourism website
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth; this environment encompasses the interaction of all living species, climate and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished as components: Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive civilized human intervention, including all vegetation, soil, rocks and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries and their nature. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air and climate, as well as energy, electric charge, magnetism, not originating from civilized human actions. In contrast to the natural environment is the built environment. In such areas where man has fundamentally transformed landscapes such as urban settings and agricultural land conversion, the natural environment is modified into a simplified human environment.
Acts which seem less extreme, such as building a mud hut or a photovoltaic system in the desert, the modified environment becomes an artificial one. Though many animals build things to provide a better environment for themselves, they are not human, hence beaver dams, the works of Mound-building termites, are thought of as natural. People find natural environments on Earth, naturalness varies in a continuum, from 100% natural in one extreme to 0% natural in the other. More we can consider the different aspects or components of an environment, see that their degree of naturalness is not uniform. If, for instance, in an agricultural field, the mineralogic composition and the structure of its soil are similar to those of an undisturbed forest soil, but the structure is quite different. Natural environment is used as a synonym for habitat. For instance, when we say that the natural environment of giraffes is the savanna. Earth science recognizes 4 spheres, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the biosphere as correspondent to rocks, water and life respectively.
Some scientists include, as part of the spheres of the Earth, the cryosphere as a distinct portion of the hydrosphere, as well as the pedosphere as an active and intermixed sphere. Earth science, is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. There are four major disciplines in earth sciences, namely geography, geology and geodesy; these major disciplines use physics, biology and mathematics to build a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of Earth. The Earth's crust, or lithosphere, is the outermost solid surface of the planet and is chemically and mechanically different from underlying mantle, it has been generated by igneous processes in which magma cools and solidifies to form solid rock. Beneath the lithosphere lies the mantle, heated by the decay of radioactive elements; the mantle though solid is in a state of rheic convection. This convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly; the resulting process is known as plate tectonics.
Volcanoes result from the melting of subducted crust material or of rising mantle at mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes. Most water is found in another natural kind of body of water. An ocean is a major body of saline water, a component of the hydrosphere. 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water, customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand, nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though recognized as several'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean; the deep seabeds are more than half the Earth's surface, are among the least-modified natural environments. The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, other criteria: these divisions are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.
A river is a natural watercourse freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. A few rivers flow into the ground and dry up before reaching another body of water; the water in a river is in a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is a wider floodplain shaped by waters over-topping the channel. Flood plains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. Rivers are a part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge and the release of water stored in glaciers and snowpacks. Small rivers may be termed by several other names, including stream and brook, their current is confined within a stream banks. Streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology. A lake is a terrain feature, a body of water, localized to the bottom of basin.
A body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, is not part