Grasslands National Park
Grasslands National Park is a Canadian national park located near the village of Val Marie and one of 44 national parks and park reserves in Canadas national park system. This national park is north from the American state of Montana, the park was established in 1981. Prior to this the only national park was Prince Albert National Park. Grasslands National Park represents the Prairie Grasslands natural region, protecting one of the few remaining areas of undisturbed dry mixed-grass/shortgrass prairie grassland. The unique landscape and harsh, semi-arid climate provide niches for several adapted plants, the park and surrounding area house the countrys only black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Flora includes blue grama grass, plains cottonwood and silver sagebrush, erosion by glacial meltwater formed many of the parks characteristic features. Highlights of the parks geological landscape include the Frenchman River Valley, the Seventy Mile Butte, in 1874, Sir George Mercer Dawson discovered western Canadas first dinosaur remains in the Killdeer Badlands during the International Boundary Survey.
Later, in 1877, Sitting Bull took refuge in the area with around 5000 Sioux after the defeat of General Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn. The West Block of the park is located one hour south of Swift Current, highlights of the West Block include the Frenchman River Valley, a herd of over 300 Plains bison as well as prairie dog colonies. A new campground called the Frenchman Valley Campground offers visitors serviced camping sites, teepee camping, the West Block is located in Division No. The East Block of the park is about an hours drive south of Assiniboia near Wood Mountain Regional Park, the interpretive centre is in the McGowan House at the new Rock Creek Campground. The East Block is more of an area but offers spectacular views of the badlands of Rock Creek. The East Block is located in Division No, in 2006, Plains bison from Elk Island National Park in Alberta were reintroduced to Grasslands. Improved night-lighting practices under the dark-sky agreement ensure that the park remains dark at night, the park annually receives about 12,000 visitors.
Its official name in French is Parc national des Prairies, National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada List of Saskatchewan parks The Prairie Learning Centre Northern Short Grasslands. Grasslands National Park - Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
Waterton Lakes National Park
Waterton Lakes National Park is a national park located in the southwest corner of Alberta and borders Glacier National Park in Montana, United States. Waterton was Canadas fourth national park, formed in 1895 and named after Waterton Lake, the park contains 505 km2 of rugged mountains and wilderness. Operated by Parks Canada, Waterton is open all year, but the main tourist season is during July, the only commercial facilities available within the park are located at the Waterton Park townsite. The park ranges in elevation from 1,290 metres at the townsite to 2,910 m at Mount Blakiston and it offers many scenic trails, including Crypt Lake trail. In 2012/2013, Waterton Lakes National Park had 402,542 visitors, the park was the subject of a short film in 2011s National Parks Project, directed by Peter Lynch and scored by Cadence Weapon, Laura Barrett and Mark Hamilton. In 1932, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park was formed from Waterton and it was dedicated to world peace by Sir Charles Arthur Mander on behalf of Rotary International.
In 1979, Waterton and bordering Glacier National park in the US were designated as World Biosphere reserves, preserving mountains, prairie and freshwater wetlands ecosystems. Habitats represented in the range include, prairie grasslands, aspen grove forests, alpine tundra/high meadows, lower subalpine forests. They are areas of significant scenic values with abundant and diverse flora and fauna
Parks Canada, known as the Parks Canada Agency, is an agency of the Government of Canada run by a chief executive who answers to the Minister of the Environment. Parks Canada manages 38 National Parks, three National Marine Conservation Areas,171 National Historic Sites, and one National Landmark, the agency administers lands and waters set aside as potential national parklands, including eight National Park Reserves and one National Marine Conservation Area Reserve. The Canadian Register of Historic Places is supported and managed by Parks Canada, in collaboration with provincial and territorial governments, the agency is the working arm of the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which recommends National Historic Sites and Persons. Parks Canada was established on May 19,1911, as the Dominion Parks Branch under the Department of the Interior, the services activities are regulated under the provisions of the Canada National Parks Act, which was enacted in 1930, and amended in 2000.
To mark the 150th anniversary of Confederation in 2017, Parks Canada is offering free passes to national parks, the Parks Canada Agency was established as a separate service entity in 1998, and falls under the responsibility of Environment Canada. Before 2003, Parks Canada fell under the jurisdiction of the Department of Canadian Heritage, from 1979 to 1994, Parks Canada was part of the Department of Environment, and before it was part of the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, and the Department of the Interior. With the organizational shifts and political leadership in Canada, the priorities of Parks Canada have shifted over the years more towards conservation, starting in the 1960s, Parks Canada has moved to decentralize its operations. S. C. Marie Canal, Saint-Ours Canal, Chambly Canal, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal, Carillon Canal, Lachine Canal, the Department of Canadian Heritage, which runs federal Museums and more cultural affairs, falls under the control of the Minister of Heritage.
