Simon Fraser University
Simon Fraser University is a public research university in British Columbia, with three campuses: Burnaby and Vancouver. The 1.7 km2 main Burnaby campus on Burnaby Mountain, located 20 km from downtown Vancouver, was established in 1965 and comprises more than 30,000 students and 950 faculty members. The Burnaby campus is on the territory of the Squamish, Tsleil-Waututh and Kwikwetlem First Nations. Undergraduate and graduate programs at SFU operate on a year-round, three-semester schedule, it is the only Canadian university which competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. SFU was the first Canadian research university with U. S. is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities. To date, SFU faculty and alumni have won 43 fellowships to the Royal Society of Canada, three Rhodes Scholarships and one Pulitzer Prize. Simon Fraser University was founded upon the recommendation of a 1962 report entitled Higher Education in British Columbia and a Plan for the Future, by John B.
Macdonald. He recommended the creation of a new university in the Lower Mainland and the British Columbia Legislature gave formal assent on March 1, 1963 for the establishment of the university in Burnaby; the university was named after a North West Company fur trader and explorer. The original name of the school was Fraser University, but was changed because the initials "FU" evoked the profane phrase "fuck you". In May of the same year, Gordon M. Shrum was appointed as the university's first chancellor. From a variety of sites that were offered, Shrum recommended to the provincial government that the summit of Burnaby Mountain, 365 meters above sea level, be chosen for the new university. Architects Arthur Erickson and Geoffrey Massey won a competition to design the university, construction began in the spring of 1964; the campus faces northwest over Burrard Inlet. Eighteen months on September 9, 1965, the university began its first semester with 2,500 students; the campus was noted in the 1960s and early 1970s as a hotbed of political activism, culminating in a crisis in the Department of Political Science and Anthropology in a dispute involving ideological differences among faculty.
The resolution to the crisis included the dismantling of the department into today's separate departments. The school's original coat of arms was used from the university's inception until 2006, at which point the Board of Governors voted to adapt the old coat of arms and thereby register a second coat of arms; the adaptation replaced two crosslets with books after some in the university asserted the crosses had misled prospective foreign students into believing SFU was a private, religious institution rather than a public, secular one. In 2007, the university decided to register both the old coat of arms and the revised coat of arms featuring the books. In 2007, a new marketing logo was unveiled. SFU's president is Andrew Petter, whose term began on September 1, 2010. Petter succeeded Dr. Michael Stevenson, who held a decade-long post as president from 2000 to 2010. In 2009, SFU became the first Canadian university to be accepted into the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Starting in the 2011-2012 season, SFU competed in the NCAA's Division II Great Northwest Athletic Conference and has now transitioned all 19 Simon Fraser Clan teams into the NCAA.
SFU has the highest publication impact among Canadian comprehensive universities and the highest success rates per faculty member in competitions for federal research council funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. In 2007, the University began offering dual and double degree programs by partnering with international universities, such as a dual computing-science degree through partnership with Zhejiang University in China and a double Bachelor of Arts degree in conjunction with Australia's Monash University. On September 9, 2015, SFU celebrated its 50th anniversary. Over its 50 years, the university educated over 130,000 graduates. There are eight faculties at Simon Fraser University: In the academic year 2010–11, SFU had 29,697 undergraduates, with 14,911 of them being full-time and 14,786 part-time; the university has grown in recent years achieving an alumni population of over 100,000. It had 3,403 staff.
In fall semester 2012, 4,269 International students enrolled, making up 17% of the undergraduate student body, one of the highest among Canadian universities. The majority of these international students come from South Korea. SFU's undergraduate student union is known as the Simon Fraser Student Society; the university enrolls over 5,000 graduate students in a wide range of full-time and part-time academic programs. International students constitute 20% of the graduate student population as a whole and 30–40% in science and technology areas. A Graduate Student Society advocates for graduate students at the university. SFU offers non-credit programs and courses to adult students; as of 2016, SFU Continuing Studies offers more than 300 courses and 27 certificate and diploma programs delivered either online or part-time from SFU's downtown Vancouver or Surrey campus. Continuing Studies manages a part-time degree completion program, called SFU NOW: Nights or Weekends, for wo
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian. There are two lesser orders: the Tuscan, the rich variant of Corinthian called the composite order, both added by 16th-century Italian architectural writers, based on Roman practice. Of the three canonic orders, the Ionic order has the narrowest columns; the Ionic capital is characterized by the use of volutes. The Ionic columns stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform. Since Vitruvius, a female character has been ascribed to the Ionic; the major features of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital, which have been the subject of much theoretical and practical discourse, based on a brief and obscure passage in Vitruvius. The only tools required to design these features were a straight-edge, a right angle, string and a compass. Below the volutes, the Ionic column may have a wide collar or banding separating the capital from the fluted shaft, or a swag of fruit and flowers may swing from the clefts or "neck" formed by the volutes.
