Waterloo Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge crossing the River Thames in London, between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge. Its name commemorates the victory of the British, the Dutch, thanks to its location at a strategic bend in the river, the views from the bridge are widely held to be the finest from any spot in London at ground level. The first bridge on the site was designed in 1809–10 by John Rennie for the Strand Bridge Company, before its opening it was known as the Strand Bridge. During the 1840s the bridge gained a reputation as a place for suicide attempts. In 1841 the American daredevil Samuel Gilbert Scott was killed performing a act in which he hung by a rope from a scaffold on the bridge. In 1844 Thomas Hood wrote the poem The Bridge of Sighs, paintings of the bridge were created by the French Impressionist Claude Monet and the English Romantic John Constable. The bridge was nationalised in 1878 and placed under the control of the Metropolitan Board of Works, Michael Faraday tried in 1832 to measure the potential difference between each side of the bridge caused by the ebbing salt water flowing through the Earths magnetic field.
From 1884 serious problems were found in Rennies bridge piers, after scour from the river flow after Old London Bridge was demolished damaged their foundations. In 1925, a steel framework was built on top of the existing bridge. London County Council decided to demolish the bridge and replace it with a new designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. The engineers were Ernest Buckton and John Cuerel of Rendel Palmer & Tritton, Scott, by his own admission, was no engineer and his design, with reinforced concrete beams under the footways, leaving the road to be supported by transverse slabs, was difficult to implement. The beams were shaped to look as much like arches as and they are clad in Portland stone, which cleans itself whenever it rains. To guard against the possibility of further subsidence from scour each pier was given a number of jacks that can be used to level the structure, the new bridge was partially opened on Tuesday 11 March 1942 and was completed in 1945. It is the only Thames bridge to have been damaged by German bombers during the Second World War, the building contractor was Peter Lind & Company Limited.
It is frequently asserted that the force was largely female. Granite stones from the bridge were subsequently presented to various parts of the British world to further historic links in the British Commonwealth of Nations. The monument, built in 1945, is on Queens Wharf and it includes a bronze likeness of Paddy, a drinking fountain and drinking bowls below for dogs. The north end of the bridge passes above the Victoria Embankment where the road joins the Strand and this end housed the southern portal of the Kingsway Tramway Subway until the late 1950s
Celtic art is a difficult term to define, covering a huge expanse of time and cultures. Early Celtic art is another used for this period, stretching in Britain to about 150 AD. This is the part, but not the whole of, the Celtic art of the Early Middle Ages. Energetic circular forms and spirals are characteristic, another influence was that of late La Tène vegetal art on the Art Nouveau movement. Celtic art has used a variety of styles and has influences from other cultures in their knotwork, key patterns, zoomorphics, plant forms. As the archaeologist Catherine Johns put it, Common to Celtic art over a wide chronological and geographical span is a sense of balance in the layout. Curvilinear forms are set out so that positive and negative, filled areas and restraint were exercised in the use of surface texturing and relief. Very complex curvilinear patterns were designed to precisely the most awkward. The ancient peoples now called Celts spoke a group of languages that had an origin in the Indo-European language known as Common Celtic or Proto-Celtic.
This shared linguistic origin was once accepted by scholars to indicate peoples with a common genetic origin in southwest Europe. Archaeologists identified various cultural traits of peoples, including styles of art. The extent to which Celtic language and genetics coincided and interacted during prehistoric periods remains very uncertain, the term Celt was used in classical times as a synonym for the Gauls. Its English form is modern, attested from 1607, in the 18th century the interest in primitivism, which led to the idea of the noble savage, brought a wave of enthusiasm for all things Celtic and Druidic. The earliest archaeological culture that is conventionally termed Celtic, the Hallstatt culture, comes from the early European Iron Age, other centres such as Brittany are in areas that remain defined as Celtic today. Other correspondences are between the gold lunulas and large collars of Bronze Age Ireland and Europe and the torcs of Iron Age Celts, the trumpet shaped terminations of various types of Bronze Age Irish jewellery are reminiscent of motifs popular in Celtic decoration.