They are designated under section 18 of the Canada National Parks Act and have the authority of peace officers and they carry firearms and have access to other use of force options. The Minister may designate provincial and local enforcement officers under section 19 of the Act for the purpose of enforcing laws within the specified parks and these officers have the power of peace officers only in relation to the Act. In May 2012, it was reported that Park Wardens may be designated to enforce certain wildlife acts administered by Environment Canada. Should the designations go ahead it would only be for Park Wardens that are stationed near existing migratory bird sanctuaries, historical Analysis of Parks Canada and Banff National Park, 1968–1995 List of legislation for which Parks Canada is responsible Lothian, W. F. A History of Canadas National Parks Volumes I-IV Lothian, W. F, a Brief History of Canadas National Parks Lothian, W. F. Histoire des parcs nationaux du Canada Volumes I-IV Lothian, W.
F, a Century of Parks Canada, 1911–2011, Free eBook Parks Canada article in the Canadian Encyclopedia National Parks of Canada Electronic Library
Landsat 7 is the seventh satellite of the Landsat program. Launched on April 15,1999, Landsat 7s primary goal is to refresh the global archive of photos, providing up-to-date. The Landsat Program is managed and operated by the USGS, the NASA World Wind project allows 3D images from Landsat 7 and other sources to be freely navigated and viewed from any angle. The satellites companion, Earth Observing-1, trails by one minute, Landsat 7 was built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. Landsat 7 was designed to last for five years, and has the capacity to collect and it is in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit, meaning it scans across the entire earths surface. With an altitude of 705 kilometers +/-5 kilometers, it takes 232 orbits, or 16 days, the satellite weighs 1973 kg, is 4.04 m long, and 2.74 m in diameter. Unlike its predecessors, Landsat 7 has a solid state memory of 378 gigabits, the main instrument on board Landsat 7 is the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. The SLC consists of a pair of mirrors that rotate about an axis in tandem with the motion of the main ETM+ scan mirror.
The purpose of the SLC is to compensate for the motion of the spacecraft so that the resulting scans are aligned parallel to each other. Without the effects of the SLC, the instrument images the Earth in a fashion, resulting in some areas that are imaged twice. The net effect is that approximately 22% of the data in a Landsat 7 scene is missing when acquired without a functional SLC, following the SLC failure, an Anomaly Response Team was assembled, consisting of representatives from the USGS, NASA, and Hughes Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The team assembled a list of possible scenarios, most of which pointed at a mechanical problem with the SLC itself. Since there is no backup SLC, a failure would indicate that the problem was permanent. However, the team was unable to rule out the possibility of an electrical failure, though such a possibility was deemed remote. This operation was successful, and on September 5,2003 and it was immediately apparent that the migration to the Side-B electrical harness had not fixed the problem with the SLC.
Following this, the instrument was reconfigured again to use its primary electrical harness, the subsequent conclusion of the ART was that the SLC problem was mechanical and permanent in nature. Landsat 7 continues to acquire data in this mode, Data products are available with the missing data optionally filled in using other Landsat 7 data selected by the user. In 2013, Landsat 7 was joined by Landsat 8, the contract was part of the NASA Scientific Data Purchase which was administrated through NASAs John C. Stennis Space Center
Montana /mɒnˈtænə/ is a state in the Western region of the United States. The states name is derived from the Spanish word montaña, Montana has several nicknames, although none official, including Big Sky Country and The Treasure State, and slogans that include Land of the Shining Mountains and more recently The Last Best Place. Montana has a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, Montana is ranked 4th in size, but 44th in population and 48th in population density of the 50 United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In total,77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains, the eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. The economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic activities include oil, gas and hard rock mining, the health care and government sectors are significant to the states economy.
Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, the name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña and the Latin word Montana, meaning mountain, or more broadly, mountainous country. Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the mountainous region of the west. The name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox, of Ohio, objected to the name, Cox complained that the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one. Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided that the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, with an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is slightly larger than Japan.