The volutes lay in a single plane. This feature of the Ionic order made it more pliant and satisfactory than the Doric to critical eyes in the 4th century BC: angling the volutes on the corner columns ensured that they "read" when seen from either front or side facade; the 16th-century Renaissance architect and theorist Vincenzo Scamozzi designed a version of such a four-sided Ionic capital. The Ionic column is always more slender than the Doric. Ionic columns are most fluted. After a little early experimentation, the number of hollow flutes in the shaft settled at 24; this standardization kept the fluting in a familiar proportion to the diameter of the column at any scale when the height of the column was exaggerated. Roman fluting leaves a little of the column surface between each hollow. In some instances, the fluting has been omitted. English architect Inigo Jones introduced a note of sobriety with plain Ionic columns on his Banqueting House at Whitehall Palace and when Beaux-Arts architect John Russell Pope wanted to convey the manly stamina combined with intellect of Theodore Roosevelt, he left colossal Ionic columns unfluted on the Roosevelt memorial at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, for an unusual impression of strength and stature.
Wabash Railroad architect R. E. Mohr included 8 unfluted Ionic frontal columns on his 1928 design for the railroad's St. Louis suburban stop Delmar Station; the entablature resting on the columns has three parts: a plain architrave divided into two, or more three, with a frieze resting on it that may be richly sculptural, a cornice built up with dentils, with a corona and cyma molding to support the projecting roof. Pictorial narrative bas-relief frieze carving provides a characteristic feature of the Ionic order, in the area where the Doric order is articulated with triglyphs. Roman and Renaissance practice condensed the height of the entablature by reducing the proportions of the architrave, which made the frieze more prominent; the Ionic anta capital is the ionic version of the anta capital, the crowning portion of an anta, the front edge of a supporting wall in Greek temple architecture. The anta is crowned by a stone block designed to spread the load from superstructure it supports, called an "anta capital" when it is structural, or sometimes "pilaster capital" if it is only decorative as during the Roman period.
In order not to protrude unduly from the wall, these anta capitals display a rather flat surface, so that the capital has more or less a rectangular-shaped structure overall. The ionic anta capital, in contrast to the regular column capitals, is decorated and includes bands of alternating lotuses and flame palmettes, bands of eggs and darts and beads and reels patterns, in order to maintain continuity with the decorative frieze lining the top of the walls; this difference with the column capitals disappeared with Roman times, when anta or pilaster capitals have designs similar to those of the column capitals. The ionic anta capitals as can be seen in the Ionic-order temple of the Erechtheion, are characteristically rectangular Ionic anta capitals, with extensive bands of floral patterns in prolongation of adjoining friezes; the Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia Minor settled by Ionian Greeks, where an Ionian dialect was spoken.
The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. It was most popular in the Archaic Period in Ionia; the first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of t
Vancouver Convention Centre
The Vancouver Convention Centre is a convention centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. With the opening of the new West Building in 2009, it now has 43,340 square metres of meeting space, it is owned by the British Columbia Pavilion Corporation, a crown corporation owned by the government of British Columbia. The East Building is located in Canada Place, which it shares with a cruise ship terminal, the Pan Pacific hotel, it has 12,400 m2 of space, including a 8,500 m2, column-free, dividable exhibition hall, 20 meeting rooms, a ballroom. The East Building served as the Main Press Centre for the 2010 Winter Olympics; the West Building is directly adjacent to Canada Place and consists of 20,490 m2 of convention space, 8,400 m2 of retail space along a public waterfront promenade, 440 parking stalls. Surrounding the building are 37,000 m2 of walkways, public open space and plazas, for a total project area of 5.7 hectares of land and 3.2 hectares over water. The project supplies infrastructure for future water based developments including an expanded marina, a float plane terminal, water-based retail opportunities.