The elites of these societies had considerable wealth, and imported large and expensive, sometimes frankly flashy, objects from neighbouring cultures, some of which have been recovered from graves. The work of the German émigré to Oxford, Paul Jacobsthal, remains the foundation of the study of the art of the period, linguists are generally satisfied that the Halstatt culture originated among people speaking Celtic languages, but art historians often avoid describing Halstatt art as Celtic. A famous example is the Greek krater from the Vix Grave in Burgundy and it is a huge bronze wine-mixing vessel, with a capacity of 1,100 litres
The Coventry Sallet is a 15th-century helmet now on display at Herbert Art Gallery and Museum. English sallets have been considered rare and important. The Sallet is 11 inches in height,12.25 inches from front to back and is 7.75 inches wide and it has a short tail and a jawbone type visor with a brow reinforcing. Stylistically, it is termed a high crowned helmet, different from the usually seen in Italy or Germany. A plume holder was added to the helmet at some time after its manufacture. The helmet was made around 1460, during the period of English civil conflict known as the Wars of the Roses, during the 19th century it was used in Coventry’s Godiva Procession. For a period it was kept on display at St Marys Hall, very few pieces of English-made armour survive from this period, the Coventry Sallet is believed to be the only example of its type in England. This article is about an item held at Herbert Art Gallery and Museum, Coventry
The Meyrick Helmet is an Iron Age bronze peaked helmet, with La Tène style decoration, that is held at the British Museum in London. It is one of only three Iron Age helmets to have discovered in Britain, the other two being the more famous Waterloo Helmet and the recently discovered Canterbury Helmet. Unlike the Waterloo Helmet, which bears two cone-shaped horns, the Meyrick Helmet is hornless and appears to be based on a Roman model. The provenance of the helmet is unknown, but on stylistic grounds it is likely that it comes from the north of England. The helmet is first recorded as part of the collection of arms and armour accumulated by Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick, and so must have been discovered some time before 1848. After Meyricks death the helmet and other items of Iron Age armour, such as the Witham Shield, were left to his cousin, Lt. Colonel Augustus Meyrick, the helmet was purchased by Augustus Franks, an independently wealthy antiquarian who worked for the British Museum. Franks donated the helmet to the British Museum in 1872, the helmet is considered to be a Celtic version of a Roman auxiliary helmet, combining a Roman shape with La Tène style decoration.
It is in the shape of a cap with a peaked neck guard. On the neck guard are two flat domed bosses with criss-cross grooves which would originally have held red glass enamel studs. There are holes on either side for attachment to a chin-strap or cheekpiece, on the outer margin of the helmet are incised two strokes which could represent the Roman number II
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
The Thames Conservancy was a historical body responsible for the management of the River Thames in England. Responsibilities were reduced when the Tideway was transferred to the Port of London Authority in 1909 and in 1974 the Conservancy was taken into the Thames Water Authority. The stretch of river between the town of Staines, just to the west of London, and Yantlet Creek had been claimed by the City of London since 1197 under a charter of Richard the Lionheart. In 1771 the Thames Navigation Commission was established from a body created twenty years earlier to handle navigation on the river, although the Commissioners were active in establishing locks and weirs above Staines, they did not interfere with the jurisdiction of the City of London. The City of London built a series of locks from Teddington to Penton Hook at the beginning of the nineteenth century and they used material from the demolished Old London Bridge to support the embankments between Sunbury and Shepperton. However trouble arose around 1840 when the government proposed building the Victoria Embankment, the dispute simmered on for 17 years.
Meanwhile, as a result of competition from the railways, the volume of traffic on the river had been drastically reduced. Income from tolls fell from £16,000 in 1839 to less than £8,000 in 1849, the City authoritys unwillingness to pay for necessary expenditure led to complaints. By Act of Parliament in 1857 the Crown reclaimed its rights, the City of London handed its inventory to the Thames Conservancy in October 1857. In June 1857 the first stone of a new lock at Teddington had been laid at the present position, the Conservancy opened it in 1858 together with the narrow skiff lock. and the Conservancy soon imposed regulations. In 1858 a toll of 15 shillings was imposed on every steam vessel passing Teddington Lock, and this was amended to 5 mph with the stream and 4 mph against it. Netting from Richmond to Staines was prohibited for ever, at this time the management of the bulk of the upstream river was the responsibility of the Thames Navigation Commissioners, but this changed in 1866. It was believed that under single management with the river maintained properly.