It is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California, the largest landlocked U. S. state, and the worlds 56th largest national state/province subdivision. To the north, Montana shares a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, the states topography is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montanas 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the western half. The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the states south-central part are part of the Central Rocky Mountains
Arms, Gules, on a pile invected erminois, three annulets interlaced and one of the field. Crest, On a wreath of the colours, a demi-lion couped ermine holding in the paws two annulets interlaced fessewise gules, between two horns of the last. Livery, yellow facings, brass buttons, sir Charles Tertius Mander, JP, DL, was the eldest son of Charles Benjamin Mander, of The Mount. He was an active philanthropist in many public causes and he was created a baronet in the baronetage of the United Kingdom for his public services on July 8,1911. Sir Charles Arthur Mander, JP, DL, TD, the second Baronet, was the son of Charles Tertius by Mary Le Mesurier Paint, of Halifax. He was twice mayor of Wolverhampton, and a freeman of the borough. He was managing director of Mander Brothers Ltd. served on over 65 committees and organisations at one time, was in demand as a public speaker. He was President of Rotary International for Britain and Ireland, sir Charles Marcus Mander, the third Baronet, was the only son of Charles Arthur by Monica Neame, of Kent.
He fought with the Coldstream Guards in World War II in Italy and he was High Sheriff of Staffordshire. He was a director of Mander Brothers, and redeveloped the centre of Wolverhampton, establishing the Mander Shopping Centre and he developed a township for 11,500 people at Perton outside Wolverhampton on the family agricultural estate, which had been requisitioned as an airfield during World War II. He was chairman of a number of property development and investment companies. Sir Nicholas Mander, the son of Charles Marcus by Dolores Brödermann of Hamburg, is the present baronet. He lives at Owlpen Manor in Gloucestershire, Marcus Septimus Gustav Mander, a barrister of the Middle Temple, the eldest son of Charles Nicholas by Karin Margareta Norin, of Stockholm, is the heir apparent to the baronetcy
Jasper National Park
Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10,878 km2. It is located in the province of Alberta, north of Banff National Park, the park includes the glaciers of the Columbia Icefield, hot springs, lakes and mountains. Jasper was named after Jasper Hawes, who operated a trading post in the region for the North West Company, before this it was referred to as Fitzhugh. The park was established on September 14,1907 as Jasper Forest Park, in 2014, Jasper National Park had 2,154,710 visitors. The most common birds that fly around this park including raptors are bald eagles, golden eagles, Great horned owls, spruce grouses, white-tailed ptarmigans, bohemian waxwings, Canada geese and red-necked grebes mostly float on Maligne Lake. Major river systems originating in the include the Athabasca and Smoky rivers. Some of the scenic attractions include Mount Edith Cavell, Pyramid Lake with Pyramid Mountain, Maligne Lake, Medicine Lake. The Miette Hot Springs are located close to the northeast entrance, the Miette Hot Springs are created by an extremely hot spring cooled by the mountain to temperatures suitable for humans.
The Icefields Parkway is a highway 230 km in length from Lake Louise, Alberta in Banff National Park, to Jasper, the highway parallels the continental divide, providing motor and cycle access to the mountains. The Athabasca and Sunwapta Falls are both accessible by the road, Jasper National Park is featured in the 2010 3D animated comedy-drama film Alpha and Omega as the location the two wolf protagonists are taken from and struggle to return to. A KLM Boeing 777-300 is named after Jasper National Park, dark-sky preserve Ecology of the Rocky Mountains List of historic places in Albertas Rockies List of trails in Alberta List of mountains in Alberta List of waterfalls of Alberta Parks Canada
Mealy Mountains National Park Reserve
Mealy Mountains National Park Reserve is a proposed national park reserve in the Labrador region of Newfoundland and Labrador. Its area would cover approximately 10,700 square kilometres, along with the Mealy Mountains, the park will protect a large portion of boreal forest, tundra and 50 kilometres of shoreline on the Labrador Sea. Once established, it will be the largest national park in eastern Canada and it is inhabited by a variety of wildlife, including the threatened Mealy Mountains woodland caribou herd. An agreement with the peoples of the area, including the Inuit and NunatuKavut will allow them to continue to hunt, trap. Parks Canada, the governing and administration body for the park system, has developed a national systems plan identifying 39 different natural regions it aims to represent. In 2001, Parks Canada began conducting a feasibility study regarding whether a new park should be established in Labrador, a Steering Committee was formed, and they held a series of meetings near Lake Melville.