The design architect for the expansion is LMN Architects of Seattle, in association with Vancouver firms MCM Architects and DA Architects + Planners. Morrison Hershfield ensured quality assurance and conducted enhanced field review during construction of all building envelope components including innovative curtain wall glazing and green roof. On February 9, 2010, the building was certified LEED Platinum by the Canada Green Building Council; the West Building opened to the public on April 4, 2009. It tripled the capacity of the convention centre; the building hosted the International Broadcast Centre for the 2010 Winter Olympics and 2010 Winter Paralympics. Connecting to the centre is the Fairmont Pacific Rim hotel. Adjacent to the West building is the "Jack Poole Plaza", in honour of Jack Poole, who died of pancreatic cancer in 2009, he was responsible for securing the bid of the 2010 Winter Olympics and 2010 Winter Paralympics to Vancouver. The new West Building expansion is certified Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Platinum and is designated a PowerSmart Convention Centre by BC Hydro.
It was awarded a "Go Green" certificate from the Building Owners and Managers Association for industry-approved, environmental best practices in building management. The living roof, seawater heating and cooling, on-site water treatment and fish habitat built into the foundation of the West Building make it one of the greenest convention centres in the world; the Centre recycles an average of 180,000 kilograms of materials annually, nearly half of the total volume of waste generated. It avoids canned goods, disposable utensils and dishes, donates leftover food to local charities; the 2.4-hectare "living roof" is the largest in Canada and the largest non-industrial living roof in North America. The roof landscape is designed as a self-sustaining grassy habitat characteristic of coastal British Columbia, including 400,000 native plants and 4 colonies of 60,000 bees each which provide honey for the public plaza restaurant. No public access is allowed to the roof, which made it possible to create a functional ecosystem with natural drainage and seed migration patterns using the roof's architectural topography.
The landscape functionally connects to nearby Stanley Park via a corridor of waterfront parks. Irrigation to the roof is provided by the building's wastewater treatment plant. In the event that the roof irrigation demands exceed the capacity of the wastewater treatment plant, make-up water can be provided by a reverse osmosis desalinization plant drawing and treating seawater pumped from the harbour as well as municipal water through an air gap connection to the storage tanks, as needed. All wastewater from washrooms and restaurant activities in the building is reclaimed and recycled for use in toilet and urinal flushing, green roof irrigation; the treatment facility uses a membrane bioreactor process and supplied by GE/Zenon, consisting of two 2-zone bioreactor tanks and an ultra-filtration membrane tank, followed by a chlorine contact tank that serves to remove colour and disinfect the reclaimed water. The treatment system is designed for an average daily flow of 75 cubic metres per day, maximum flows of up to 150 cubic metres per day.
With the City of Vancouver 2012 commercial metered water and sewer rates at $2.803 and $1.754 the convention centre can save over $21,000 per month in utility fees through water reuse. One of the biggest operating challenges when the facility first started up was the ability to maintain the treatment plant bacteria in a healthy condition during lengthy periods with limited wastewater to feed the treatment plant due to limited convention activity and concurrent wastewater generation within the building; the building's heating and cooling system feeds through the deep water of the harbor, using it as a constant temperature base to reduce the amount of energy used for heating and cooling. Along the waterfront, the shoreline ecology is restored from its previous brownfield state and supports a historic salmon migration path. An artificial reef structure rings the building perimeter, consisting of
Lonsdale Quay is a SeaBus ferry terminal that serves Metro Vancouver's North Shore municipalities. The quay is located in the city of North Vancouver and is a major transit exchange for North Shore bus services; the BCIT Marine Campus and Lonsdale Quay Market are located within the vicinity of the quay. Lonsdale Quay opened in 1977 when the SeaBus service commenced between the quay and Waterfront station in Downtown Vancouver. Prior to the construction of the ferry terminal, the quay was the location of the North Van Ship Repair dock. In 2016, it was announced that Lonsdale Quay, along with the Waterfront SeaBus terminal, would receive a $12.5 million upgrade. Construction was expected to begin in 2017 and to be completed by mid-2018. Construction is expected to begin in March 2019. Lonsdale Quay's SeaBus service crosses Burrard Inlet to Waterfront station in Downtown Vancouver. From there, transit users can connect to other TransLink services, including the SkyTrain rapid transit system and the West Coast Express commuter train.