Under an Act of 6 August 1866, the Thames Conservancy took over management of the river from Cricklade to Yantlet Creek, under the act, all locks canals and other works of the commissioners were transferred to the Conservancy. In addition provision was made for all weirs to be transferred to the Conservancy from private owners, former owners of weirs were freed from liability but two weirs at Buscot and Eaton remained to the owner of Buscot Park. Most weirs belonged to the twenty eight water-mills still operating between Oxford and Staines and the entitlement to water of the mills, many of which dated back to Domesday Book, was recognised. No new flow of sewage into the river or its tributaries was allowed, new revenue was raised by a £1000 per annum charge on each of the five water companies. The Southwark and Vauxhall, Grand Junction and West Middlesex water companies had set up their works at Hampton in the 1850s after it became illegal to take water from the Tideway, the Lambeth and Chelsea water companies had moved initially to Seething Wells but relocated to East Molesey
The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe. Thus this area is called the Celtic homeland. The earliest undisputed examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names, Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century, coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use, Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. The first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to a group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC. In the fifth century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube, the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel ‘to hide’, IE *kʲel ‘to heat’ or *kel ‘to impel’, several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the group. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani, pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed.
Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally and its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most probably have the same origin, the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae and this means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia, though it does refer to the same ancient region
Antibes is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte dAzur between Cannes and Nice. The town of Juan-les-Pins is in the commune of Antibes and the Sophia Antipolis technology park is northwest of it, traces of occupation dating back to the early Iron Age have been found in the areas of the castle and cathedral. However, most trade was with the Greek world, via the Phocaeans of Marseille, Antipolis was founded by Phocaeans from Massilia. As a Greek colony settlement, it was known as Antipolis from its close to Nice. The exact location of the Greek city is not well known, given Greek colonial practices, it is likely that it was set at the foot of the rock of Antibes in todays old city. Traces of occupation in the Hellenistic period have been identified around the castle, the goods unearthed during these excavations show the dominance of imported products of the Marseilles region, associated with Campanian and indigenous ceramics. Early in the second century BC the Ligurian Deceates and Oxybiens tribes launched repeated attacks against Nikaia, the Greeks of Marseille appealed to Rome as they had already done a few years earlier against the federation of Salyens.
In 154 BC the consul Quintus Opimius defeated the Décéates and Oxybiens, Rome gradually increased its hold over the Mediterranean coast. In 43 BC, Antipolis was officially incorporated in the province of Narbonesian Gaul. Antipolis grew into the largest town in the region and an entry point into Gaul. Roman artifacts such as aqueducts, fortified walls. The city was supplied with water by two aqueducts, the Fontvieille aqueduct rises in Biot and eventually joins the coast below the RN7 and the railway track at the Fort Carré. It was discovered and restored in the 18th century by the Chevalier dAguillon for supplying the modern city, the aqueduct called the Bouillide or Clausonnes rises near the town of Valbonne. Monumental remains of aqueduct bridges are located in the neighbourhood of Fugaret, in the forest of Valmasque, like most Roman towns Antipolis possessed these buildings for shows and entertainment. A Roman theatre is attested by the tombstone of the child Septentrion, the inscription says he danced and was popular on the stage of the theatre.
The theatre was located, like the amphitheatre, between Rue de la République and Rue de Fersen, near the Porte Royale, the back wall is positioned substantially next to Rue Fourmillère. A radial wall was found on the side of the bus station. A plan of the made in the 16th century is in the Marciana National Library of Venice. The remains of the amphitheatre were still visible at the end of the 17th century during the restructuring of the fortifications of the city, a concentric oval was still visible in many plans of the seventeenth century and in a map of Antibes from the early nineteenth century
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head from injuries. More specifically, a helmet aids the skull in protecting the human brain, ceremonial or symbolic helmets without protective function are sometimes used. The oldest known use of helmets was by Assyrian soldiers in 900 BC, soldiers still wear helmets, now often made from lightweight plastic materials. In civilian life, helmets are used for activities and sports, dangerous work activities. Since the 1990s, most helmets are made from resin or plastic, the word helmet is diminutive from helm, a medieval word for protective combat headgear. The Medieval great helm covers the head and often is accompanied with camail protecting throat. Originally a helmet was a helm which covered the head only partly, all helmets attempt to protect the users head by absorbing mechanical energy and protecting against penetration. Their structure and protective capacity are altered in high-energy impacts, beside their energy-absorption capability, their volume and weight are important issues, since higher volume and weight increase the injury risk for the users head and neck.