In May 2008, the committee concluded that a park was feasible, the park will start as a reserve due to land claims negotiations with native peoples in the area. A National Park Reserve is an area that has set aside with the intention of becoming a national park. Until then, they are managed as national parks under the National Parks Act, the park was announced on February 5,2010 by Minister of the Environment Jim Prentice in Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. At the same time, the government of Newfoundland and Labrador announced that a proposed Provincial Waterway Park would be created and it will be adjacent to Mealy Mountains and will protect the Eagle River watershed. Together, the two parks will protect approximately 13,000 square kilometres, the park will be unique because it will allow for traditional Aboriginal activities not permitted in most other parks, such as hunting, trapping and cutting wood for personal use. However, further development of the land and mining will not be allowed, larry Innes of The Canadian Boreal Initiative, who was part of the steering committee, said that It’s a change in policy which really fits the context here.
The big breakthrough here is not only are they creating the largest protected area in Eastern North America. They’re doing so in a way that fits the uses that local people have put to the place, alex MacDonald of the conservation group Nature Canada said they had been lobbying for the establishment of the park. MacDonald said, Protecting an area this large will maintain vast amounts of habitat — river habitats, aquatic ecosystems, akami–uapishku is the Innu name for the area, meaning White Mountain across, while KakKasuak is the Labrador Inuit word for mountain. Realization of the reserve will depend on a negotiated impact
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Glacier National Park (U.S.)
Glacier National Park is a national park located in the U. S. state of Montana, on the Canada–United States border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. The park encompasses over 1 million acres and includes parts of two ranges, over 130 named lakes, more than 1,000 different species of plants. This vast pristine ecosystem is the centerpiece of what has been referred to as the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem, the region that became Glacier National Park was first inhabited by Native Americans. Upon the arrival of European explorers, it was dominated by the Blackfeet in the east, under pressure the Blackfoot ceded the mountainous parts of their treaty lands in 1895 to the federal government, it became part of the park. Soon after the establishment of the park on May 11,1910 and these historic hotels and chalets are listed as National Historic Landmarks and a total of 350 locations are on the National Register of Historic Places. The mountains of Glacier National Park began forming 170 million years ago when ancient rocks were forced eastward up, known as the Lewis Overthrust, these sedimentary rocks are considered to have some of the finest fossilized examples of extremely early life found anywhere on Earth.
Of the estimated 150 glaciers which existed in the park in the mid-19th century, scientists studying the glaciers in the park have estimated that all the glaciers may disappear by 2030 if the current climate patterns persist. Glacier National Park has almost all its native plant and animal species. Large mammals such as Grizzly bears and mountain goats, as well as rare or endangered species like wolverines and Canadian lynxes, hundreds of species of birds, more than a dozen fish species, and a few reptile and amphibian species have been documented. The park has numerous ecosystems ranging from prairie to tundra, the easternmost forests of western redcedar and hemlock grow in the southwest portion of the park. Large forest fires are uncommon in the park, however, in 2003 over 13% of the park burned. Both parks were designated by the United Nations as Biosphere Reserves in 1976, according to archeological evidence, Native Americans first arrived in the Glacier area some 10,000 years ago. The earliest occupants with lineage to current tribes were the Flathead and Kootenai, the Blackfeet arrived around the beginning of the 18th century and soon dominated the eastern slopes of what became the park, as well as the Great Plains immediately to the east.
The park region provided the Blackfeet shelter from the winter winds of the plains. Today, the Blackfeet Indian Reservation borders the park in the east, while the Flathead Indian Reservation is located west, when the Blackfeet Reservation was first established in 1855 by the Lame Bull Treaty, it included the eastern area of the current park up to the Continental Divide. This established the current boundary between the park and the reservation, while exploring the Marias River in 1806, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came within 50 miles of the area that is now the park. A series of explorations after 1850 helped to shape the understanding of the area became the park. In 1885 George Bird Grinnell hired noted explorer James Willard Schultz to guide him on an expedition into what would become the park
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
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WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Georgian Bay Islands National Park
Georgian Bay Islands National Park consists of 63 small islands or parts of islands in Georgian Bay, near Port Severn, Ontario. The total park area is approximately 13.5 km2, prior to the creation of Fathom Five National Marine Park, Flowerpot Island was a part of the park. The islands blend the exposed rocks and pines of the Canadian Shield with the forests found further south. The park can only be reached by boat, there are limited camping facilities on the largest island, the park provides habitat for 33 species of reptiles and amphibians, including the threatened eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake. Some of the isolated islands provide nesting areas for colonies of gulls. The park is part of the Georgian Bay Littoral Biosphere Reserve, Beausoleil Island is the largest island in the park and it offers island tent camping and day docking, heritage education programs, and hiking trails. Wheelchair accessible sites and reserved campsites are available at the Cedar Spring campground on Beausoleil Island.
National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada Official Site