Security for the bus loop and SeaBus terminal is the responsibility of the Transit Security Department. Transit security officers can be found patrolling the SeaBus terminal. Transit security officers conduct fare inspections on board the buses and within the Fare Paid Zone of the SeaBus terminal. North Vancouver Royal Canadian Mounted Police patrol the bus loop and SeaBus terminal. Lonsdale Quay is served by a single entrance at the south end of the bus exchange. Chadwick Court is the street closest to the entrance. A covered bus loop is connected to Lonsdale Quay, from which passengers can board buses to Grouse Mountain, Lynn Valley, West Vancouver and other points of interest on the North Shore. Bus bay assignments are as follows
The SeaBus is a passenger-only ferry service in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It crosses Burrard Inlet to connect the cities of North Vancouver. Owned by TransLink and operated by the Coast Mountain Bus Company, the SeaBus forms an important part of the region's integrated public transportation system; the SeaBus fleet consists of three vessels, with a fourth scheduled to enter service in 2019. The ferries operate between 6:00 am and 1:00 am from Monday to Saturday, between 8:00 am and 11:30 pm on Sundays and holidays. During the daytime, two ferries are in service, with the two ferries departing from opposite termini and passing each other halfway; the 1.75-nautical-mile crossing takes 10–12 minutes in each direction with a cruising speed of 11.5 knots, with a 3–5 minute turnaround and, operates on a 15-minute turn-around schedule. At these times, over 50 crossings are made a day. During the evenings and early Saturday mornings, service is reduced to a 30-minute schedule with only one ferry operating.
In 2017, the SeaBus carried over 17,000 riders on average per weekday and transported an estimated 5.84 million people between Vancouver and the North Shore of Burrard Inlet. The SeaBus is capable of operating on a 12-minute turnaround. However, at the higher speeds, the wake created disturbs other users of the Burrard Inlet. During overloads, it is sometimes operated at the higher speeds; the ferries operate with four crew members on board and engineers who stay ashore most of the time, but do regular checks of the engines and are available to come aboard at any time. SeaBus crew members are trained and certified to deal with marine emergencies, will give directions to passengers in the unlikely event of an emergency; the original emergency procedure involved using the other SeaBus to evacuate passengers from the distressed SeaBus. Although the viability of this had been demonstrated, Transport Canada became concerned about this approach during times that the other SeaBus may not be available and has mandated the addition of life rafts.
The turnstiles on the entrance into the SeaBus waiting area are used only for counting the number of passengers boarding. When the maximum number is reached, the turnstiles lock and no more passengers are allowed on that SeaBus. SeaBus is a "Fare Paid Zone" similar to SkyTrain and buses, meaning passengers are required to possess a valid fare in the Fare Paid Zone. Fare inspections are done by Transit Security Officers and on occasion by members of the South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Police Service. SeaBus attendants do not conduct enforcement. SeaBus attendants can call Transit Security to deal with non-compliant passengers. Failure to pay the correct fare or retain a valid fare may result in being removed from the terminal and/or fined $173; as an integrated part of TransLink, free rides are offered on the SeaBus from 5:00 pm New Year's Eve to 5:00 am New Year's Day to discourage drunk driving. The SeaBus stops on the Vancouver side at Waterfront Station, near the Vancouver Convention Centre and the cruise ship terminal at Canada Place.
A skywalk connects the SeaBus terminal to the main station building, where passengers can transfer to the West Coast Express and two lines of the SkyTrain system. In 2018, a seismic and accessibility upgrade of the Waterfront terminal began, which will includes escalator replacements and the construction of a new staircase to improve foot traffic flow. In North Vancouver, the SeaBus stops at the purpose-built Lonsdale Quay, which features an adjacent bus loop. In addition to serving commuters, Lonsdale Quay has become an important tourist destination, with a hotel and public market. In 1989, the North Vancouver terminal was designated the'Charles A. Spratt SeaBus Terminal', in honour of Charles Spratt, Project Manager of the SeaBus project from conception to launch, Marine Manager of the system until his retirement in 1988; each terminal consists of two docks surrounded by an "E"-shaped structure: passengers board from the central waiting hall, separated into two waiting areas by partitions and turnstiles, disembark onto a side platform.
The current SeaBus fleet consists of the following vessels: The ferries are catamarans constructed out of aluminium, quite rare when the initial two crafts were constructed in the 1970s. The ferries are double-ended so. There are four diesel engines in one for each propeller; the propulsion system uses a marine version of the same diesel engine used to power many of the diesel buses on the transit system. The ferries can operate with only three engines; the ferries are equipped with radar. The third vessel, the Burrard Pacific Breeze, began service in December 2009, TransLink operated all three ferries during the 2010 Winter Olympics. TransLink planned to provide regular three-vessel service by 2011 by overhauling and refitting both the Burrard Otter and the Burrard Beaver following the games to extend their service life for an additional twenty years. However, citing the lack of funding, the agency announced in 2009 it planned to upgrade only one of the original vessels and retire the other one.