Anatomical helmets adapted to the head structure were invented by neurosurgeons at the end of the 20th century. Helmets used for different purposes have different designs, for example, a bicycle helmet must protect against blunt impact forces from the wearers head striking the road. A helmet designed for rock climbing must protect against heavy impact, sports helmets may have an integrated metal face protector. Baseball batting helmets have an expanded protection over the ear, which protects the jaw from injury, motorcycle helmets often have flip-down face screens for rain and wind protection, and they may have projecting visors to protect the eyes from glare. Hard hats for construction workers are mainly to protect the wearer from falling objects such as tools. Helmets for riot police often have flip-down clear visors and thick padding to protect the back of the neck, Modern firefighters helmets protect the face and back of the head against impact and electricity, and can include masks, communication systems, and other accessories.
Welding helmets protect the eyes and face and neck from flash burn, ultraviolet light and heat. They have a window, called a lens shade, through which the welder looks at the weld. People with some medical conditions must wear a helmet to protect the brain, due to a gap in the braincase, mixed martial arts helmets have ear pads to prevent serious injuries to the athletes, who do not usually endure such force to the ears. Crash helmets for F1 racing drivers, their design and construction have evolved enormously, nevertheless and neck trauma remains the greatest single injury risk to drivers
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Horned helmets were worn by many people around the world, but not, contrary to the modern myth, the Vikings. Headpieces mounted with animal horns or replicas were worn, as in the Mesolithic Star Carr and these were probably used for religious ceremonial or ritual purposes. Much of the evidence for these helmets and headpieces comes from rather than the items themselves. Two bronze statuettes dated to the early 12th century BC, the horned god and ingot god, depicting deities wearing horned helmets, found in Enkomi. In Sardinia dozens of warriors with horned helmets are depicted in bronze figures and in the monte prama gigantic statues, a pair of bronze horned helmets from the Bronze Age were found near Veksø, Denmark in 1942. Another early find is the Grevensvænge hoard from Zealand, the Waterloo Helmet, a Celtic bronze ceremonial helmet with repoussé decoration in the La Tène style, dating to c. 150–50 BC, was found in the River Thames, at London and its abstracted horns, different from those of the earlier finds, are straight and conical.
Late Gaulish helmets with horns and adorned with wheels, reminiscent of the combination of a horned helmet. Other Celtic helmets, especially from Eastern Europe, had bird crests, the enigmatic Torrs Pony-cap and Horns from Scotland appears to be a horned champron to be worn by a horse. Depicted on the Arch of Constantine, dedicated in 315 AD, are Germanic soldiers, sometimes identified as Cornuti, shown wearing horned helmets. On the relief representing the Battle of Verona they are in the first lines, a depiction on a Migration Period metal die from Öland, shows a warrior with a helmet adorned with two snakes or dragons, arranged in a manner similar to horns. Decorative plates of the Sutton Hoo helmet depict spear-carrying dancing men wearing horned helmets, a diebolt for striking plaques of this kind was found at Torslunda, Sweden. Also, a pendant from Ekhammar in Uppland, features the same figure in the same pose, figures from This headgear, of which only depictions have survived, seems to have mostly fallen out of use with the end of the Migration period.
Some have suggested that the figure in question is not even supposed represent an actual headgear, a figure with a similar headgear was found at the sight of the Uppåkra temple, the site of a supposed Odinic-cult. The figure in question lacked an eye, a similar object, from Levide on Gotland, features a one-eyed figure with the headgear. This figure had one eye removed, apparently after its completion and this would link the headgear as a mythological representations rather than depictions of actual helmets. During the High Middle Ages, fantastical headgear became popular among knights, the achievements or representations of some coats of arms, for example that of Lazar Hrebeljanovic, depict them, but they rarely appear as charges depicted within the arms themselves. It is sometimes argued that helmets with large protuberances would not have worn in battle due to the impediment to their wearer