TransLink resumed two-vessel servic
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Canadian National Railway
Canadian National is a Canadian Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec that serves Canada and the Midwestern and Southern United States. CN is Canada's largest railway, in terms of both revenue and the physical size of its rail network, is Canada's only transcontinental railway company, spanning Canada from the Atlantic coast in Nova Scotia to the Pacific coast in British Columbia across about 20,400 route miles of track. CN is a public company with 24,000 employees and as of September 2018 it had a market cap of $84 billion Canadian dollars. CN was government-owned, having been a Canadian Crown corporation from its founding to its privatization in 1995. In 2011, Bill Gates was the largest single shareholder of CN stock; the railway was referred to as the "Canadian National Railways" between 1918 and 1960, as "Canadian National"/"Canadien National" from 1960 to the present. The Canadian National Railways was incorporated on June 6, 1919, comprising several railways that had become bankrupt and fallen into federal government hands, along with some railways owned by the government.
On November 17, 1995, the federal government privatized CN. Over the next decade, the company expanded into the United States, purchasing Illinois Central Railroad and Wisconsin Central Transportation, among others. Now a freight railway, CN operated passenger services until 1978, when they were assumed by Via Rail; the only passenger services run by CN after 1978 were several mixed trains in Newfoundland, a several commuter trains both on CN's electrified routes and towards the South Shore in the Montreal area. The Newfoundland mixed trains lasted until 1988, while the Montreal commuter trains are now operated by Montreal's AMT. In response to public concerns fearing loss of key transportation links, the government of Canada assumed majority ownership of the near bankrupt Canadian Northern Railway on September 6, 1918, appointed a "Board of Management" to oversee the company. At the same time, CNoR was directed to assume management of Canadian Government Railways, a system comprising the Intercolonial Railway of Canada, National Transcontinental Railway, the Prince Edward Island Railway, among others.
On December 20, 1918, the federal government created the Canadian National Railways – a title only with no corporate powers – through a Canadian Privy Council Order in Council as a means to simplify the funding and operation of the various railway companies. The absorption of the Intercolonial Railway would see CNR adopt that system's slogan The People's Railway. Another Canadian railway, the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, encountered financial difficulty on March 7, 1919, when its parent company Grand Trunk Railway defaulted on repayment of construction loans to the federal government; the federal government's Department of Railways and Canals took over operation of the GTPR until July 12, 1920, when it too was placed under the CNR. The Canadian National Railway was organized on October 10, 1922; the bankrupt GTR itself was placed under the care of a federal government "Board of Management" on May 21, 1920, while GTR management and shareholders opposed to nationalization took legal action. After several years of arbitration, the GTR was absorbed into CNR on January 30, 1923.
In subsequent years, several smaller independent railways would be added to the CNR as they went bankrupt, or it became politically expedient to do so, however the system was more or less finalized following the addition of the GTR. Canadian National Railways was born out of both domestic urgency. Railways, until the rise of the personal automobile and creation of taxpayer-funded all-weather highways, were the only viable long-distance land transportation available in Canada for many years; as such, their operation consumed a great deal of political attention. Many countries regard railway networks as critical infrastructure and at the time of the creation of CNR during the continuing threat of the First World War, Canada was not the only country to engage in railway nationalization. In the early 20th century, many governments were taking a more interventionist role in the economy, foreshadowing the influence of economists like John Maynard Keynes; this political trend, combined with broader geo-political events, made nationalization an appealing choice for Canada.
The Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 and allied involvement in the Russian Revolution seemed to validate the continuing process. The need for a viable rail system was paramount in a time of civil unrest and foreign military intervention. CN Telegraph originated as the Great North West Telegraph Company in 1880 to connect Ontario and Manitoba and became a subsidiary of Western Union in 1881. In 1915, facing bankruptcy, GNWTC was acquired by the Canadian Northern Railway's telegraph company; when Canadian Northern was nationalized in 1918 and amalgamated into Canadian National Railways in 1921, its telegraph arm was renamed the Canadian National Telegraph Company. CN Telegraphs began co-operating with its Canadian Pacific owned rival CPR Telegraphs in the 1930s, sharing telegraph networks and co-founding a teleprinter system in 1957. In 1967 the two services were amalgamated into a joint venture CNCP Telecommunications which evolved into a telecoms company. CN sold its stake of the company to CP in 1984.
In 1923 CNR's second president, Sir Henry Thornton who succeeded David Blyth Hanna, created the CNR Radio Department to provide passengers with entertainment radio reception and give the railway a competitive advantage over its rival, CP